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Research Article

Evaluation of Effect of PxGV-Taiwanii on Cabbage moth Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae) in Laboratory Conditions

A. Fahimi, A. Kharrazi-Pakdel and R. Talaei-Hassanloui
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The effect of one entomopathogenic virus (PxGV) was studied on cabbage moth Plutella xylostella with hope to find management strategies of this insect, based on biological control. Bioassay showed that, this virus has high virulence and can be considered as the important agents on the control of this insect. The LC50 value of PxGV for second instar larvae of cabbage moth was calculated 448.58 g mm-2. The LT50 values for the same larvae with 749.89 and 1883.65 g mm-2 doses of PxGV were 6.04 and 6.85 days, respectively.

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A. Fahimi, A. Kharrazi-Pakdel and R. Talaei-Hassanloui, 2008. Evaluation of Effect of PxGV-Taiwanii on Cabbage moth Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae) in Laboratory Conditions. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11: 1768-1770.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2008.1768.1770


Cabbage moth is one of the important pest of cruciferous crops in Iran. This moth damages cruciferous plants especially varieties of cabbages, turnip, canola (oilseed rape), mustard by feeding from leaves. Occurrence of pesticide Resistance faced this pest control with challenge (Vastard et al., 2004; Sayyed et al., 2002). As a result, considering to biological agents like parasitoids, or microbial agents has been the goal of researchers (Sarfraz et al., 2005). Of course, there is some reports about occurring resistance in P. xylostella to biopesticides including Bacillus thuringiensis Kr (Narayanan, 2004), but another factors like being non-toxic for another animals made them trustful (Gelernter and Trumble, 1999). Granoluviruses are important parts of baculoviruses that used in biological control of insects especially Lepidoptera (Hunter-fujita et al., 1998; Moscardi, 1999). There is a cumulative trend for using these viruses in control of Lepidopteran pests (Lacey et al., 2001; Farrar and Ridgway, 1999; Kariuki and Mcintosh, 1999). Cydia pommonella GV is a successful sample in control of codling moth (Rezapanah et al., 2002). In recent decade many instances of GV application in IPM programs of cabbage moth recorded (Grzywacz et al., 2004; Ivey and Johnson, 1998). Different strains of this virus were collected and recognized by ren analysis from each other (Parnell et al., 2002; Abdul Kadir et al., 1999a). Because of great lack of study about utilizing baculoviruses in control of P. xylostella in Iran we conducted this research to begin a way to develop biological control of this pest in our country.

The larvae of P. xylostella, which were sampled from a trial in research farm of campus of agriculture and natural resources of University of Tehran in Karaj, Iran, were cultured in growth chambers. The isolate of virus was provided by Dr. Doreen Winstanely in 2005. The concentration of the specimen was estimated 7.1H109 g mL-1. The second instar larvae were used for estimating LC50 and LT50. Experiments were carried out in 6 treatments, including different doses of virus plus distilled water (control) poured on leaf discs of canola and replicated three times. Every replicate consisted of 15 larvae and infection was performed by feeding on implicated leaves. 0.1 mL of each treatment was poured on leaf discs with a microaplicator and scattered monotonously. Survival rate was recorded in 24 h periods and going on until hatching of pupae. Determination of LC50 and LT50 was carried out by POLO-PC software.

The LC50 value was estimated 448.58 g mm-2 (Table 1, Fig. 1). Abdul Kadir et al. (1999b) recorded LC50 of Taiwanian isolate of PxGV on first, second and third instar larvae of cabbage moth 3.82-34.20H105, 1.51-2.63H106 and 0.64-1.07H106 OB mL-1, respectively.

Table 1: Probit analyses of LC50 of on second larvae of cabbage moth

Fig. 1: Second instar larval mortality feeding on different concentrations of PxGV

Fig. 2: Second larval mortality of cabbage moth feeding on 749.89 g mm-2 in different times

Table 2: Probit analyses of LT50 of PxGV on second larvae of cabbage moth

Bioassay experiments of PxGV Kenya (Nya 01), PxGV Kenya (Nya 04), PxGV Taiwan on second instar larvae of cabbage moth on Chinese cabbage leaves showed the values of 2.36H106, 3.94H107 and 1.55H107 OB mL-1 for LC50 in laboratory conditions. Comparisons of these data have shown no differences between potency of isolates (Grzywacs et al., 2004). Results of Woodward et al. (2004) research have shown 1.3-2.1 OB as LD50 for PxGV Kenya. This value for PxGV China was 1.1 OB and for Japanese and Taiwanian isolates were recorded as 1.6 and 2.2 OB, respectively. They used droplet assay for experiments.

Rabindra et al. (1997) assayed PxGV India on second instar larvae of cabbage moth 5.89 OB mm-2 on Cauliflower leaf discs. In other researches which were conducted with non specific baculoviruses LC50 value was evaluated 5.54 OB cm-2 (Kariuki and Mcintosh, 1999).

As shown earlier there is a little difference in present results with other studies. Different biotypes of experiment insect and host plants, method of assay and condition of experiments (laboratory or field) could explain it to some extent.

The LT50 values for 749.89 and 1883.65 g mm-2 (which making 57.78 and 75.56% mortality, respectively) were calculated 6.04 and 6.85 days (Table 2, Fig. 2, 3). According to Woodward`s report time mortality assays showed that one Kenyan isolate is 22% quicker than others in killing cabbage moth (Cherry et al., 2004).

Present research proved that PxGV Taiwan as confirmed in another countries (Abdul Kadir et al., 1999b; Grzywacs et al., 2004; Woodward et al., 2004) could be a reliable agent in controlling cabbage moth in Iran. Present preliminary research should be followed by field experiments and to find the best utilization of this virus for control of cabbage moth especially in IPM programs. There is a great domain of questions about application of PxGV alone or with other controlling agents such as parasitoids, predators, fungi, bacteria and pesticides.

Fig. 3: Second larval mortality of cabbage moth feeding on 1883.65 g mm-2 in different times


Tehran University of Iran is gratefully acknowledged for funding this research. We thank Dr. Doreen Winstanely for sending specimens of PxGV Taiwan, Dr. Vahid Hoseini naveh and Dr. Hosein Allahyari for analyzing the data.

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