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Contributions to the Moss Flora of Artvin Region (Hatila Valley National Park-Turkey)



Nevzat Batan and Turan Ozdemir
 
ABSTRACT

Field studies were organized for exploring the moss flora of Hatila Valley National Park of Artvin (Turkey) during spring-summer period in 2005-2006. The taxonomic survey yielded eighty-five moss taxa (comprises of seventy-nine species, six varieties) belonging to 44 genera of 16 families in Hatila Valley National Park of Artvin, Turkey. Bryum rubens Milt., Dicranodontium uncinatufm (Harv.) A. Jaeger., Eurhynchium hians var. rigidum (Boul.) Düll., Hypnum jutlandicum Holmen and Warncke, Rhynchostegiella jacquinii (Garov.) Limpr. and Pseudocrossidium hornschuchianum (Schultz) R. H. Z ander are new records for A4 grid square (400-42` N, 380-42` E) determined. All taxa were found for the first time in Artvin. For every each taxon, the habitat pattern and distribution data are presented.

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  How to cite this article:

Nevzat Batan and Turan Ozdemir, 2008. Contributions to the Moss Flora of Artvin Region (Hatila Valley National Park-Turkey). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11: 1676-1682.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2008.1676.1682

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2008.1676.1682

INTRODUCTION

The studies on mosses in Turkey are not extensive as in many other countries, thus the moss flora of Turkey is still largely unknown. But in recent years there has been a substantial increase in the number of moss papers referring to the moss flora of Turkey (Abay and Cetin, 2003a, b; Erdag, 2003; Erdag et al., 2003; Everest and Ellis, 2003; Papp and Sabovljevic, 2003; Uyar, 2003; Papp, 2004; Uyar and Cetin, 2004; Kürschner, 2004; Kürschner and Erdag, 2005; Abay, 2006; Abay et al., 2007; Ozdemir, 2008; Ozdemir and Koz, 2008).

The study area is very interesting in respect to its natural structure, which encouraged us to conduct a study of the Bryophyta (Musci). No musci records have been made in Artvin so far while two papers about liverworts were performed (Gokler and Ozturk, 1989). This province still remains unexplored in respect to Musci. The present study adds further information to our knowledge of the moss flora of this district and of Turkey.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Field studies were organized for exploring the moss flora of Hatila Valley National Park of Artvin (Turkey) during spring-summer period in 2005-2006. The moss samples were collected from two localities on 17 August 2005 and 07 August 2006 in Artvin Hatila Valley National Park. The bryophyte specimens were incised by knife or spatula from their habitats. After cleaning, the specimens were preserved in plastic bags, each plastic bag has been labelled a providing the information about the habitat of the area, such as the location of the collection, the name of the predominating plant in the surrounding vegetation, the medium where the sample was originally found (stone, branch of a tree, streambed, rotten root, etc.). The bryophyte specimens were dried in shadowy and ventilated room conditions in the laboratory. They have been identified by reference books (Watson, 1981; Frey et al., 1995; Cortini-Pedrotti, 2001; Smith, 2004; Jimenez, 2006).

The statuses of taxa for Turkey were determined by reviewing the related literature (Cetin, 1988; Frey and Kürschner, 1991; Keçeli and Cetin, 2000; Uyar and Cetin, 2004; Papp, 2004; Kürschner and Erdag, 2005).

The information about the taxa new to A4 square was determined by investigating the studies about A4 square grid (Ozdemir, 1994; Baydar and Ozdemir, 1996; Ozdemir and Cetin, 2000; Ozdemir, 2001a, b; Abay, 2005; Koz and Ozdemir, 2005; Ozdemir and Koz, 2006; Ozdemir and Koz, 2008). Vouchers are deposited in the herbarium of Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Biology.

DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA

Artvin is located in eastern part of Black Sea region of Turkey. In the east, it is bounded by Georgia and Ardahan, Rize in the west, Erzurum in the South and Black Sea in the north. Artvin has a mountainous area, thus there exists hardly any plain in the area. On the other h and high plateaux and rivers are present.

Hatila Valley National Park is 10 km distance to Artvin. It consists of one of the main branches of Çoruh River running into the border of the city centre and many other neighboring rivers.

Fig. 1: Map of the study Area (Hetila Valler National park, active)

Fig. 2: The distribution of taxa according to families

The valley is surrounded by Gül Mnt (3131 m), Kurt Mnt (3224 m), Alaca Mnt (2844 m), Keci Mnt (2047 m). It is situated at lat 41° 03`- 41° 13` 30" N and long 41°31`-41°48` E. The altitude of the area is between 1200-3200 m (Fig. 1).

In the middle part of the valley canyons and mountains passes were formed as a result of physical disintegration and mass movements, and carving of slopes by neighboring rivers and erosions as well. The abundant and mass vegetation in the middle and upper parts of the valley include numerous plant types. The distinctive feature of these plants is that they reflect the characteristics of Mediterranean climatic conditions.

Table 1: Distribution and percentages of taxa on the plant families
NF: Number of Family, NT: Number of Taxa

Table 2: The distribution of taxa in habitats
NH: Number of Habitat, NT: Number of Taxa

The vegetation has a relic feature hereabouts. There are some plant species with endemic characteristics in the area as well.

Five different types of plant vegetation occur in the area considering the spreaded of tree and bushes, factors of both elevation and climate. These are semi-arid pseudo-maki forests (200-600 m): Pinus pinea L., semi-humid oak, scothc pine forests (600-900 m): Quercus petraea (Mat.) Lieb.) and Ostrya carpinifolia Scop., semi-humid Picea-Fagus forests (900-1300 m): Quercus petraea (Mat.) Lieb., Carpinus orientalis Mill., Carpinus betulus L., Pinus sylvestris L., Ostrya carpinifolia Scop, Abies nordinanniana (Stev.) Spach. Tilia rubra DC. subsp. caucasica, Acer cappadocicuin Gled., Arbutus andrachne L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Buxus sempervirens L., humid Picea-Fagus forests (1300-1700 m): Picea orientalis (L.) Link.), Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach.) and Fagus orientalis Lipsky. Much humit, Picea-Fagus-Pinus-Betula forests (1700-2200 m.): Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach, Picea orientalis (L.) Link., Pinus sylvestris L., (Ansin, 1981; Eminagaoglu and Ansin, 2003).

The annual average rainfall is 661,03 mm while the average temperature is 12,3 °C (Meteoroloji Bülteni, 1995). The climate type of the area is semi-humid and the main vegetation type is humid forest (Anþin, 1981). The rainfall regime of the study area is winter-spring-autumn-summer (Central Mediterranean) of Mediterranean origin. The region is in line with the rainfall-heat formula (Q = 89.4) and a low precipitation/cold bioclimate type is seen predominantly.

Table 3: A comparison the study area with the other National Parks in Turkey
NP: National Park, NT: Number of Taxa

Table 4: A comparison the study area with the other studies in Turkey
NP: National Park, NT: Number of Taxa

SITES DETAILS

Turkey, Artvin, Hatila Valley National Park, Up Hatila Valley, 41° 30` N, 41° 31` E, 2100 m, (Picea orientalis (L.) Link.), Abies nordmanniana (Stev). Spach., Fagus orientalis Lipsky., Alnus glutinosa Gearth. subsp. barbata Yalt.) 17.08.2005.

Turkey, Artvin, Hatila Valley National Park, Below Hatila Valley, 41° 13` 30? N, 41° 48` E, 1300 m, (Quercus petraea (Mat.) Lieb., Picea orientalis (L.) Link, Quercus petraea (Mat.) Lieb., Fagus orientalis Lipsky., Pinus sylvestris L., Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach., Ostrya carpinifolia Scop., Acer cappadocicum Gled., Carpinus betulus L., Alnus glutinosa Gearth. subsp. Barbata Yalt., Castanea sativa Mill., Rhododendron ponticum L., Tilia rubra DC. subsp. Lauracerasus officinale Roem., Ulmus glabra Hudz., Sambucus nigra L., Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Rubus plathyphyllos C.Koch., Populus tremula L. and Rhododendron luteum Sweet.) 07.08.2006.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

The taxonomic survey yielded 85 taxa (Bryopsida) belonging to 44 genera of 16 families in the region of Artvin Hatila Valley National Park, Artvin (Turkey).

The families seen in Table 1 with high taxa numbers are Brachytheciaceae (22), Hypnaceae (13), Dicranaceae (7), Polytrichaceae (7), Pottiaceae (5), Grimiaceae (6),Mniaceae (5), Amblystegiaceae (4), Bryaceae (4) and Thuidiaceae (2). Ninety percent of all moss taxa are included in these families (Table 1).

In the mosses of the Hatila Valley National Park (Artvin), the families with the highest number of species are Brachytheciaceae (22), Hypnaceae (13) and Dicranaceae (10) respectively (Table 1 and Fig. 2). The most common genera are Brachythecium and Hypnum, with six species each, followed by Eurhynchium with five species.

All taxa are new to Artvin. Bryum rubens Milt., Dicranodontium uncinatum (Harv.) A. Jaeger., Eurhynchium hians var. rigidum (Baul.) Ther., Hypnum jutl andicum Holmen and Warncke, Pseudocrossidium hornschuchianum (Schultz.) R. H. Z ander and Rhynchostegiella jacquinii (Garov.) Limpr., are new to A4 square depending on the square grid system adopted by Henderson (1961). In the following record the species name is followed by the number of location and substrata. An asteriks (*) indicate designates the new recorded to A4 grid square in Turkey.

This research is compared with both previous studies conducted in the national parks in Turkey (Table 3) and previous studies carried out in Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Aegean and Mediterranean Regions (Table 4).

It was defined that the families with plurocarpic features are more common than the acrocarpic ones as a result of comparing with both the samples in the study area and also the previous studies in the Black Sea region of Turkey. This is because the fact that the region has a rainy climate and vast forest lands. Although Black Sea region of Turkey is very adaptable for the development of bryophyte and with its convenient ground and climatic conditions, the numbers of taxa are not rich as to be expected. It means that in the Black Sea region the numbers of the species are low but they are very common in respect to bryophyte, these results from both the similar area and climate characteristics.

Mediterranean climate prevailing in the study area helps more acrocarphic taxa to grow than those in the previous studies in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Consequently, Dicranaceae, Polytrichaceae and Pottiaceae families are the most common families with acrocarphic taxa in the area. Habitats patterns of the species in the investigation area are shown in Table 2.

List of Taxa

Amblystegium humule (P. Beauv.) Crundw., 2, on rock, near the road and stream, bottom of forest, Batan 1.

Amblystegium varium (Hedw.) Lindb., 1, 2, on rock, near the road and stream, bottom of forest, Batan 2.

Barbula unguiculata Hedw., 1, on rock, near the road, Batan 3.

Brachythecium albicans (Hedw.) Schimp., 2, on rock, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 4.

Brachythecium glaerosum (Spruce) Br. Eur., 2, on tree, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 5.

Brachythecium mildeanum (Schimp.) Schimp., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 6.

Brachythecium rivulare Schimp., 2, on soil, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 85.

Brachythecium salebrosum (F. Web and D. Mohr) Schimp., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 7.

Brachythecium populeum (Hedw.) Schimp., 2, on tree, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 8.

Bryum capillare Hedw. 2, on rock and soil, Batan 9.

Bryum mildeanum (Schimp) Schimp., 1, on rock, near the road, Batan 10.

Bryum pallanscens Schleich. ex Schwaegr, 1, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 11.

*Bryum rubens Milt., 2, on rock, bottom of forest, Batan 12.

Campylopus fragilis (Brid.) Bruch and Schimp., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 13.

Ctenidium molluscum (Hedw.) Mitt., 1,2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 14.

Ctenidium molluscum var. condensatum (Schimp) E. Britton., 1, 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 15.

Dicranella heteromalla (Hedw.) Schimp., 2, on tree, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 16.

Dicranum majus Turner., 2, on tree root, near the road and stream, bottom of forest, Batan 17.

Dicranum scoparium Hedw., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 18.

Dicranum polysetum Sw., 2, on soil, bottom of forest, Batan 19.

*Dicranodontium uncinatum (Harv.) A. Jaeger., 1, 2, on soil, near the road, in woods, Batan 20.

Dicranodotium denudatum (Brid.) E. Britton., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 21.

Didymodon tophaceus (Brid.) Lisa, 1, on soil, in wood, Batan 82.

Didymodon rigidulus Hedw., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 83.

Encalypta streptocarpa Hedw., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 84.

Eurhynchium striatum (Schreb. ex Hedw.) Schimp., 2, on rock, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 22.

Eurhynchium striatulum (Spruce) Schimp., 1, 2, on rock, bottom of forest, Batan 23.

*Eurhynchium hians var. rigidum (Baul.) Ther. 2, on tree, near the road and stream, bottom of forest, Batan 24.

Eurhynchium pulchellum (Hedw.) Jenn., 2, on soil, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 25.

Eurhynchium pulchellum (Hedw.) Jenn. var.pulchellum, 2, on soil, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 26.

Grimmia hartmanii Schimp., 2, on rock, near the road, under forest, Batan 27.

Grimmia donniana var. donniana Sm., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 28.

Habrodon perpusillus (De Not.) Lindb., 1, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 29.

Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) P. Beauv., 2, on rock, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 30.

Homolothecium lutescens (Hedw.) H. Robins., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 31.

Homolothecium sericeum (Hedw.) Schimp., 1, 2, on rock, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 32.

Hylocommium brevistore (Brid.) Br.Eur., 2, on rock, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 33.

Hylocomium splenddens (Hedw.) Schimp., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 34.

Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw., 1, 2, on rock, under forest, Batan 35.

Hypnum cupressiforme var. cupressiforme Hedw., 1, 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 36.

Hypnum cupressiforme var. lacunosum (Brid.) G. F. Hoffman ex Brid., 1, 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan Hypnum cupressiforme var. resupinatum Taylor., 2, on tree root, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 38.

*Hypnum jutl andicum Holmen and Warncke, 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 39.

Hypnum revolutum (Mitt.) Lindb., 2, on rock, under forest, Batan 40.

Isothecium alopecuroides (Dubois) Isoviita., 2, on rock, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 41.

Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw.) Warnst., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 81.

Leucobryum glaucum (Hedw.) Angstr., on soil, under forest, Batan 42.

Leucodon sciuroides (Hedw.) Schwaegr., 2, on tree, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 43.

Mnium hornum Hedw., 2, on rock, near the road, under forest, Batan 44.

Neckera crispa Hedw., 2, on rock, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 45.

Oxyrrhynchium hians (Hedw.) Lac., 2, on soil, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 46.

Oxyrrhynchium speciosum (Brid.) Warnst., 2, on soil, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 47.

Plagiomnium elatum (Bl and.) T. Kop., 2, on tree, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 48.

Plagiomnium medium (B.S.G.) T. Kop., 2, on rock, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 49.

Plagiomnium undulatum (Hedw.) Kop., 2, on rock, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 50.

Plagiothecium cavifolium (Brid.) Z. Iwats., 1, on tree body, bottom of forest, Batan 51.

Plagiothecium nemorale (Mitt.) A. Jaeger., 2, on soil, bottom of forest, Batan 52.

Plagiothecium succulentum (Wilson) Lindb., 2, on tree body, bottom of forest, Batan 53.

Pleurozium schreberi (Wild. ex Brid.) Mitt., 2, on rock, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 54.

Pogonatum aloides (Hedw.) P.Beauv., 1, 2, on soil, near the road, under forest, Batan 55.

Pogonatum urnigerum (Hedw.) P.Beauv., 1, 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 56.

Polytrichastrum formosum (Hedw.) G.L. Sm., 1, 2, on soil, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 57.

Polytrichastrum longisetum (Sw. ex Brid.) G.L. Sm., 1, 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 58.

Polytrichum commune Hedw., 1, 2, on soil, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 59.

Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw., 1, on rock, near the sream and road, bottom of forest, Batan 60.

Polytrichum pliferum Hedw., 2, on soil, under forest, Batan 61.

Pseudoschleropodium purum (Hedw.) M. M. Fleisch, 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 62.

Pseudocalliergon trifarium (F. Web. and D. Mohr.) Loeske., 2, on tree, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 63.

*Pseudocrossidium hornschuchianum (Schultz) R. H. Z ander, 2, on rock, bottom of forest, Batan 64.

Racomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 65.

Racomitrium heterostichum (Hedw.) Brid., 2, on soil, bottom of forest, Batan 66.

Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw.) Dixon, 2, on tree, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 67.

Rhynchostegium murale (Hedw.) Schimp., 2, on tree, near the stream, bottom of forest, Batan 68.

* Rhynchostegiella jacquinii (Garov.) Limpr., 2, on rock, near the stream, bottom of forest, Batan 69.

Rhynhostegiella tenella (Dicks.) Limpr., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 70.

Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (Hedw.) Warnst., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 71.

Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus (Hedw.) Warnst., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 72.

Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske., 2, on rock, near the road, under forest, Batan 73.

Schistidium apocarpum (Hedw.) Bruch and Schimp.., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 74.

Schistidium trichodon (Brid.) Poelt., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 75.

Tortella fragilis (Hook. f. and Wils.) Limpr., 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 76.

Tortella tortousa (Hedw.) Limpr., 1, 2, on tree, bottom of forest, Batan 77.

Tortula subulata Hedw., 1, 2, on rock, near the road, bottom of forest, Batan 78.

Thuidium recognitum (Hedw.) Lindb., 2, on wet soil, near the stream, bottom of forest, Batan 79.

Thuidium tamariscinum (Hedw.) Schimp., 2, on rock, near the stream, bottom of forest, Batan 80.

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