Bovine Liver Abscesses Pus and the Status of Some Important Minerals
This research was conducted to determine selenium, copper, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium concentration in the pus of cow liver abscess. The liver has a large reserve of function and approximately three-quarters of its parenchyma must be rendered inactive before clinical signs of hepatic dysfunction appear. Local suppurative infections of the liver cause significant losses in feedlot and grain-fed cattle because of the frequency of rumenitis in those cattle leading to hepatic abscess formation. Also we know some minerals that can alter and uphold the specific immunity. At the presence of adequate amount of zinc, the formation of hepatic abscess may reduce. For this reason and to determine the mineral concentration in pus, the present study was designed on 40 slaughtered cattle with liver abscess in Shahrekord district. For measuring the minerals concentration, Potentiometric Stripping Analyzer (PSA), atomic absorption spectrometry were used. Results showed that the concentration of Se, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ca, P and Mg in pus were 0.551μ0.046 (mg kg-1), 6.41μ2.32 (mg kg-1), 18.18μ14.03 (mg kg-1), 6.63µ4.83 (mg kg-1), 221.8μ85.82 (mg kg-1), 0.85μ0.32 (g kg-1) and 40.64μ21.72 (mg kg-1), respectively. The concentration of mentioned minerals in liver parenchyma's were determined 1.06μ0.15 (mg kg-1), 82.91μ32.22 (mg kg-1), 62.29μ22.12 (mg kg-1), 39.22μ28.17 (mg kg-1), 0.12μ0.04 (g kg-1), 1.81μ0.56 (g kg-1) and 0.15μ0.07 (g kg-1), respectively. For determining the correlation between mineral concentration in pus and liver parenchyma, Pearson correlation was used at The level of p<0.05. The correlation between pus Fe and Cu and also Ca and Se were significantly positive (pvalue = 0.000228, r = +0.871) and negative (pvalue = 0.0305, r = -0.623), respectively. In liver parenchyma the correlation between Zn and Ca (pvalue = 0.0487, r = 0.535) and also Fe and Cu (pvalue = 0.0317, r = +0.596) were significantly positive.
Liver abscess can occur at all ages and in all types
of cattle, including dairy cows, but they have the greatest economic importance
for grain-fed cattle (Nagaraja and Chengappa, 1998; Bryant et al.,
2004). The incidence of liver abscesses in specific groups of grain-fed
cattle can range from 1 to 2% to as high as 90 or 95%. Generally, the
incidence averages from 12 to 32% in most feedlots (Brink et al.,
1990). The distribution of abscesses in the liver lobes shows no consistent
pattern. Abscesses are composed of pyogranulomatous reaction with necrotic
centers composed of degenerating hepatocytes and leukocytes (Brink et
al., 1990). On the other hand, several lines of evidence suggest that
modification of zinc and/or iron concentrations in pus may suppress bacterial
growth and secondarily suppress microbial susceptibility to antibiotics
(Bryant et al., 2004). Copper, zinc and selenium deficiency alters
immune response in humans and animals (Howard and Smith, 1999; Geoffrey
and Arthur, 2005). Due to these respects and to determine selenium, copper,
zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium concentration in the pus
of liver abscess, this research was conducted in Shahrekord slaughter
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This research was carried out on 40 slaughtered cattle
from March to September, 2007 in Shahrekord (Iran) that suffered from
liver abscesses. Pus and liver parenchyma samples were taken after slaughtering
of affected cattle. At laboratory, pus sediment was separated by centrifugation
at 10000 g for 10 min. For measuring of zinc and copper concentrations,
Potentiometric Stripping Analyzer (PSA) and for selenium, iron, calcium,
phosphorous and magnesium values, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS;
Perkin-Elmer, 1981a and b) were used, respectively. Data`s reported as
Mean A±SE and for determining the relationship between minerals
concentration in pus and liver parenchyma the Pearson Correlation (Sigma
Stat, Jandel Sci, San Rafaael, CA) was used at the level of p<0.05.
The main objectives of present research were to determine the concentration
of minerals including Se, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca, P and Mg and determining the
correlation between values in pus and liver tissue. The concentration
of all mentioned minerals in pus were lower than liver parenchyma, except
for calcium (Table 1). The concentrations of mentioned
minerals in liver parenchyma`s were also determined. The correlation between
pus Fe and Cu and also Ca and Se were significantly positive (pvalue =
0.000228, r = +0.871) and negative (pvalue = 0.0305, r = -0.623), respectively
(Table 2). In liver parenchyma the correlation between
Zn and Ca (pvalue = 0.0487, r = +0.535) and also Fe and Cu (pvalue = 0.0317,
r = +0.596) were significantly positive.
Liver abscesses are secondary to the primary foci of infection In the
ruminal wall. The leukotoxin and endotoxic lipopolysaccharide of Fusobacterium
necrophorum may protect it from phagocytosis (Nagaraja and Chengappa,
1998; Tan et al., 1996). Also, the release of cytolytic products
such as lysosomal enzymes and oxygen metabolites (free radicals), as a
consequence of destruction of phagocytes, has a detrimental effect on
the liver parenchyma. Hence, the role of antioxidant enzymes (i.e., zinc
and/or copper superoxide dismutase [SOD] and glutathione peroxidase) is
to protect tissues from oxidants (Berger, 1997; Geoffrey and Arthur, 2005;
Howard and Smith, 1999). Abscesses contain many microbicidal and inhibitory
constituents released from neutrophils including high concentration of
calprotectin and lactoferrin (Bryant et al., 2004). Subsequent
interaction of zinc and iron with calprotectin and lactoferrin, respectively,
seems to limit the availability of those cations for bacterial growth,
thus providing an innate or nutritional host defense against bacterial
multiplication that may secondarily suppress microbial susceptibility
to antibiotics (Bryant et al., 2004). This is the first report
of the selenium, zinc, copper, iron, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium
levels in pus and liver parenchyma that may discuss the effect of abscess
on mineral status. According to the obtained results, all minerals concentration
in pus exceeded normal serum values (Kojouri, 2001; Underwood and Suttle,
1999). Minerals have a major role on immune response to the infectious
diseases. So that, calcium and phosphorous involved in cell membrane integrity
and cellular function and selenium, copper and zinc in antioxidant activity
(Berger, 1997; Geoffrey and Arthur, 2005; Howard and Smith, 1999; Underwood
and Suttle, 1999).The adequate concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe and Se in
liver were summarized in Table 2. Results show that the
concentrations of mentioned minerals in liver with abscesses are lower
than adequate levels for Cu, Zn and Fe and at marginal level for Se. These
findings may discuss the negative effect of liver abscesses on liver mineral
status. According to the report of Stabel et al. (1993), indicated
that Cu deficiency affects various physiological characteristics that
may be important in immunological defense to pathogenic challenges. Woolliams
et al. (1986), showed that Cu supplementation affected the resistance
of sheep to bacterial infections (Woolliams et al., 1986). On the
other hand, zinc has been shown to have a positive impact on immunity
in stocker and feedlot cattle. Infection can also have a detrimental effect
on Zn status in cattle. Infecting cattle with a bovine rhinotracheitis
challenge increased urinary excretion, which caused a negative balance
(Orr et al., 1990). The biological actions of selenium are mediated
in most cases through the expression of at least 30 selenoproteins coded
by 25 selenoprotein genes. These roles include the prevention of cancer,
cardiovascular disease and viral
||Comparison of Cu, Zn, Se, Fe, Ca, P
and Mg concentration (Mean A±SE) in pus and liver parenchyma
of cattle with liver abscesses
||Adequate liver concentration of Cu,
Zn, Se and Fe in cattle (ppm on a DM Basis)*
|*Adapted from Puls (1990);
Underwood and Suttle (1999)
mutation (Geoffrey and Arthur, 2005). Many investigators
have reported a decrease in microbial activity of neutrophils isolated
from selenium deficient cattle. Selenium deficiency is also associated
with observed decreases in T-plymphocyte blastogenesis, neutrophil migration,
chemotaxis, phagocytosis, killing potential and depressed antibody production
of IgM and IgG (Howard and Smith, 1999; Kojouri and Shirazi, 2006). Iron
as an essential nutrient for the growth of microorganisms, may decrease
in serum after exposing the host to the infectious status. In this situation
the body tends to sequester iron from the circulation into storage forms
primarily in the liver and bone marrow, where it is retained and is relatively
unavailable for erythropoiesis. This reaction may play a protective role
by denying readily available iron to potential bacterial pathogens that
require iron for rapid growth and multiplication (Carlson, 2002; Carter
and Chengappa, 1991; Kojouri and Shirazi, 2006). In tissues the growth
rate of bacteria reduces in lack of iron and zinc (Bryant et al.,
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