Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Spider Fauna in Caspian Costal Region of Iran



Sahra Ghavami
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

The current study investigated spider fauna of Caspian Costal region of Iran (Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces) during 2005-2006. Spiders were collected from on the ground and under the stones and grasses by bottle, aspirator, Pitfall trap and pans and from branches, leaves and trunks of different trees and bushes by Steiner and Baggiolini method and insect net. They transferred to the laboratory and classified in 52 species and 51 genera belonged to 20 families. Thirty species, 13 genera and 2 families are reported for the first time from Iran, as follows: Family Agelenidae: Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757), Cicurina sp., Family Araneidae: Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763), Araniella inconspicua (Simon, 1874), Araniella alpica (C.L. Koch, 1869), Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757, Cercidia sp., Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772), Hypsosinga sanguinea (C.L.Koch,1845), Family Clubionidae: Clubiona neglecta O.P. Camridge, 1862, Family Amaurobiidae, Family Eresidae: Eresus sp., Dresserus sp., Family Gnaphosidae: Aphantaulax sp., Micaria sp., Family Metidae: Zygiella x-notata (Clerck,1757), Family Miturgidae: Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802), Cheiracanthium pennyi O.P.Cambridge,1873, Family Linyphiidae: Microlinyphia sp., Family Lycosidae: Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa amentata (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa agrestis (Westring, 1861), Pardosa monticola (Clerck, 1757), Family Oxyopidae: Oxyopes salticus (Hentx, 1802), Family Philodromidae: Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer, 1802), Family Pholcidae: Psilochorus simoni (Berland, 1911), Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775), Family Salticidae: Salticus scenicus (Clerck, 1757), Family Tetragnathidae: Tetragnatha montana,Simon, 1874, Tetragnatha javana (Thorell, 1890), Family Theridiidae: Dipoena prona (Menge, 1868), Steatoda albomaculata (Degeer, 1778), Theridion impressum C. L.Koch, Theridion simile C.L.Koch,1836, Family Thomisidae: Misumena vatia (Clerck, 1757), Thanatus formicinus (Clerck, 1757), Thanatus striatus C.L.Koch, 1845, Xysticus cristatus (Clerck, 1757).

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Sahra Ghavami , 2007. Spider Fauna in Caspian Costal Region of Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 682-691.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2007.682.691

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2007.682.691

INTRODUCTION

Spiders are one of the most abundant predatory groups in terrestrial ecosystems. Spiders belonged to phylum Arthropoda, class of Arachnida and order of Araneae. Order of Araneae is one of the biggest orders of Arachnida. Thirty five thousand species of spiders have been identified in the world. Two hundred and forty four species of spiders have been reported from Iran. Spiders are important Arthropod predators in natural and agricultural environments. They are carnivorous. A large number of spiders use webs to capture prey and many prey by ambush and pursuit their prey. They feed on insects and small Arthropods. Therefore, they can play an important role in pest control.

The northern part of Iran is situated in the south of the Caspian Sea. So far, the spiders in this region have not been studied. Forty three new species have been identified from this region. Twenty seven species of spiders were reported in rice fields and twelve species were recorded for the first time from Iran (Mozaffarian et al., 2000). Spiders were one of the most abundant predators inthese fields (Ghavami, 2004). Forty four species and 59 genera belonging to 20 families were recorded on cotton fields. Twenty species, 13 genera and 2 families of spiders were reported as the first record of Iran. Twenty six species of spiders recorded from cotton fields in Golestan province (north of Iran) and most populations of identified species belonged to Araneidae, Clubionidae and Theridiidae families, respectively (Ghavami et al., 2005). Thirty four species of spiders were reported from citrus orchards. Four species of spiders were recorded for the first time from Iran. The most abundant of spider species belonged to Linyphiidae, Salticidae and Araneidae families in these orchards, respectively (Ghavami, 2006a). Spiders fauna and abundance of olive orchards studied in northen part of Iran (Guilan, Ghazvin, Zanjan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces) during 2002-2003. Spiders classified in 45 species and 48 genera belonging to 18 families. Twenty-two species, 10 genera and 2 families are reported for the first time from Iran. Most of the populations of spiders belonged to Linyphiidae, Salticidae, Araneidae and Thomisidae families, respectively (Ghavami et al., 2004; Ghavami, 2006b). Also, many studies have been done on spider fauna, abundance and their role in pest control in many countries. In a study, spiders were one of the most frequent predators in the European and American olive orchards. Most of the spider population in European and American olive orchards belonged to Linyphiidae family (Nieuwenhuys, 1999). The role of spiders was investigated in olive orchards in Granada, Spain. Spiders were the second most abundant predators. The most abundant spider families were Salticidae and Philodromidae. The most frequently caught species were followed by Salticus sp.; Icius hamatus and Philodromus sp. They were the main predators of Prays oleae in these orchards. They fed on egg and larvae of P. oleae (Morris et al., 1999). Olive spiders were collected by using pitfall traps in olive groves near Viterbo, central Italy. About 70 species were found belonging to 18 families with the predominant families being Linyphiidae, Lycosidae, Dysderidae, Gnaphosidae and Theridiidae. There was only one abundant species Lepthyphantes tenuis together with 4 scarcer species, including Erigone dentipalpis, Meioneta rurestris and Pachygnatha degeeri. Other species also occurred in mid-Europe mainly in urban environments (Dysdera crocata and Scytodes thoracica) and at xerothermic sites (various species of Theridiidae, Gnaphosidae, Clubionidae, Thomisidae and Salticidae (Thaler and Zapparoli, 1993). Over 900 predators collected during 1998 and 1999 from a Portuguese organic olive orchard were subjected to a serological bioassay for Prays oleae predation. The highest number of predators were tested positive during the phyllophagous and antophagous generations of P. oleae. Ants (Formicidae) were the most common predators, followed by species belonging to Coleoptera, Hemiptera and spiders (Araneae) (Lozano et al., 2000). Spiders were one of the most abundant predators. They had the largest population in olive orchards in Panama. Eriophora fuligninea was one of the most important spider species in these orchards (Graf and Nentwig, 2001). Spiders, ants and redbugs had the highest population in olive orchards in Green County, Mississippi. Spiders were the most important predator in these orchards (Byron and Green, 2000). Spiders were one of the most abundant predators and they had an important role in olive pest control in Italy (Vigiane, 1977). Spiders were natural enemies of Palpita unionalis in Italy. Spiders were one of the important predators of P.oleae in Italy. (Triggiani and Naples, 1971). They decreased 60-80% of P. oleae population in these orchards (Sacchetti, 1990). Spiders fauna were surveyed in cotton fields in Gujarat, India. They recorded 17 species of spiders belonging to 8 families (Clubionidae, Lycosidae, Theridiidae, Thomisidae, Heteropodidae, Araneidae, Oxyopidae and Filistatidae) (Muralidharan and Chari, 1992). Spider fauna studied in unsprayed cotton grown in 2 regions of south-eastern Queens land during 1973-77. In this study, 25 species, 19 genera belonging to 10 families of spiders were identified. Of these, Cheiracanthium mordax L. Koch (diversum L. Koch), Achaearanea veruculata (Urquhart) and Theridion sp. made up 80-86% (Bishop, 1980). Twenty five little-known species of spiders in Norway were recorded. Six of them were reported for the first time in this country (Hauge, 1980). One hundred and twenty species of spiders were recorded, presented and discussed which were collected by pitfall traps in 12 habitats (mainly forest) in the Vassfaret region of south-eastern of Norway (Hauge and Wiger, 1980). One hundred and one species and 21 genera belonged to Araneidae family and 89 species and 21 genera belonged to Gnaphosidae family of spiders identified in cotton fields in India (Tikader, 1982). An annotated list of 32 species from 10 families of Araneae that were collected from cotton, sugarcane, groundnut, okra, cabbage and rice fields were presented in India. Oxyopidae was the most common family. Oxyopes shewta was found in particularly large numbers on cotton, okra and ground nut (Peter and Biswas, 1990). In this study, spider fauna were studied in Caspian costal region of Iran. The study areas lies mainly in the orchards, fields and residentials, dominated by orchards and fields situated in the plain. In addition, orchards located on higher and forests were included in the investigating locations, too.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area: The study sites were: 1) Guilan: Roodbar about 65 km and Rostam Abad 50 km from Rasht 2) Mazandaran: Chaloos about 214 km and Salman Shahr about 200 km, Khoshkehdaran, 244 km, Amol about 70 km from Sari, 3) Golestan: Noudijeh, about 10 km, Chardeh, 24 km, Raamian, 73 km, Tooskaostan, 25 km, Alazeman, 20 km, Toushan, 30 km, Hashem Abad, 15 km, Fazel Abad, 30 km, Beraftan, 47 km, Nazar Abad, 20 km, Gharan Abad, 25 km, Kordkooy, 34 km, Bandar Gaz, 76 km, Azad Shahr, 15 km, Zarrin gol, 72 km, Zanghian, 5 km from Ghorghan.

Spiders sampling: Spiders were collected from branches, leaves, flowers, on the ground and under the stones and grasses by Steiner and Bajolini method, bottle, aspirator,

pitfall trap and pans throughout spring, summer and autumn during 2005-2006. Valid spider identification keys (Anonymous, 2002; Barrion and Litsingerm, 1995; Borrer et al, 1989; Kaston, 1970; Roberts, 1985) used for species classification.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this study, 52 species and 51 genera of spiders were identified. Most species belonged to Araneidae (12) and the fewest species belonged to Agelenidae, Clubionidae, Dictynidae, Metidae, Linyphiidae and Scytodidae (1) families. The number of identified spider species in Guilan, Golestan and Mazandaran provinces were 25, 53 and 10 species and the new spider species in these provinces were 10, 30 and 4, respectively. Therefore, most species and most new species were collected from Golestan and the fewest were collected from Mazandaran provinces. Characters of identified species, materials examined and their distribution were as follows:

Family Agelenidae:
1 species and 1 genera were collected of this family
Genus Agelena Walckenaer, 1805
Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757)*
Diagnosis: Posterior row of eyes strongly procurved. Anterior row of eyes slightly procurved. Carapace is without gray margin. Abdomen is with central pale brown stripe and with a darker more grayish band on either side and the darker bands are with tiny white dashes or chevron marking running through them. Terminal segment of posterior spinners are clearly visible and longer than basal segment.
Material examined: Mazandaran: Salman Shahr, 10.5. 2005, Khoshkehdaran, 20.3.2005, Chaloos, 22.5.2005, 14.5.2005, 5.5.2006, Golestan: 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, 15.9.2005, Noudijeh, Raamian, Kordkooy, 11.6.2005, Guilan: 11.4.2005, Rostam Abad, 5.4.2006.
Distribution: Russia, England, Belgium, Poland, France, China and Iran.
Material examined: Golestan: Gonbad, 21.6.2005, Guilan: 11.4.2005, 5.4.2006.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.


Family Araneidae:
12 species and 2 genera were collected of this family.
Species identification key of family Araneidae:
1-Posterior row of eyes distinctincly procurved................2
-Posterior row of eyes distinctincly straight or recurved...3
2-Carapace covered with silky hairs, abdomen with horizontal yellow and black pattern..................................... ..............................................Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli)
-Carapace covered with silky hairs, abdomen without horizontal yellow and black pattern, abdomen with irregular edge..................................Argiope lobata (Pallas)
3-Carapace slightly attenuated anteriorly and with longitudinal median furrow, abdomen with three longitudinal bars on the posterior end, often confluent, forming a solid black rectangle, tibia III with prolateral series of long thin hairs....................................................... .......................................... Mongora acalypha (Walckenaer)
-Not as above.....................................................................4
4-Abdomen bright green, with a red spot dorsal next to the spinners, genitalia closely similar to Araniella inconspicue in scape (more wide and short)....................
...............................................Araniella cucurbitina (Clerck)
-Abdomen bright green, epigyne with scape originating narrower than A. cucurbitina................................... .............................................Araniella inconspicue (Simon)
5-Apical part of epigyne narrower than A. inconspicue ..................................................Araniella alpica (C.L.Koch)
-Not as above.....................................................................6
6-Abdomen with a single tubercle (hump)...........................
.........................................................Cyclosa conica (Pallas)
-Not as above......................................................................7
7-Carapace lighter yellow-brown, without light margin, the width of the white abdominal stripes variable and always present, metatarsi with spines...............................................
......................................Hypsosinga sanguinea (C.L.Koch)-Carapace brown with light margins, the width of white stripes variable, occasionally, may broken or absent, closely resembles H. sanguinea in general appearance..............Hypsosinga pygmeae (Sundevall)
8-Carapace with transverse groove posteriorly, abdomen with tubercles antrolaterally, the shoulder humps near the front of the abdomen, palpe with large hook-like terminal apophysis and a median apophysis with teeth hooks, epigyne with long wrinkled scape originating front anterior border, the external sex organs of the male and female can be seen on the ventral view, both the male and female's genital openings lie inside the epigastric furrow, except that the epigynum situated in front of the female furrow ....................................Araneus diadematus, Clerck
-Not as above .......................................................................9
9-Abdomen as broad as long with variable color markings, some specimens with a sub triangular brown patch in the posterior hale, epigyne distinctive with scape originating
anteriorly wider than Neoscona adianta, abdomen in males with a dark lanceolate midline mark edged, body circular, abdomen with v-sign at the front end, palpes with a long spine, color of spiders usually reddish to brown, spider very variable in color..................................
.....................................................Agalenatea redii (Scopoli)
-Carapace with longitudinal groove posteriorly, abdomen longer than broad, epigyne longer than wide, the scape bing fused to the base and not distinctive like Agalenatea redii, palpe with no tibial spines, appearance coloring from gray to reddish–brown or orange with yellow- brown pattern......................................................................................
.............................................Neoscona adianta (Walckenaer)
Genus Agalenatea Archer, 1951
Agalenatea redii (Scopoli 1763)*
Material examined: Golestan: Raamian 21.6.2005, Gonbad, 24.4.2006.
Distribution: England, France, sued, Cornwall, Asia and Iran.
Genus Araniella Chamberlin and Lvie, 1942
Araniella inconspicua (Simon, 1874)*
Material examined: Golestan: Raamian, 21.6.2005, Alazeman, 24.4.2006.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland and Iran.
Araniella alpica (L.Koch, 1869)
Material examined: Golestan: Nodijeh, 21.6.2005.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland and Iran.
Araniella cucurbitina (Clerck 1757)
Material examined:Golestan: Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, Tooskaostan, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2006, Zarringol, 22.4.2006,Guilan:10.4.2005,5.3.2005,
11.5.2005, 4.4.2006,Mazandaran: 20.3.2005, 22.5.2005, 14.5.2005, 5.5.2006.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland and Iran.
Genus Araneus Clerck,1757
Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 *
Material examined: Golestan: Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, Mazandaran: 20.3.2005, 22.5.2005, 14.5.2005, 5.5.2006.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland and Iran.
Genus Argiope Savigny, 1827
Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772)
Material examined: Golestan: Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2006, Guilan: 11.4.2005, 5.4.2006, Mazandaran: 20.3.2005, 22.5.2005, 14.5.2005, 5.5.2006.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland, Asia and Iran.
Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772)
Material examined: Golestan: Tooskaostan, 22.4.2005.
Distribution: Asia, Iran, Meditaraneh, Egypt, Malt Island and Europe.
Genus Cercidia Thorell,1869*
Material examined: Golestan: Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006,Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2006, Guilan:11.4.2005,5.4.2006.
Diagnosis: Abdomen is slightly pointed anteriorly with a dorsal abdominal scutum. There is a line of short dark spines around the anterior end of abdomen.The color of this spider is orange-red.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Genus Cyclosa Thorell, 1869
Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772)*
Material examined: Golestan:21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, 15.9.2005.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Iran and Europe.
Genus Hypsosinga Ausserer, 1871
Hypsosinga pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831)
Material examined: Guilan: 11.4.2005, 5.4.2006.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland, Iran and Europe.
Hypsosinga sanguinea (C.L.Koch, 1845)*
Material examined: Golestan: Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006,Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2006.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland, Europe and Iran.
Genus Neoscona Simon, 1864
Neoscona adianta (Walckenaer, 1802)
Material examined: Golestan: Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2006.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Europe and Iran.
Genus Mangora O.P.Cambridge, 1889
Mangora acalypha (Walckenaer, 1802)
Material examined: Golestan: Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2006, Guilan: 11.4.2005,5.4.2006.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Poland Europe, Asia and Iran.
Genus Singa C.L.Koch, 1836
Material examined: Golestan: Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2006.
Diagnosis: Anterior median eyes are large. Median ocular quadrangle is wider in front than behind.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.

Family Amaurobiidae:
Material examined: Golestan: Ramian, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2006.
Diagnosis: All of the eight eyes are light in color. There are under logs or stones where they build a messy.Web with an irregular shape.
Distribution: England, Russia, Poland, Europe and
Iran.
Family Clubionidae:
1 species was collected of this family.
Genus Clubiona Latreille, 1804
Clubiona neglecta O.P.Cambridge, 1862*
Material examined: Golestan: Kordkooy, Karkandeh, 20.6.2005.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Diagnosis: Epigyne is square shapes with two cavities.
Family Dictynidae:
1 species was collected of this family.
Genus Dictyna Sundevall, 1833
Dictyna latens (Fabricius, 1775)*
Material examined: Golestan: Gonbad, 20.6.2005, Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2006, Guilan: 11.4.2005, 5.4.2006.
Diagnosis: Carapace is dark brown with white hairs. Abdomen is with dark brown or black markings. Tarsi or metatarsi hasn`t trichobothria. Body is covering with white hairs
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland, Europe, Asia and Iran

Family Eresidae:
2 genera were collected of this family.
Genus Eresus Walckenaer, 1805*
Material examined: Guilan: Roodbar, 18.6.2002, Rostam Abad, 16.6.2002.
Diagnosis: Anterior part of carapace is raised. Eyes are located one at each corner and four near the midline. Anterior legs appear black and white. The abdomen is white.
Distribution: Asia, Europe and Iran.
Genus Dresserus Simon, 1876*
Material examined: Guilan: 11.4.2005, 5.4.2006.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.

Family Filistatidae:
Material examined: Guilan: 11.4.2005, 5.4.2006.
Diagnosis: The labium is fused to the sternum. The calamistrum on the females and juveniles is short and made up of only a few stiff bristles.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.

Family Gnaphosidae:
4 genera were collected of this Family.
Genus Aphantaulax Simon, 1878 *
Material examined: Guilan: 11.4.2005, 5.4.2006, Golestan: Chardeh, 20.6.2005, Nodijeh, 21.6.2005.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Genus Scotophaeus Simon, 1893
Material examined: Mazandaran: Salman Shahr, 10.5. 2005, Amol, 20.3.2005, 22.5.2005, 14.5.2005, 5.5.2006.
Diagnosis: Abdomen is mousy. Anterior median eyes are considerably larger than the laterals.Carapace is narrower anteriorly and furnished with long black hairs.
Distribution: Europe, Asia and Iran.
Genus Micaria Westring, 1851*
Material examined: Golestan: Gonbad, 20.6.2005.
Diagnosis: Anterior spinners close together and scarcely projecting from posterior end of abdomen. Small spiders clothed with iridescent hairs and white hairs.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Genus Zelotes Gistel, 1848
Material examined: Mazandaran: Salman Shahr, 10.5. 2005, Amol, 20.3.2005, 5.5.2006, Golestan: Gonbad, 20.6.2005, Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2005.
Diagnosis: Carapace is markedly narrow in front and most species are dark in color or totally black. The bronchial opercula is bright yellow or orange in most species.
Distribution: Europe, Asia and Iran.

Family Linyphiidae:
1 species and 2 genera were collected of this family.
Genus Linyphia Latreille, 1804*
Material examined: Golestan: Gonbad, 20.6.2005, Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006,Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2005.
Diagnosis: Carapace is dark without median bifid stripe. Femur is without dark spots. Lateral and dorsal spines are on femur, patellae, tibia and metatarsi.
Distribution: Europe, Asia and Iran.
Genus Microlinyphia Gerhardt, 1928*
Material examined: Golestan: Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2005.
Diagnosis: Tibia spines are 2-2-2-2 with several additional spines on femura, patellae, tibia and metatarsi.
Distribution: Europe, Asia and Iran.
Genus Frontinella Van Helsdingen, 1969
Frontinella fruntetorum (C.L.Koch, 1981)
Material examined: Golestan: Gonbad, 20.6.2005, Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2006, Guilan: 11.4.2005, 5.4.2006.
Diagnosis: The carapace is evenly brown. A pattern can be seen on the abdomen.
Distribution: Europe, Asia and Iran.

Family Lycosidae:
4 species were collected of this family.
Species identification Key of Lycosidae family:
1-Carapace witch is rather elevated anteriorly, with the median band pointed anteriorly on each side of the median band near the front end a pair of roughly semicircular areas, outlind with black, leg 4 noticeably longer than the others, tarsus I without long proximal small and weak bristle.............Pardosa agrestis (Westring)
2-Carapace with the median band and without lateral bands, leg 4 noticeably longer than the others, legs yellow to brownish in color, males typically darker than females, with more distinct markings...................................................
...................................................Pardosa amentata (Clerck)
3-Carapace with the median band anteriorly and lateral bands unbroken and continue round the side of the eyes...........................................Pardosa monticola (Clerck)
4-The median light band on carapace with white hairs and contains no darker marks, the lateral bands, usually continuous but not always well-defined, abdomen small, abdominal pattern sometimes much more distinct, legs fairly long and slender, tarsi with a group of trichobothrias, two long and two short, arranged alternately....................
..........................................Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck)
Genus Alopecosa Simon, 1885
Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck, 1757)*
Material examined: Golestan: 15.6.2004.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Genus Pardosa C.L.Koch, 1848
Pardosa amentata-group (Clerck, 1757) *
Material examined: Golestan: Gonbad, 20.6.2005, Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2006.
Distribution: England, Russia, Poland and Iran.
Pardosa agrestis (Westring, 1861)*
Material examined: Golestan: Fazel Abad, Gharan Abad, Gonbad, 20.6.2005, Nodijeh, 21.6.2005, 24.4.2006, Tooskaostan, 26.9.2005, 20.6.2005, 22.4.2006, Guilan: 11.4.2005, 5.4.2006.
Distribution: England, Russia, Poland and Iran.
Pardosa monticola (Clerck, 1757)*
Material examined: Golestan: Fazel Abad, 20.6.2005, Hashem Abad, 24.4.2006.
Distribution: Russia, Poland and Iran.

Family Metidae*:
1 species was collected of this family
Genus Zygiella F.O.P.Cambridge, 1902
Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757) *
Material examined: Golestan: 22.6.2005, 21.4.200.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Diagnosis: Posterior row of eyes are more nearly equidistant. Abdomen is grayish-brown whit markings.

Family Miturgidae*:
2 species were collected of this family.
Species key identification of family Miturgidae:
1-Total width of eyes group at least half the width of carapace at it widest point, chelicerae clearly visible from above, carapace with a fovea, leg IV longer than leg I, tibia I with 2 pairs of ventral spines, abdomen small, in most specimens more distend and oval, abdomen gray-brown with reddish median stripe by pale yellow, epigyne with small and round shape central cavity.................................
............................Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer)
2-Similar in apparence to Cheiracanthium erraticum, epigyne with oval shape central cavity, central cavity larger than Cheiracanthium erraticum.............................
....................Cheiracanthium pennyi O.P.Cambridge, 1873
Genus Cheiracanthium C.L.Koch. 1839
Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802)*
Material examined: Golestan: 21.6.2005, Gonbad, 15.9.2006.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Cheiracanthium pennyi O.P.Cambridge, 1873*
Material examined: Golestan: Gonbad, 15.9.2006, Bailer, 14.9.2006, Hivehchi, 21.4.2006.

Family Oxyopidae:
2 species were collected of this family.
Genus Oxyopes Latreille, 1804
Oxyopes lineatus (Latreille, 1806)
Material examined: Golestan: Beraftan, 14.9.2006.
Diagnosis: Carapace has three white stripes. One is between AME and PME eyes and two bands are around the carapace. A brown lanseonate shape with a white strip around it. They have three claws on the leg tips. They have many long strong setaes.
Distribution: Belgium, Asia, Iran and Europe.
Oxyopes salticus (Hentx, 1802)*Material examined: Geolestan: Gonbad, 16.9.2006.
Distribution: Belgium, Asia, Iran and Europe.Diagnosis: Two brown stripes are on the sides of the abdomen. Legs have many strong setaes.

Family Philodromidae:

5 species were collected of this family.

Species identification key of family Philodromidae:

1-Posterior row of eyes only slightly recurved, the medians being a little closer to the laterals than to each other, carapace light brown unicolorous, except for dark semicircular marks at the central near carapace edge, abdomen only slightly elongated, abdominal pattern often uniformly pale beige dorsally...............................................
............................................Philodromus rufus (Walckenaer)
2-Body with depth of color and amount of red in the abdominal pattern, often uniformly pale beige dorsally......................Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer)
3-Posterior median eyes much closer to one another than to posterior laterals, carapace light brown unicolorous, abdomen long and cylindrical, usually light brown, sometimes with darker longitudinal stripes (two stripes), the general color of spider is light gray or yellow...........................................Tibellus oblongus, Simon
4-Posterior median eyes only slightly closer to one another than to posterior laterals, abdomen only slightly elongated, overall color brownish with a pair of longitudinal mark on abdomen followed by a pair of longitudinal dark lines...........Thanatus formicinus (Clerck)-Abdomen oval and slightly elongated, brown color, with a pair of longitudinal mark on abdomen followed by a pair of longitudinal dark lines........Thanatus striatus C.L. Koch
Genus Philodromus Walckenaer, 1825
Philodromus rufus (Walckenaer, 1825)
Material examined: Golestan: Tooskaostan,Zarringol, 22.6.2005, Kordkooy, 15.9.2005, Beraftan, 24.4.2006
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium and Iran.
Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer, 1802)*
Material examined: Golestan: Nasr Abad, 20.6.2005, Zarringol, 22.6.2005.
Distribution: Asia, Russia, Poland, Belgium, England and Iran.
Genus Thanatus C.L.Koch, 1845
Thanatus formicinus (Clerck, 1757)*
Material examined: Golestan: Gonbad, 16.9.2006.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Thanatus striatus C.L.Koch, 1845*
Material examined: Golestan: Gonbad, 22.4.2005.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Genus Tibellus Simon, 1875
ibellus oblongus (Walckenaer, 1802)Material examined: Golestan: Nasr Abad, 20.6.2005, Zarringol, 20.6.2005, Hashem Abad, Gonbad, Hivechi, 25.6.2005, Mazandaran: Amol, 14.5.2005, 15.9.2005, 5.5.2006.
Distribution: Asia, Russia, Poland, Belgium, England and Iran.

Family Pholcidae:
2 species were collected of this family.Species identification key of family Pholcidae:
1-The posterior median eyes, smaller than the others, carapace, with a gray mark in the center, abdomen cylindrical, spider pale yellow with dark markings on the abdomen, legs long spindly with flexible tarsi ..........................................Pholcus phalongioides (Fuesslin)
2-Abdomen globular, spinners close to epigasteric fold, spider pale yellow...................Psilochorus simoni (Berland)
Genus Psilochorus Simon, 1893
Psilochorus simoni (Berland, 1911) *
Material examined: Golestan: Tooskaostan, Kordkooy, Chardeh, 23.6.2005, 8.6.2006, Bandar Gaz, 25.4.2006, 6.6.2006.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium, England and Iran.
Genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805
Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin,1775) *
Material examined: Golestan: Chardeh, 8.6.2006, Bandar Gaz, 8.6.2006, Guilan: 11.4.2005, 6.4.2006.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium, England and Iran.

Family Salticidae:
5 species and 3 genera were collected of this family
1-Carapace more uniformly black and abdomen with no clear illustrated pattern.......................................................2
-Carapace no uniformly black and abdomen with clear illustrated pattern.................................................................3
2-Legs with black streaks prolateraly and retro laterally along the length of femur and tibia 1 to 4...........................
......................................Heliophanus cupreus (Walckenaer)
-Usually only coxa 4 and part of femur 4 marked with black...................................Heliophanus flavipes C.L. Koch.
3-Tibia 1 without ventral setae, the legs appear black and white in life, due to hairs, but often appear quite yellow in spirit, abdomen in gray with white marking, iridescent scales in the eye region................Salticus scenicus (Clerck)
4-Carapace yellow with less black marking, carapace rather rounded anteriorly, small eyes of the second row not much closer to the anterior, posterior legs with numerous strong spines, abdomen yellow with dark markings..........
......................................................Thyene imperialis (Rossi)
Genus Bianor G. and E. Peckham, 1885
Bianor albimaculatus (Lucas, 1846)
Material examined: Guilan, 11.4.2005.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Genus Evarcha Simon, 1902
Material examined: Golestan:13.8.2002, Guilan: Roodbar, 7.8.2003.
Diagnosis: Leg I longer than leg III.
Distribution: England, Asia, Iran and Europe.
Genus Heliophanus C.L.Koch, 1833
Heliophanus cupreus (Walckenaer, 1802)
Material examined: Guilan: 13.4.2005, Roodbar, 7.4.2006.
Distribution: Belgium, England, Asia and Iran.
Heliophanus flavipes C.L.Koch,1848
Material examined: Golestan: Kordkooy, 14.9.2005, Gonbad, 24.4.2006, 6.6.2006, Guilan: 13.4.2005, Roodbar, 8.4.2006.
Distribution: Asia, Iran, Poland, Belgium and England.
Genus Hyllus C.l.Koch, 1846
Material examined: Guilan: Roodbar, 12.4.2005.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Genus Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839
Material examined: Golestan: Gharan Abad, 8.4.2006.
Diagnosis: They are similar to ants. The ocular trapezium slightly broader than long.
Distribution: England, Asia and Iran.
Genus Salticus Latreille,1804
Salticus scenicus (Clerck, 1757)*
Material examined: Golestan: Gharan Abad, 8.4.2006, Guilan: Roodbar, 10.4.2005, 7.4.2006.
Distribution: Poland, Belgium, England, Asia and Iran.
Genus Thyene Simon, 1885
Thyene imperialis (Rossi, 1846)
Material examined: Golestan: Chardeh, Zarringol, Azad Shahr, 24.4.2006, Gonbad, Hivehchi, 15.9.2005, Hashem Abad, Tooskaostan, 20.6.2005, Guilan: 5.4.2006, Mazandaran: Amol, 14. 5. 2005, 15.9.2005, 5.5.2006.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.

Family Scytodidae:
1 species was collected of this family
Genus Scytodes Latreille, 1804
Scytodes thoracica,Latreille,1804
Material examined: Golestan: 20.4.2006.
Diagnosis: Cephalothorax is yellow sloping down wards to the cephalic area forwardly inclined portion with a pair of marks. Abdomen is short and ovoid to globular with color pattern similar to carapace. Venter is yellow except black spots is on laterally. It's method of hunting is unique among spiders. The greatly enlarged abdomen contains special venom glands that can squirt sticky venom on to prey.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium, England and Iran.

Family Tetragnathidae:
3 species were collected of this family.
Species identification key of family Tetragnathidae:
1-Long abdomen and narrow, more than twice as long as wide, chelicerae very long, males a strong projecting spure on anterior surface, color of abdomen bright and rather variable with a reddish ting and silvery pigment spots.................................Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus)
2-Abdomen usually slightly darker and more brownish the T. extensa with dark pattern..................................................
..............................................Tetragnatha montana, Simon.
3-Carapace brown with C shape fovea, fovea brownish to red with 2 bonds in lateral of carapace, abdomen long and very narrow, color of abdomen yellow with 2 dark bonds in back....................................Tetragnatha javana (Thorell)
Genus Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804
Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus, 1785)
Material examined: Guilan: Roodbar, 11.4.2005, 5.4.2006, Golestan: Raamian, Fazel Abad, Bandar Gaz, 22.6.2005, 17.9.2005, Zanghian, 15.9.2005, Gonbad, 6.6.2006, Hashem Abad, 17.9.2006.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Swede, Belgium, England and Iran.
Tetragnatha montana, Simon, 1874*
Material examined: Golestan: Toshan, 15.9.2005, Hashem Abad, Raamian, Gonbad, 6.6.2006.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium, England, Europe and Iran.
Tetragnatha javana (Thorell, 1890)*
Material examined: Guilan: Roodbar, 5.4.2006, Golestan: Toshan, Kordkooy, karkandeh, 21.4.2005, Gonbad, 6.6.2006, Hashem Abad, 24.6.2005.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.

Family Theridiidae:
6 species and 1 genera were collected of this family
Species identification key of family Theridiidae:
1-Colulus and paired setae absent.....................................2
-Colulus and paired setae present.......................................3
2-Abdomen ovoid with many white and brown patterns......................................Theridion simile, C.L.Koch
-Colulus and paired setae absent, abdomen ovoid with many white and brown patterns….…..…..............................................Theridion impressum C. L.Koch
3-Abdomen ovoid and brown, carapace raised anteriorly, anterior median eyes twice as large as anterior lateral eyes; legs without spines, legs yellow-brown, suffused with black, metatarsus 1 one and a half times as long as tarsus 1...........................................Dipoena prona (Menge)
-Lateral eyes of each side at least a diameter of one apart, abdomen ovoid and checkered with white and brown spots on back, an hourglass- shaped mark on the venter........................Laterodectus tredecimgutatus (Rossi)
4-Abdomen globular and almost black with a white line anteriorly and a median stripe dorsally and with variable pattern and legs with brown and black strips.................................Steatoda albomaculata (Degeer)
-Abdomen with a median stripe dorsally and with variable pattern............................Steatoda paykulliana (Fabricius)
Genus Dipoena Thorell, 1869
Dipoena prona (Menge, 1868)*
Material axamined: Guilan: Roodbar, 11.4.2005, Golestan: Azad Shahr, 6.6.2006.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium and Iran.
Genus Enoplognatha Pavesi, 1880:
Material axamined: Guilan: Roodbar, 11.4.2005, Golestan: Azad Shahr, 6.6.2006.
Diagnosis: Male chelicerae is large, robust with conical protrusions. Female has one large tooth on chelicerae retro or anteriomargin.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Genus Latrodectus Walckenaer, 1805
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1790)
Material examined: Golestan: Hashem Abad, 23.4.2006.
Distribution: Asia, Iran, Africa, Mediteraneh, Central Asia, Ethiopian and Saudian Arabia.
Genus Steatoda Sandevall, 1833
Steatoda albomaculata (Degeer, 1778)*
Material axamined: Golestan: Hashem Abad, 6.6.2006, Mazandaran: Salman Shahr, Amol, 5.5.2006.
Distribution: Russia, Iran and Europe.
Steatoda paykulliana (Fabricius, 1775) *
Material examined: Golestan: Gonbad, Bailer, 16.9.2005, Hashem Abad, 6.6.2006.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.
Genus Theridion Walckenaer, 1805Theridion simile, C.L.Koch, 1836*
Material examined: Golestan: Kordkooy, 15.9.2005, Guilan: 11.4.2005.
Distribution: Belgium, England, Asia and Iran.
Genus Theridion Walckenaer, 1805
Theridion impressum C. L.Koch, 1881*
Material examined: Golestan: Gonbad, Bailer, 24.4.2005, Ghareghaj, 6.6.2006.
Distribution: Asia, Iran and Europe.

Family Thomisidae:
5 species were collected of this family.
Species identification key of family Thomisidae:
1-Legs 1 and 2 considerably stouter and longer than 3 and 4, lacking claw tufts and scapulae, no chelicerae teeth, spiders very crab-like in appearance....................................2
-Legs less different in thickness and length, spider less crab-like in appearance......................................................4
2-Abdomen distinctly triangular........................................3
-Abdomen globular, oval or elongated............................11
3-Lateral eyes on pronounced conical protuberances, carapace tilted slightly upwards, considerable variation occurs in the color, which may be whitish or yellow or pale brownish.....................Thomisus onustus, Walckenaer
-Not as above........................................................................4
4-Anterior median eyes closer to the anterior laterals than to each other and considerably smaller than anterior laterals, many strong spines present on carapace, carapace and abdomen with many dark markings.......................................Xysticus cristatus (Clerck)
-Legs 1 and 2 much darker, the femura being uniformly dark brown and other segments annulated...........................................................................................................................................Xysticus kochi, Thorell
5-Anterior eyes roughly equidistant and equal size, fewer and weaker spines present on carapace, two pairs of crimson spots shown on abdomen of specimen illustrated or jointed to gether to form a pair of lateral comparison lines.....Misumena vatia (Clerck)
-Carapace strongly convex, carapace and legs dark brown to black; abdomen yellow or with dark pattern brownish to red, claws on tarsus 1 with 6 to 12
teeth.........................
.............................................Synaema globosum (Fabricius)
Genus Misumena Latreille, 1804
Misumena vatia (Clerck, 1757)
Material examined: Guilan: Roodbar, 5.4.2006, Golestan: 6.6.2006, Soomeaehbar, Raamian, Fazel Abad, Bandar Gaz, 23.4.2005, Gonbad, 6.6.2006, Mazandaran: 15.9.2005, 7.5.2006.
Distribution: Belgium, England, Asia and Iran.
Genus Synaema Simon, 1864
Synaema globosum (Fabricius, 1775)
Material examined: Golestan: Zarringol, Moodestan, Beraftan, Tooskaostan,21.6.2005, Toushan, 20.4.2005, Kordkooy, 9.6.2006, Guilan: Roodbar, 11.4.2005.
Distribution: Belgium, Russia, Mediterranean and Iran.
Genus Thomisus Walckenaer, 1805
Thomisus onustus, Walckenaer, 1806
Material examined: Golestan: Soomeaehbar, Toushan, 15.9.2005, Kordkooy, 5.6.2006, Guilan: Roodbar, 10.4.2005.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium, England and Iran
Genus Xysticus C.L.Koch, 1835
Xysticus cristatus (Clerck, 1757)
Material axamined: Golestan: Raamian, Nodijeh, Kordkooy, 23.6.2005, Toshan, 15.9.2005, Karkandeh, 7.6.2006, Guilan: Roodbar, 11.4.2005, 8.4.2006.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium, England and Iran
Xysticus kochi, Thorell, 1872
Material examined: Guilan: Roodbar, 11.4.2005, Golestan: Hashem Abad, Tooskaostan, 9.6.2006.
Distribution: Russia, Iran and Europe.
*Asterisks have shown new species, genera and families.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I wish to thank to Mr. Bahramishad, for thier field assistance.

REFERENCES
1:  Anonymous, 2002. A key of spiders of black forests, USA., http:/research.Amnh.org/ entomology/blackrock2/keyhtm.

2:  Barrion, A.T. and J.A. Litsingerm, 1995. Riceland Spiders of South and Southeast Asia. Cambridge University Press, UK., pp: 700.

3:  Bishop, A.L., 1980. The composition and abundance of the spider fauna in Southeast Queens land cotton. Aust. J. Zool., 28: 5-6.

4:  Borrer, D.J., C.A. Triplehorn and N.F. Johnson, 1989. An Introduction to Study of Insects. Sunders College Publishing, England, pp: 809.

5:  Byron, E. and Jr. Green, 2000. Green County History. http//www.usgennet.org/usa/ms/county/green/byron htm.

6:  Ghavami, S., M.A. Damghan, S.G. Amooz, S. Soodi and S. Javadi, 2004. An investigation spider fauna of olive orchards in Northern part of Iran. Proceedings of the 16th Congress on Iranian Plant Protection, 2004, Tabriz, pp: 463-464.

7:  Ghavami, S., 2004. The role of spiders in biological control in Iran. Sonbol. J. Agric. Sci., 135: 24-25.

8:  Ghavami, S., M. Taghizadeh, G. Amin, Z. Karimian, M. Hossieni and S. Khormali, 2005. Investigation spider fauna of cotton field in Iran. Final Report of Project. Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute.

9:  Ghavami, S., 2006. The role of spiders of citrus orchards in Northen part of Iran. Sonboleh J., 150: 33-34.

10:  Ghavami, S., 2006. Abundance of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in olive orchards in Northern part of Iran. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 9: 795-799.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Graf, B. and W. Nentwig, 2001. Ontogenetic change in coloration and web building behavior in the tropical spider Eriophora foliginea. Arachnol. J., 29: 104-110.

12:  Hauge, E. and R. Wiger, 1980. A contribution to the knowledge of the spider fauna (Araneae) of Norway. Fauna Norvegica, B. 27: 68-71.

13:  Hauge, E., 1980. A contribution to the knowledge of the spider fauna (Araneae) of Norway. Fauna Norwegica, B. 27: 60-67.

14:  Kaston, B.J., 1970. How to Know Spiders. M.W.C. Brown Company publishers, USA., pp: 212.

15:  Lozano, C., T. Morris, M. Campos, J.A. Pereira and A. Bento, 2002. Detection by elisa of predators of Prays oleae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in a portuguese olive orchard. Acta Hort. (ISHS), 586: 831-834.
Direct Link  |  

16:  Morris, T., W.O.C. Symondson, N.A.C. Kidd and M. Campos, 1999. Spiders and their incidence on Prays oleae in olive plantations. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 25: 475-489.

17:  Mozaffarian, F., S. Tirgari and H.B. Asady, 2000. Investigations on the fauna of spiders in paddy fields in Mazandaran and Guilan provinces. Applied Entom. Phytopathol., 67: 51-70.

18:  Muralidharan, C.M. and M.S. Chari, 1992. Spider fauna active in cotton fields at Anand, Gujarat. Plant Prot. Bull. F., 44: 26-27.

19:  Nieuwenhuys, 1999. Sheet Web Spiders (Family: Linyphidae). http://www.xs4all.nl/edniew/spiders/ spidhome.htm.

20:  Peter, C. and B.K. Biswas, 1990. A note on the spider fauna associated with various crops and their potential prey. Curr. Res. Univ. Agric. Sci. Bangalore, 19: 61-62.

21:  Roberts, M.J., 1985. Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. Hartley Books Essex, England, pp: 663.

22:  Sacchetti, P., 1990. Observations on the activity and biotechnology of the natural enemies of Prays oleae (Bern.) In Tuscany, Predators. Redia, pp: 243-259.

23:  Thaler, K. and M. Zapparoli, 1993. Epigenic spiders in an olive-groove in central Italy. (Araneae), Redia, pp: 307-316.

24:  Tikader, B.K., 1982. The Fauna of India Spiders: Araneae. Zoological Survey India, Calcutta, India, pp: 400.

25:  Triggiani, O. and I. Naples, 1971. Margaronia unionalis Hb. (olive Pyralid). Entomol., pp: 29-47.

26:  Viggiani, G., 1977. Biological and Integrated Control. Liguori Editore, Naples, Italy.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved