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Performance of Gladiolus as Influenced by Boron and Zinc



N. K. Halder, Md. Rafiuddin, M. A. Siddiky, R. Gomes and Kabita Anju-Man-Ara Begam
 
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ABSTRACT

The field study of B and Zn on Gladiolus was conducted at Floriculture Farm of HRC, Gazipur and RARS, Jessore during 2005-2006. The objective was to evaluate the response of B and Zn and to find out the optimum dose of the same for production of gladiolus. It appeared in studied data reveals that B and Zn made promising response to the growth and floral characters of gladiolus. It was also noticed in the tables that B and Zn both either in single or in combination exerted tremendous effect on the yield and quality of gladiolus. However, with subsequent addition of higher rates of B and Zn progressively increased the selective growth and flower characters to some extent and beyond the further increment of the dosage declined the results noticeably. It is also reported that gladiolus is highly responsive to chemical fertilizers. The sixteen treatment combinations included in the study noted that B and Zn at the rate of B2.0 Zn4.5 kg ha-1. along with blanket dose of N375 P150 K250 S20 kg and CD 5 t ha-1 exhibited the best performance in flower production and stretched the vase life of flower. The studied parameters like plant height (79.83 and 87.61 cm), length of spike (71.2 and 67.33 cm) length of rachis (48.86 and 45.08 cm) and leaves number (10.77 and 9.87/plant) significantly responded to the combined application of boron and zinc at the rate of B2.0 Zn4.54 as compared to other treatment combinations. Floral characters like floret number (12.85 and 12.45/spike), floret size (9.76x8.93 and 10.28x9.77 cm) and weight of stick (36.73 and 45.12 g) also significantly influenced by said treatment (B2.0 Zn4.5 kg ha-1) which was markedly differed over rest of treatments combination. Similar trend was noticed as well in single application of B and Zn with increase rates.

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  How to cite this article:

N. K. Halder, Md. Rafiuddin, M. A. Siddiky, R. Gomes and Kabita Anju-Man-Ara Begam, 2007. Performance of Gladiolus as Influenced by Boron and Zinc. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 581-585.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2007.581.585

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2007.581.585

INTRODUCTION

Gladiolus (Gladiolus sp.) is an important flower found everywhere in the world. It is a popular cut flower owing to its versatile colours and varieties having larger keeping quality of flower. It has great economic value for cut flower trade and much valued by the aesthetic world for beauty and loving people because its prettiness and unparallel elegance (Sadhu and Bose, 1973). They are widely used as artistic garlands, floral ornaments, bouquets etc. The long flower spikes are excellent as cut flower for table decoration when arranged in vases. Flower crops are very much responsive to fertilizers. It is highly capable of exhausting huge nutrients from native soil. So, it requires higher amount of chemical fertilizers in balance proportion for ensuring maximizing flower production.

Fertilizer requirements of gladiolus like other crops, has vital role in growth, quality, corm and cormel production. There are some reports on the requirement of nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) and other fertilization in some countries (Afify, 1989). Major nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium along with micronutrients noticeably increase the number of flowers, florets/spike, the longest spike and flowering stem of gladiolus (Afify, 1983). Increasing N fertilization substantially augmented plant growth, number of leaves/plant, spike length and number of florets/spike (Shah et al., 1984). It was also reported that hardness of the stick, flower colour and post-harvest life can be prolonged to some extent by applying micro-nutrients along with blanket dose of NPK and Mg. However, information regarding nutritional requirement and appropriate soil management practices are lacking for gladiolus cultivation in Bangladesh. Hence, such an investigation was undertaken to evaluate the response of gladiolus to B and Zn and their optimum dose for maximizing flower yield of gladiolus in Grey Terrace, Soils of Joydebpur and High Gangetic Alluvial Soils at Jessore region.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The field trial of B and Zn on gladiolus was conducted at Floriculture field of Horticultural Research Centre, BARI, Gazipur and Jessore during rabi season of 2005-2006. The objective was to investigate and evaluate the response of gladiolus to boron and zinc and their optimum requirement for growth, flowering, flower quality and corm production of gladiolus. Both the analysed soil samples and their nutrient status of Joydebpur and Jessore experimental sites are shown in Table 1. Nutrient status of experimental soils were found to be low, organic matter was also far below of the optimum level.

There were sixteen treatment combinations comprising four levels of B (0, 1, 2 and 3 kg ha-1) and four levels of Zn (0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kg ha-1) were taken in the study. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design having replicated thrice. The unit plot size and plant spacing were 1x0.9 m and 25x15 cm, respectively. BARI Gladiolus-1 was used as a test crop. The combined blanket dose of N375 P150 K250 S20 kg ha-1 + CD 5 t ha-1 were taken in the study. The planting material corms were sown on 5th December/05 at both the locations.

All P, K, S, B, Zn and CD except N were applied and mixed up with the soil during final land preparation. Nitrogen was applied in three equal splits, first 1/3rd of N at 30, second top-dress at 45 and remaining 1/3rd at 60 days of sowing. Intercultural operations viz. weeding, irrigation, racking etc were performed in time. Full bloomed flowers were cut time to time to record the field data. The collected data of required parameters from 10 randomly selected plants were analysed statistically and adjusted with DMRT and LSD tests at 5% level of significance.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Effect of Boron: The data presented in Table 2 and 3 revealed that all studied parameters like growth and flower characters were significantly influenced by boron fertilization. It appears in the Table 2 and 3 that with the increase of B levels, growth and other floral characters progressively increased in upward direction (Fig 1a and b). Thereafter with further increment of B rate, growth and yield attributes of flower sharply declined. It is also felt that response of gladiolus was more pronounced to Zn fertilization than that of Boron. Though it is reported fact that Zn and B both are equally responsible for yield and quality of gladiolus along with the major nutrients. However, it is observed in either locations of Joydebpur and Jessore that applied 4 levels of B (0, 1, 2 and 3 kg ha-1) all the studied flower characters like plant height, effective leaves, length of spike and rachis, number of florets, size of floret (length and diameter) and weight of stick significantly responded to the B up to 2.0 kg ha-1 and beyond that level, negative response was noticed.

Table 1:

Chemical properties of the initial soil of the experimental field at Joydebpur and Jessore

Source: Soil Science Lab, BARI


Table 2:

Main effect of Boron on the yield and yield components of Gladiolus at Joydebpur

Figures having common letter in a column are not significantly different by DMRT at 5% level, CV = Coefficient of Variation


Table 3:

Main effect of Zinc on the yield and yield components of Gladiolus at Joydebpur

Figures having common letter in a column are not significantly different by DMRT at 5% level, CV = Coefficient of Variation


Fig.1a:

Response of boron on the yield of Gladiolus at Joydebpur


Fig.1b:

Response of boron on the yield of Gladiolus at Jessore

The analysed soils of both the locations indicate that soil nutrient status was found to be highly deficient made a profound response to the flower characters of gladiolus. However, significantly the highest plant height (71.89 and 86.05 cm), length of spike (61.43 and 72.55 cm), length of rachis (44.52 and 38.65 cm) and effective leaves (9.66 and 9.65/plant) were recorded in B 2.0 kg ha-1 and significantly differed over other B levels and B control (B0) at both the locations. Similarly, flower characters like number of florets (11.77 and 10.88/spike), floret size (9.33x9.46 cm and 10.46x7.80 cm) and weight of stick (28.76 and 39.77 g) was found to be significantly responded to B and recorded with same B level (2.0 kg ha-1) which was statistically different over other B levels.

Fig. 2a:

Response of zinc on the yield of Gladiolus at Joydebpur


`
Fig. 2b:

Response of zinc on the yield of Gladiolus at Jessore

Similar findings were reported by Bhattacharjee et al. (1998), Graonassy et al. (1994) and Jhon et al. (1997a, b). They further stated that with the increment of B up to the certain level made a significant contribution to the flower character of gladiolus.

Effect of Zn: The effect of Zn on growth and flower characters of gladiolus are shown in Table 2 and 3 reveals that zinc made a promising response to the studied parameters.

Table 4:

Interaction effect of Boron and Zinc on the yield and yield components of Gladiolus at Joydebpur

Figures having common letter in a column are not significantly different by DMRT at 5% level, CV = Coefficient of Variationand

It appears in the tables that floral characters showed better response to the added zinc fertilizer with increase dosage up to the level of B at the rate of 3.0 kg ha-1 and beyond that rate declined it sharply Fig. 2a and 2b. It is also noticed in the tables that zinc either in single or combination exerted significant effect on growth and other floral characteristics. However, applied 4 levels of Zn at the rate of 0,1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kg ha-1, significantly the highest plant height (74.13 and 87.70 cm), the longest length of spike (63.84 and 76.89 cm) and rachis (47.14 and 39.58 cm), maximum effective leaves (10.05 and 9.66/plant) obtained in 3.0 kg Zn ha-1 followed by rest of Zinc levels and Zn control (Zn0). The floral characters like floret number, length and diameter of floret and weight of floral stick profusely accelerated by augmenting Zn levels up to 3.0 kg/ha. The highest number of florets (12.18 and 11.01/spike), the larger sized floret (9.71x8.67 and 9.66x7.92 cm) and maximum weight of floral stick (36.71 and 40.83 g) was recorded in said Zn level (3.0 kg Zn ha-1) which was noticeably differed over rest of Zn levels and native nutrient treatment (Zn0) at both the locations of Joydebpur and Jessore. The effect of Zn at earlier mentioned locations are appeared to be almost similar might be the fact that well management practice, appropriate agro-climatic situation and above all Zn deficiency in studied soil. This result partially corroborated by Roy Chowdhury and Sarker (1995) and reflected it in their reports.

Interaction effect of B and Zn: The effect of boron and zinc on gladiolus are presented in Table 4 significantly differed due to zinc-boron interaction. The integrated effect of Zn and B was found to be more distinctive as compared to the main effect of the same. It is also noticed in Table 4 that Zn and B with increase rate in combination made a promising response to the different growth and floral characters of gladiolus. With the advancement of higher doses of Zn and B, all the selected parameters like growth and flower components significantly increased up to the certain level and beyond the further increment, it sharply declined. The analyzed soil data reveal that B and Zn in native soil at both the locations were found to be critical level meant highly responsive to the cut flower. The literature of cut flowers cited that Zn and B either have combined and single effect on flower production. However, the growth parameters like plant height, length of spike and rachis, effective leaves and floral character like florets number/spike, size of floret and weight of stick were tremendously influenced with the increase of Zn and B in combination. The highest plant height (79.83 and 94.13 cm), length of spike (67.33 and 87.97 cm) and rachis (48.86 and 46.08 cm) and maximum number of effective leaves (10.77 and 9.87/plant) was recorded with higher boron-zinc combination at the rate of B2.0 Zn4.5 kg ha-1 which was statistically significant over rest of the treatment combinations. Similar trend was also found in floret number (12.85 and 12.87/spike), floral length and diameter (9.76x8.93 and 10.28x8.56 cm) and the weight of stick (46.73 and 50.36 g) by same combination (B2.0 Zn4.5 kg ha-1) which was similar to the treatments of B3.0 Zn1.5 kg/ha and B2.0 Zn3.0 kg/ha and significantly differed over all other treatments and Boron-Zinc control (B0Zn0). This result confirmed and supported by Jhon et al. (1997a,b), Mukherjee et al. (1998) and Devecchi and Barni (1997).

CONCLUSIONS

It was felt in the study at both the locations of Joydebpur and Jessore reveale that Boron at the rate of B1.90 and Zinc at the rate of Zn2.92 kg ha-1 along with the blanket dose of N375 P150 K250 S20 kg and CD 5 t ha-1 was found to be optimum for gladiolus production. So it may be summarized that Boron and Zinc at the rate of B2.0 kg and Zn3.0 kg ha-1 along with the said blanket dose could be suitable for maximizing yield and flower quality of Gladiolus at Grey Terrace Soils of Joydebpur and high Gangatic Floodplain Alluvial Soils of Jessore regions in Bangladesh.

REFERENCES
1:  Afify, M.M., 1989. Effect of high fertilizer rates on the growth flowering of three gladiolus cutlivars. Kerleszefi Egyatem Kozlemenyel, 47: 75-82.

2:  Bhattacharjee, S.K. and R.L. Misra, 1998. Post harvest life of pulsed gladiolus spikes as affected by different chemicals. J. Ornamental Hortic., 4: 18-22.

3:  Devecchi, M. and E. Barni, 1997. Effect of fertilizers on the colour of gladiolus spikes. Colture Protette, 26: 79-82.

4:  Graonassy, A.M., S.A. El-Gandhi, M.E. Hashim and A.B.D. El-Gied, 1994. Effect of planting density, fertilization and the method of applying fertilizers in respect gladiolus plants from the point of view of vegetative growth and flowering characteristics. Ann. Agric. Sci. (Caiso), 37: 559-567.
Direct Link  |  

5:  Jhon, A.Q., T.M. Paul and M.M.A. Siddique, 1997. Nutritional studies in gladiolus I: Growth and floral chracters. Adv. Plant Sci., 10: 45-50.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Jhon, A.Q., M.M.A. Siddique and T.M. Paul, 1997. Nutritional studies in gladiolus II: Corm and cormel production. Adv. Plant Sci., 10: 187-192.
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7:  Mukherjee, S., S.C. Jona and T.K. Chatterjee, 1998. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus doses on production of flowers and corms of gladiolus. Indian Agric., 36: 211-213.

8:  Roy-Chowdhury, N. and S. Sarker, 1995. Influence of chemicals on vase life of gladiolus. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Post Harvest Physiology of Ornamental Plants, Jun.17-22, Norway.

9:  Sadhu, M.K. and T.K. Bose, 1973. Tuberose for most artistic garlands. Indian Hort., 18: 17-21.

10:  Shah, A., S.D. Lal and J.N. Seth, 1984. Effect of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth, flowering and corm yield of gladiolus ex. Vinks Glory. Prog. Hort., 16: 305-307.

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