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Effect of Between and on Row Distance of First Development, Tillering, Yield and Yield Components in Wheat Cultivars (Triticum sp.)



Hakan Ulukan and Ekrem Kun
 
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ABSTRACT

This study was carried out at the University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture, Haymana Research and Application Farm, Haymana County, Ankara, Turkey during 1987/1990 with the aim of to determine the effect of between and on row distances (Brd and Ord, respectively) on the first development, tillering, yield and yield components in wheat cultivars (Triticum sp.). Five wheat cultivars (Bezostaja-I, Gerek 79, Haymana 79; Triticum aestivum L., Cakmak 79 and Kunduru 1149; Triticum durum Desf.) were used and experimental design was arranged in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) in split plots with four replications. The cultivars were allocated to the main plots at three different Brd (5, 10 and 17.5 cm) and six various Ord (4.7, 2.2, 1.2 cm in commons and 3.8, 1.8, 1.0 cm in durums) values. Brd and Ord distances were not affected from emergency date; the number of plant m-2 was varied between 173-326; the number of tillering was m-2 was determined between 12-86; the number of the first root was changed 3-4; the length of the adventitious root was happened between 89-116 mm; the number of the adventitious root was varied between 2-3 mm; the length of the adventitious root was realized between 42-74 mm; the number of the downy brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) was changed between 7-16; plant height was measured between 45-73 cm; spike length was recorded between 62-81 mm; the number of spikelet was determined between 16-23; the number of grain was found between 19-30; grain weight per plant was calculated between 1-2 g plant-1; 1000-kernel weight was varied between 18-44 g and grain yield per m2 was fixed between 119-208 g m-2. Increasing in the Brd and Ord were negatively effected the adventitious root development so to ensure a long and fertile spike, narrow Brd and Ord distances should be used. Spikelet and grain number, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield per m2 were increased by narrowing either between nor on row distances. In addition, all the Brd parameters were not significantly effected to seedling traits in commons but not in durums. Brd = 17.5 cm was found the most beneficial distance in durums. On the other hand, to avoid reducing of the yield components, between row distance should not be increase and in all circimcustances, that value always must be adjusted wide otherwise control of the weeds, diseases and pest could be a great problem during the cultivation.

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  How to cite this article:

Hakan Ulukan and Ekrem Kun, 2007. Effect of Between and on Row Distance of First Development, Tillering, Yield and Yield Components in Wheat Cultivars (Triticum sp.). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 4354-4364.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2007.4354.4364

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2007.4354.4364

INTRODUCTION

A successful crop production requires such cultivars that they must be high yielded and resist to biotic and abiotic stress factors. Profitable small grain production requires a thorough knowledge of crop development and growth, and how cultural and environmental factors can influence crop development. The crop and weed responses to inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, plant growth regulators and supplemental irrigation depend on the stage of development rather than on calendar date. The oldest archaeological evidence for the wheat cultivation comes from Syria, Jordan, Turkey and Iraq showed that wheat is one of the first grains domesticated by human and it is known to have been grown in the Nile Valley by 5000 BC and it is believed that the Fertile Crescent (esp. Asia minor) was the centre of domestication. It belongs to genus of Triticum and family of Poaceae. This genus has more than 150 species and subspecies. It is the world's most widely grown and important cereal crop in terms of both area cultivated (217 m ha) and amount of grain produced (632.5 m t) and is a food stable for most of the world. It is widely grown throughout the temperate zones (in Northern Europe up to 60°N) and in some tropical/sub-tropical areas at higher elevations. It is estimated that by 2020 year, the demand for wheat will be about 40% greater than its current level of more than 600 million tons (Rosegrant et al., 1997). The major centres are: Europe (219 m t, 57.1 m ha), Turkey (21 m t, 9.3 m ha), North America (84,5 m t, 30.0 m ha), China (91,9 m t, 21.6 m ha) and India (72,1 m t, 26.6 m ha) (Anonymous, 2004). The yield level of the wheat can be expressed as the product of two basic or main components as grain yield = Grain number (n) x Grain weight (g) (Genç, 1977; Fischer, 1985; Paulsen, 1987). Wheat yield potential could be achieved through changes in grain number and/or grain weight it was discovered that there were strong associations with yield in the wheat genotypes. This period coincides with tiller and florets mortality along with the active growth of the stem and spike. Gains in this process, however, do not translate directly in yield potential gain due to partial compensation by decreased grain weight. Yields are high when favorable filling conditions, mild temperatures and active leaves promote growth of large, plump grains.

The aim of this study is to test and assess some of the common and durum wheat cultivars to agronomic potential (first development and mature states) and values under the Central Anatolian field conditions. Traits investigated included for the first development traits; Emergency Date (ED), Plant Number (PN), Tillering Plant (TP), first root (= the roots originating from the seed) number and length (FN and FL), the number and the length of the adventitious root (= the roots produced by crown nodes on the main shoot and tillers) (AN and AL), downy brome number (DB); for the mature stage traits, Plant Height (PH), Spike Length (SL), Grain Weight (GW), Thousand Kernel Weight (TKW) and grain yield per plant (GY).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This study was carried out at the University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture, Haymana Research and Application Farm (39°-36° N, 32°-40° E, asl 925 m), Haymana County, Ankara, Turkey during 1987/1990 with the aim of to determine the effect of between and on row distances (Brd and Ord, respectively) on the first development, tillering, yield and yield components in the wheat cultivars (Triticum sp.) culture on a silty clay loam soil. According to soil analysis results of the experimental site are clay structure, dark brown, pH = 5.7, lime 23.7%, organic matter 1.33% and changeable potassium level is 0.028% (Anonymous, 1987). Each year plots were sown with five outyielded wheat cultivars (Bezostaja I, Gerek 79 and Haymana 79, Triticum aestivum L.; Kunduru 1149 and Çakmak 79, Triticum durum Desf.) by hand. This procedure was done on 14 October during the 1987-1988 and 1989-1990 years. Used cultivars were provided from the Field Crops Research Institute (FCR), Ankara, Turkey. Experiment were arranged in a randomized completely block design (RCBD) in a split plots with four replications. Plot size was 1.8 m2 (for Brd = 5 cm), 2.36 m2 (Brd = 10 cm) and 3.15 m2 (Brd = 17.5 cm) with 8 rows and 2 m row length). Crops were fertilized with 60 kg ha-1 DAP prior to sowing and 20 kg ha-1 urea at spring. Extreme, average and 5 cm upper from the soil surface temperature values, relative humidity and rainfall parameters of the experimental site’s during the growing seasons are shown in Fig. 1. Seeding rate was adjusted to 500 viable seeds per m2. All relevant agronomic applications were followed as recommended. Weeds were periodically removed by hand. And all calculations were done according to Tosun and Yurtman (1973) on the (n = 10) sample plants from each plots.


Fig. 1: Meteorological parameters of the experimental site

Observation, counting and measurements
The first development observations
The emergency date:
It was recorded min one hundred and thirty five seedlings (or 30%) m-2 area at the sowing time on 17 October 1989 at the plots and it was two times by ten days interval. (Data was not shown).

The number of plant m-2 (n): PN was done with three times after the sowing process with one week interval.

The number of tillering plant m-2 (n): TP was found by carefully counting examined in the each tillered plant in the plots.

The number of the first and adventitious roots (n) and length (mm): FN and FL were calculated after the carefully and gently washing with the tap water of the ten randomly selected seedlings.

The number of the downy brome (Bromus tectorum Leyss.) (n): DB was determined by the counting among the outer rows in the each plots.

Mature stage observations
Plant height (cm):
PH was determined at the maturity by measuring of the length between soil surface and top of the ear (awns excluded) of the tallest spikes at the 10 sample wheat plants from the each plot as a mean.

Spike length (mm): SL was found out by counting between the lowest internodi and the terminal spikelet as a mean of ten values in sample wheat plants.

The number of the spikelet (n): SN was fixed by counting of the spikelets of the three longest spikes in ten sample wheat plants.

The number of grain (n): GN was found by weighting of the ten rooted sample wheat plants after harvest and treshing.

Grain weight per plant (g plant-1): GW was determined by weighting each of the ten rooted sample wheat plants after the harvest and treshing.

1000-kernel weight (g): TKW was found by the equation from the grain weight x grain number parameters in the ten sample wheat plants.

Grain yield per m2 (g m-2): GY was calculated by multiplying with the number of the plant per m-2 and the grain weight per plant (g).

Statistical analysis: All obtained data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the MSTAT-C (1998) Statistical Software and recorded mean values were groupped as described by (Duncan, 1955).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The analyses of variance identified significant differences among genotypes for all the traits indicate there was a considerable variation within the genotypes (Table 1), Brd and GxBrd (Fig. 2-6, Table 2 and 3). At the first development stage, except of FR and DB (Table 1) and at the mature stage except of SN, GW and GY (Table 3).

First development stage observations
The number of plant m-2 (n):
PN was found between 173±9.92 (Brd = 5 cm) in Bezostaja I and 326±26.85 (Brd = 17.5 cm) in Kunduru 1149 (Table 1 and Fig. 2-6). According to three times plant counting results after the ten days from the sowing with one week interval during the study, it was found statistically significance among the (G) (genotype) (p<0.05, 4.459) and Brd (p<0.01, 29,4395) (Table 3). There is an increasing in the plant of number m-2 when SR increased. This result is possible. So, each plant formed from the germinated plant.


Table 1: The means of the seedling traits of five different wheat cultivars under the field conditions
*: Means with the same letter are not significantly different at p<0.05. **: Means with the same letter(s) are not significantly different at p<0.01. a: RD: Row Distance (cm), S1, 5 cm, S2, 10 cm, S3, 17.5 cm, PN: Plant No. (n), TP: Tillered Plant (n), FN: First Root No. (n), FL: First Root Length (mm), AN: Adventitious Root No. (n), BN: Downy Brome No. (n), PH: Plant Height (cm), SL: Spike Length (mm), SN: Spikelet No. (n), GN: Grain No. (n), GW: Grain Weight (g plant-1), TKW: 1000-grain weight (g), GY: Grain Yield (g m-2)

Table 2: Analysis of variance of investigated agronomic traits at the first developmental stage
*: F-values with the same letter are not significantly different at p<0.05. **: F-values with the same letter(s) are not significantly different at p<0.01. a: VS: Variation Source; df: Degree of freedom; PN: Plant No. (n m-2); TP: Tillered Plant (n); FN: First Root No. (n plant-1); FL: First Root Length (mm); AN: Adventitious Root No. (n plant-1); BN: Downy Brome No. (n)

Table 3: Analysis of variance of investigated agronomic traits at the mature stage
*: F-values with the same letter are not significantly different at p<0.05. **: F-values with the same letter(s) are not significantly different at p<0.01. a: VS: Variation Source; df: Degree of freedom; PH: Plant Height (cm); SL: Spike Length (mm); SN: Spikelet No. (n); GN: Grain No. (n); GW: Grain Weight (g plant-1); TKW: 1000-grain weight (g); GY: Grain Yield (g m-2)

Fig. 2: Investigated agronomic traits in Bezostaja I

The number of tillering plant (n): In view of TP, this was varied between 12±4.90 (Brd = 17,5 cm) in Haymana 79 and 86±7.71 (Brd = 5 cm) in Çakmak 79 (Table 1). After one month from the sowing, in the possibility of the snow cover approaching, tillering was carefully examined during the plant counting. As shown in the Table 3, among the Brd (p<0.01, 20,1056) and BrdxG (p<0.05, 20,1056) were found statistically significant. Statistically importance of the three Brd (esp. at the 10 cm) values for this trait, it can be explain that row distances are effective on the tillering plant number m-2 and this effect is the most clear at the narrowest and largest row distances than the 5 cm. In present research, reason of the investigation of the tillering phenomena at the first development stage is very tide relation between or largeness the tillering and adventitious root formation.


Fig. 3: Investigated agronomic traits in Haymana 79

Fig. 4: Investigated agronomic traits in Gerek 79

Fig. 5: Investigated agronomic traits in Çakmak 79

Fig. 6: Investigated agronomic traits in Kunduru 1149

As known, each tiller has one or two adventitious roots at the tiller base (Kün, 1983) and starting of the tillering process is identic with the root development in the cereals. On the other hand, durum wheats have been started more earlier than the commons according to our experiment. This formation’s possible explanation is their seeds (durum) are bigger and reachness of the stored plant nutrients in it. Similarly, Pinthus (1969) was reported that common wheat much more tillered than the durums in spite of tiller number differences. But, Cheema et al. (1984), were informed that there was a critic reducing in the number of tillers at the Brd = 10 cm and Brd = 20 cm in their research. These findings are being supported and verified the our results. In addition, it was observed that suit meteorological conditions were caused earlier start of tillering in the durums than the commons and increasing the grain number and reducing the undeveloped tiller numbers are only possible with the increased seeding rate.

The number of the first and adventitious root and their
length
The number of the first root (n) and length (mm):
FN value was changed between (3±0.1, Brd = 5 cm) in Bezostaja I and 4±4.26 (Brd = 5 cm) in Çakmak 79 (Table 1 and Fig. 2-6). For the first root number, it was found statistical significance among the G (p<0.01, 44.238) (Table 3). Salim et al. (1965), Kirjan (1971) and Vel’sovskaja (1971) were reported that first root number was changed between 3 to 6. Similarly, the first root length (cm) was varied between 82±7.00 (Brd = 17,5 cm) in Çaknak 79 and 116±10.95 (Brd = 10 cm) in Kunduru 1149. It was not found significant. Kmoch (1960, 1961) were found that 160 cm of the root system depth of the wheat plant; Pinthus and Eshel (1962) were fixed the significant differences for the first root length; Salim et al. (1965) were informed that the longest first root is close to each others within the cultivars; Schleuber and Tucker (1967) were measured the length of it at least 185 cm; Kirjan (1971) was reported first root length (cm) between 23 and 114; Pinthus and Eshel (1962) and Kün and <Şehirali (1977) were indicated that there was a difference the among the wheat cultivars for the rooting and development, first root length (cm) between 16 and 19; Cygankov (1971) was informed that most drought resistant cultivar had the highest first root number; Kandaurov and Movchan (1973) were notified that there was a positive but weak relationship between the first root number and yield level; Vedrov (1973) was indicated that there was a relationship with the drought resistance and the first root number. Present research findings are in the same direction of these research findings.

The number of the adventitious root (n) and length (mm): AN value was varied between 2±0.67 (Brd = 10 cm) in Gerek 79 and 3±2.02 (Brd = 17.5 cm) in Kunduru 1149 (Table 1 and Fig. 2-6). For this trait, it was only found at the statistical significance of BrdxG (p<0.01, 3,1864) (Table 3). Pinthus and Eshel (1962), Salim et al. (1965), Vel'sovskaja (1971), Danıl'chuk (1973) and Kandaurov and Movchan (1973) were indicated that there were some significant differences among the cultivars, the number of the adventitious root was 3 and it was affected from the moisture and other environmental conditions but there were a weak and positive relationship between the number of the adventious and first root. Our findings were verified the previous research findings. The adventitious root length value was varied between 42±3.26 (Brd = 10 cm) in Bezostaja I and 74±6.84 (Brd = 5 cm) in Çakmak 79 (Table 1). This trait were found neither for the cultivars nor the Brd and Brd x G statistically significant (Table 3). Heen (1983) reported linking with the SR increasing, adventitious root development (Wilhelm et al. 1982) and water consumption were increased; Uprety et al. (1988), were fixed development at the adventitious roots mainly depended on the photosynthetic products which was carried; Gorny and Larsson (1989) discovered that there was a tight relationship between the adventitious root formation and tillering. In our experiment, it was found out that the adventitious root length highest at the Brd = 5 cm. In that case and at the same SR class the tiller number should be restrained similar. However, this idea was supported by the Table 1 and mentioned research findings.

The number of downy brome (Bromus tectorum Leyss.) in plots: As known, Bromus tectorum Leyss. is an important weed for the wheat production areas in Central Anatolian. In our research, it was investigated that whether relationship with the wheat production. With this idea, during the experimental stage, one plot had been allocated without sowing as a control in each replication. DB was varied between 7±4.50 (Brd = 10 cm) in Bezostaja I and 16±5.85 (Brd = 17,5 cm) in Gerek 79 (Table 1 and Fig. 2-6). For the number of downy brome in plots, Brd was found statistically significant (p<0.05, 3.882) (Table 3). In the sown plots, the number of downy brome plants recorded evidently high but it was decreased both in sown and unsown plots at the after end of the march. According to present research data showed that along with different in the cultivars for the number of downy brome in plots, Brd increasing caused the number of this weed but this point was not considered that all obtained data were taken only from the two-years growing seasons. Present data was verified that, it would be more safety for the experiment that investigating of the downy brome number effect to the first development in wheat should be started in spring (April and May). However, this kind experiment should be settled on the brome-free fields and with foresighted amount of weed and sown to the certain depth. In addition, these points should be considered that weed development might be affected from the spring rains and should be more chancefull than the wheats for the competition of the limited water uptake in drought years.

Mature stage observations
Plant height (cm):
PH was varied between 45±2.05 cm (Brd = 17,5 cm) in Bezostaja I and 73±4.70 cm (Brd = 5 cm) in Kunduru 1149 (Table 1 and Fig. 2-6). According to variance analysis results, G (p<0.01, 9,8499) <0.05, 20,1056) was found statistically significant (Table 3). Puckridge and Donald (1967); Geçit (1982); Güney and Kün (1985) were discovered that the plant height was increased when the SR increased, but according to Tugay (1978) it was reduced when the SR increased. In terms of this trait, our research data were in contradiction with the formers but harmony with the later. On the other hand, all recorded data for this agronomic trait had been taken from the severity drought growing season so they were not able to showed their plant height potential. Especially, negative plant height reducing effects were realized especially in the Kunduru 1149, this cultivar had the long height. In addition, drought year’s plant reducing effect had been observed much more evidently during the experiment and it should be expected that yield and yield components were affected the negatively from the meteorological conditions.

Spike length (mm): Since photosynthetic surface and bringing the flower and floral counterpars, SL component is very important. SL was varied between 62±3.75 mm (Brd = 10 cm) in Haymana 79 and 81±5.29 mm (Brd = 5 cm) in Çakmak 79 (Table 1 and Fig. 2-6). In addition, G was calculated statistically significant (p<0.05, 5.498) (Table 3). There were no significant differences for the SL in all used Brd, but this variation had been more notebly recorded in durum wheats. Our findings (Table 1) were in the same direction and harmony with the results of the Albustan and Kün (1987) who were discovered the SR increased when SL reduced. In addition, it was found out to avoid from the SL reducing large Brd and densely sowing (may be at the limit of 400 seed per m2 and at multi-locations (Peltonen-Sainio et al., 2007) should not be used.

Spikelet number (n): Due to carry of yield component, the SN is a very important unit. This trait was varied between 16±1.37 (Brd = 10 cm) in Gerek 79 and 22.75±2.54 (Brd = 10 cm) in Çakmak 79 (Table 1 and Fig. 2-6). With the analysis of variance test none of the investigated variables, G, Brd and Brd x G, were found statistically significant (Table 3). Puckridge and Donald (1967), Tugay (1978), Geçit (1982) and Albustan and Kün (1987) were reported that the SR and PN were increased when the SN decreased. Our findings were supported these reports. Variation in the SN due to the SL. When decreasing in the SL, similarly SN decreased too. Verifying of this postulate, maximum yield level was taken from the largest (Brd = 17.5 cm) and lowest (Ord = 5 cm) row distances (Table 1). However, it was taken higher from the commons (Table 1). Possible reason of this case can be explained individually and interactionally of the genotype, environment and relevant factors. If appears unsuitable conditions (severity droughtness, genotypic segregation etc.) when spikelet formation, flower formation, fertilization and grain filling it can be easily affected negative and that time this new promotion directly reflects to the SN and reduces the GY. By another speech, if lower and upper part of the spikelets converts to sterile, SP increases and important yield decreasing can be occur since unsuitable meteorological conditions during the spikelet formation.

Grain number (n): GN was varied between 19±1.02 (Brd = 10 cm) in Bezostaja I and 30±3.00 mm (Brd = 10 cm) in Gerek 79 (Table 1 and Fig. 2-6). Only G was found statistically significant (p<0.01, 8.7831) (Table 3). Puckridge and Donald (1967), Day et al (1976), Tugay (1978), Geçit (1982), Mazurek (1984), Güney and Kün (1985) and Albustan and Kün (1997) were discovered that the SR increased when GN increased; Joseph et al. (1985) found that Brd and SR increasing caused the superficial increases in the grain number. Present results were in the harmony with the former researchers’ findings but not with the Joseph et al. (1985). Main reason of these differences might be stem from the applied growing conditions, followed agronomic practices, used genotypes, row distances, ecological and meteorological parameters.

Grain weight per plant (g plant-1): One of the main yield components in any experiment is the GW per plant was changed between 1±0.02 (g plant-1) in Gerek 79 and Haymana 79 and 2±0.60 (g plant-1) in Çakmak 79 (Table 1 and Fig. 2-6); G, Brd and BrdxG were not found statistically significant (Table 3). Schuster and Imhof (1970) were reported Brd was not important for the GW; Joseph et al. (1985) were recorded that lightly increasing; Johnson et al. (1988) were not found the statistical significance among the GxSR and GxBrd; but, Cıha (1983) was found the statistical significance between the SR and G and used row distances. Our obtained mean values for this trait are higher than the Albustan and Kün (1987)'s who used the same cultivars but generally in accordance with them and with the Puckridge and Donald (1967); Geçit (1982) and Mazurek (1984).

1000-kernel weight plant (g)(TKW): This important yield component was varied between 18±0.89 g (Brd = 5 cm) in Çakmak 79 and 44±1.34 g (Brd = 17.5 cm) in Kunduru 1149 (Table 1 and Fig. 2-6). According to variance analysis results, G was found statistically significant (p<0.05, 4.115) (Table 3). Puckridge and Donald (1967) were indicated the limit of (35-184) PN for the TKW and mentioned would be reducing outside of that limit; Larter et al. (1971) and Tugay (1978) were reported that when the SR increased, TKW decreased; Day et al. (1976), Albustan and Kün (1978) and Geçit (1982) were there was not significant difference within the used wheat cultivars in terms of the TKW when the SR increased. Present results basically are being supported to these findings.

Grain yield (g m-2): As known, GY is a very important yield component. Due to this importance, should be avoid from the all kind reducing implications. For this trait, it was changed between 119±6.21 (g m2) (Brd = 10 cm) in Gerek 79 and 208±10.54 (Brd = 5 cm) (g m2) in Kunduru 1149 (Table 1 and Fig. 2-6). Variance analysis results were showed that G, Brd and Brd x G were not found statistically significant (Table 3). Puckridge and Donald (1967) were showed (35-184) PN for the GY and would be decrease when the outside of this limit; Schuster and Imhof (1970) were reported that Brd = 15 cm had not effected to yield level; Geçit (1982) was indicated that the yield level decreased when PN increased; Mazurek (1984) was claimed that increasing of the PN caused to reduce in the GY; Güney and Kün (1985) were indicated that Brd = 17 cm increased the GY by SR. Albustan and Kün (1987) were discovered that depending on the Brd, the PN and GW can be increased; Marshall and Ohm (1987) were reported that maximum GY can be achieved at the narrowest Brd and maximum SRs. Present findings are completely supported with Puckridge and Donald (1967), Geçit (1982), Mazurek (1984) and Marshall and Ohm (1987) but in contradiction with Tugay (1978), Güney and Kün (1985) and Albustan and Kün (1987).

CONCLUSION

Evaluated findings in this research can be summarized as follow: i) common wheat cultivars were carried out their growth and developments mostly on the mature period (Fig. 2-4), ii) durum wheat cultivars were performed thin growth and developments not only the first development stage but also the mature period (Fig. 5 and 6), iii) due to highness of the PN and TP values and largeness of their seeds of the durum wheats, they were given the highest values majority of the investigated agronomic traits (Fig. 5 and 6), iv) compared to other traits, first development traits are much more powerful and indicative determinants for the GY under the normal meteorological and ecological conditions, v) (Brd) parameter was not clearly or evidently effected to the seedling traits in the common wheats, but Brd = 17.5 cm was found the most appropriate distance for the commons in the majority of the seedling traits and vi) to be able to get high GY level in the wheat production process, wide Brd can be recommended but, in this case, should be extremely attention against to the moisture loosing, weed, pest and diseases control during the cultivation.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Authors thank to Dr. Mustafa Çubukçu for his excellent technical assistance during the study, thank to AÜZF, Haymana Research and Application Farm and Field Crops Department’s Staffs for their valuable assistance.

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