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Research Article

Macrofungi of Tavas (Denizli) District in Turkey

Ali Celik Celik, Muhammet Usak , Kudret Gezer and Aziz Turkoglu
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Macrofungi samples have been collected during the field trips carried out in Tavas (Denizli) between in 1999-2001. As a result of field and Laboratory studies totally 45 taxa belong to 19 families were identified. Nine of these belong to Ascomycetes and 36 to Basidiomycetes. Seventeen species are edible and four taxa are poisonous.

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Ali Celik Celik, Muhammet Usak , Kudret Gezer and Aziz Turkoglu , 2007. Macrofungi of Tavas (Denizli) District in Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 4087-4091.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2007.4087.4091



Many taxonomic studies of the macrofungal flora of Turkey have been carried out and many others are in progress. The studies carried out on macrofungi species between 1932 and 2005 have been reviewed and as a result it was determined that there are approximately 1600 documented macrofungi species in Turkey (Sesli and Denchev, 2005). In these studies, the Mediterranean, Marmara, Black Sea and Western part of Turkey have been investigated. Although there are many taxonomic studies in the Aegean region, there are no results available for Tavas. Therefore the area was chosen as a research area.

The research area (Tavas) is located in the Inner Aegean region at a distance of 44 km. from the province of Denizli and at longitude 28° 15´-28° 45´ N and latitude 37° 45´-37° 15´ E. According to the grid square system used in the Flora of Turkey (Davis, 1965-1968), Tavas is situated in Square C2. The study area is between the mediterrenean region and the Irano-Turanian region belonging to the Old Mediterranean (Tethys) subkingdom of the Holoarctic flora region (Zohary, 1973). Because of climate, topography and differences of substrate, six soil groups were taken from the study area: brown forest soil, rendzina soil, noncalcerious brown forest soil, noncalcerious brown soil, red brown mediterranean soil, coluvial soil (TDG, 1999a). Brown forest soil and brown mediterranean soil which are the larger soil groups of the study area consist of clay stone including a reach amount of CaCO3, schist and gneisses. The above mentioned soil groups show a typical Mediterranean climate.

The climatic data of the study area were obtained from the meteorology station at Tavas (950 m). For the climatic station, the mean annual temperature is 13.1°C and precipitation is 595.3 mm. According to [email protected];s formula, the values of (M) and (m) of the hottest and coldest months were calculated to be 38.8 and -13.0°C, respectively (TGD, 1999b). The dry period in the region is between the end of April and end of October. The coldest month is January with mean temperature of 1.9°C. With respect to [email protected];s Mediterranean bioclimatic zones as modified for Turkey by Akman (1990), the area belongs to the Mediterranean zone, semi-arid winters.

There are a number of trees such as Pinus brutia, P. nigra subsp. pallasiana mixed Juniperus oxycedrus, J. communis, Cedrus libani, Quercus cerris var. cerris, Q. ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis, these trees is dominant forest plants while Populus nigra, P. tremula, Salix alba and Platanus orientalis trees are growing near streams and these suitable climate and the type of vegetation make it very favorable place for the growth of macrofungi.

The aim of this study was to identify edible and poisonous species and contribute more data on macrofungi flora of Turkey.


Macrofungi carpophores were collected on field trips carried out from Tavas district (1999-2001) (Fig. 1). The field studies were conducted mostly in autumn and spring, since during these periods the climatic conditions are most suitable for carpophore formation. Relevant morphological and ecological characteristics of the macrofungi were recorded and photographed in their natural habitats.

Fig. 1: Collection areas

The local consumption of macrofungi and their local names were recorded by interviewing local people. Then they were carried to the laboratory for further investigation. Spore prints were prepared and spores photographed. Some reagents ([email protected];s reagent, 5% KOH, H2SO4, cotton blue, etc.) were used for identification. The specimens were identified by examining their macroscopic and microscopic features, using references by Breitenbach and Kränzlin (1984-2000), Brensinsky and Besl (1990), Marchand (1971-1986), Moser (1983), Grunert and Grunert (1984) and Phillips (1981). Taxa are arranged according to Kirk et al. (2001). Dried specimens were numbered and placed in sealed bags. In addition they were put into a deep freeze for a week to protect against internal and external parasite attacks. All collected specimens are now deposited at Pamukkale University, Science and Art Faculty, Laboratory of Biology Department, in Denizli.


The macrofungi taxa consisting of 45 taxa belonging to 19 families are identified. These taxa, their localities, distributions, collection dates, fungarium numbers are given below. T, G and U are the abbreviation of the authors in the citations of herbarium specimens.

1. Morchella conica var. conica (Pers.) Bound.
P1narl1k village, in P. brutia forest, 29.05.2001, T, G 398.
2. Morchella elata Fr.
Seki village, near road, 29.05.2001, T, G 399.
3. Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.
B1çakç1 village, in pine forest, 29.04.2001, U 116.

4. Peziza vesiculosa Bull.
Seki village, near the road, 23.03.2001, U, T, G 254, Karahisar district, 23.03.2001 U, T, G 264.
5. Sarcoscypha coccinea (Jacq.) Sacc.
Aydodu village, in P. nigra subsp. pallasiana forest, 26. 02. 2001, U 185, 191.
6. Sarcosphaera coronaria (Jacq.) J. Schröt.
Aydodu village, in J. communis and J. oxycedrus mixed forest, 29.05.2001, T, G 340.

7. Helvella acetabulum (L.) Quél.
P1narlar village, in P. brutia forest, 24. 04. 2001, U 166.
8. Helvella lacunosa Afzel.
P1narl1k village, near stream, 29.05.2001, T, G 341.

9. Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.) Fr.
P1narl1k village, in P. brutia forest, 27. 04. 2000, U 244.

Basidiomycetes Polyporaceae
10. Polyporus squamosus (Huds.) Fr.
K1z1lcabölük district, on Populus nigra, 21.05.2001, U 186.
11. Fomes fomentarius (L.) J.J. Kickx
[email protected];iler village, on P. brutia trunks, 15.12.2000, U, 121.
12. Trametes gibbosa (Pers.) Fr.
[email protected];iler village, on trunks, 29.05.2001, T, G 342.

13. Schizophyllum commune Fr.
Sar1abat village, on Morus alba trees, 25.05.2001, U 178.

14. Phellinus torulosus (Pers.) Bourdot and Galzin
P1narlar village, on Platanus orientalis, 21.01.2001, U 153.

15. Geastrum triplex Jungh.
Karahisar village, 02.01.2001 U 16, [email protected];iler village, in grass, 01.12. 2000, U 4, Sar1abat village, in grass, 09.02.2001, U 45, Garipköy, in grass, 11.03.1999, U 85.

16. Lycoperdon molle Pers.
Tekke village, in grass in P. nigra subsp. pallasia forest, 29.01.2001, U 33, Akyar village, in grass and in P. brutia forest, 09.12.2000, U 30.
17. Lycoperdon perlatum Pers.
Derinkuyu village, 17.04.2001, U 257, Akyar village, the bank of the stream, 05.04.2001, U 189.
18. Handkea utriformis (Bull.) Pers.
Yoran plateau, in grass, 26.04.2001, U 267.
19. Bovista plumbea Pers.
K1z1lcabölük, in grass, 21.03.2001, U 213, 243, Yoran plateau, in grass, 26.04.2001, U 199, Konak district, in grass, 12.04.2001, U 255.

20. Rhizopogon luteolus Fr.
K1z1lca forest, in Quercus ithaburensi var. macrolepis forest, 13.12.2000, U 78, Garipköy, 06.03.2001, U 110, Yoran plateau, in J. communis and J. oxycedrus mixed forest, 10.05.2001, U 27.
21. Rhizopogon roseolus (Corda) Th. Fr.
Seki village, 15.05. 2001, U 122, Konak district, in J. communis and P. nigra subsp. pallasiana mixed forest, 23.05.2001, U 332, Akyar village, in pine forest, 01.12.2000, U 175, [email protected]; village, in P. brutia forest, 12.10.2000, U 150.

22. Chroogomphus rutilus (Schaeff.) 0. K. Mill.
P1narl1k village, in P. nigra subsp. pallasiana forest, 02.06.2001, U 215, K1z1lcabölük district, in P. nigra subsp. pallasiana forest, 29.05.2001, U 182.

23. Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm.
Aydodu village, on Populus nigra, 07.03.2001, U 80, Sarabat village, on Populus nigra, 05.12.2000, U 24.
24. Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Gillet
Dede Mountain, in grass, 22.05.2001, U 149.

25. Laccaria laccata (Scop.) Fr.
P1narlar village, in P. brutia forest, 21.05.2001, U 227.

26. Lepista nuda (BuIl.) Cooke
K1z1lca district, in P. nigra subsp. pallasiana and Juniperus oxycedrus mixed forest, 21.03.2001, U 222, Derinkuyu village, 25.04.2001,
U 373.
27. Clitocybe geotropa ( Bull.) Quél.
[email protected];iler village, in P. nigra subsp. pallasiana, 23.05.2001, U 343.
28. Tricholoma terreum (Schaeff.) Quél.
Bahçeköy village, in P. brutia forest, 22.12.2000, U 199, Eski hamamlar district, 15.02.2001, U 283.
29. Tricholoma ustale (Fr.) P. Kumm.
Derinkuyu village, in P. brutia, 29.05.2001, T, G 345.
30. Mycena strobilicola J. Favre and Kühner
Karahisar village, P. brutia forest, 05.01.2001, U 22.
31. Melanoleuca excissa var. excissa (Fr.) Singer
Karahisar village, in P. brutia forest, 29.05.2001, T, G 347.
32. Melanoleuca graminicola (Velen.) Kühner and Maire
Karahisar village, in pine forest, 29.05.2001, T, G 347.

33. Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm.
Derinkuyu village, in P. brutia forest, 29.05.2001, T, G 343.
34. Armillaria tabescens (Scop.) Emel
Bahçeköy village, in P. nigra subsp. pallasiana forest, 29.05.2001, T, G 344.

35. Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Pilát.
Seki village, 17.11.2001, U 117, P1narl1k village, near stream, 25.04.2001, U 276.
36. Agaricus campestris L.
Çak1roluk district, in P. brutia forest, 25.05.2001, U 245.
37. Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer
Derinkuyu village, near the road, 10 km., 29.05.2001, U 271

38. Amanita phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr.) Link
Avdan village, in P. brutia forest, 25.05.2001, U 132.

39. Coprinus atramentarius (Bull.) Fr.
Derinkuyu village, near the road, 20.05.2001, U 194.
40. Coprinus comatus (O. F. Müll.) Gray
P1narl1k village, near stream, 11.02.2001, U 186, Eski hamamlar district, 08.03.2001, U 213.
41. Coprinus micaceus (Bull.) Fr.
Sar1abat village, near stream, 05.05.2001, U 136.

42. Agrocybe cylindracea (DC.) Gillet
Aydodu village, Populus nigra., 29.04.2001, U 71, K1z1lcabölük district, on Populus nigra., 08.04.2001, U 325.

43. Inocybe rimosa (Bull.) P. Kumm.
Karahisar, in P. brutia forest, 05.01.2001, U 29.

44. Lactarius deterrimus Gröger
Akyar village, in P. nigra subsp. pallasiana forest, 22.11.2000, U 16, P1narl1k village, in Juniperus communis forest, 22.11.2000, U 29.
45. Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray
Akyar village, in Juniperus communis forest, 29.05.2001, T, G 350.


In this study, 45 macrofungi taxa belonging to 19 families collected in Tavas Province were identified. Nine of these belong to Ascomycetes and 36 to Basidiomycetes. Of those taxa, 20% of the macrofungi belonged to the Ascomycetes, while 80% belonged to Basidiomycetes. The distribution of the 45 species in to families is as follows: Tricholomataceae 7, Lycoperdaceae 4, Coprinaceae 3, Polyporaceae 3, Morchellaceae 3, Helvellaceae 2, Pezizaceae 3, Pleurotaceae 2, Agaricaceae 3, Marasmiaceae 2, Rhizopoganaceae 2, Russulaceae 2, Hymenochaetaceae 1, Cortinariaceae 1, Bolbitiaceae 1, Gomphidiaceae 1, Discinaceae 1, Hydnangiaceae 1, Pluteaceae 1, Geastraceae 1 and Schizophyllaceae 1. Fifteen percent of macrofungi we found belong to Tricholomataceae. Pine, mixed forests and medows are very suitable conditions for members of Tricholomataceae. Tricholomataceae, Lycoperdaceae, Morchellaceae, Coprinaceae, Pezizaceae and Helvellaceae are similar to those of earlier studies carried out near present research area (Afyon, 1996; [email protected];1lolu and Óder, 1999; Solak et al., 1999; Gezer, 2000). This may be because of similarities in vegetation, climate and plant flora (Table 1).

Thirteen, out of 45 macrofungi species, found in the area are eaten by villagers. The edible known species and their local names are: Morchella esculenta (Kuzu göbe+i), M. conica (Kuzu göbei), M. elata (Kuzu göbei), Rhizopogon roseolus (Dolaman), R. luteus (Dolaman), Lactarius deliciosus (Ç1ntar), L. deterrimus (Ç1ntar), Pleurotus ostreatus (Yaprak mantar1), P. eryngii (Diken mantar1), Tricholoma terreum (Karak1z mantar1), Agaricus campestris (Beyaz mantar), A. bisporus (Beyaz mantar), Macrolepiota procera (Dede mantar1). We documented 4 poisonous species: Amanita phalloides, Gyromitra esculenta, Inocybe rimosa and Tricholoma ustale. No reports of deaths from mushroom poisoning in this area have been made because the villagers collect only well-known edible mushrooms.

Table 1: Distribution of families

Lignicolous macrofungi consist of 9 (20%) species in the area. Schizophyllum commune in particular is a very common species. Gezer (2000), reported that these and other species suffered an extensive damage in the area as well as in other localities in Turkey. Fomes, especially in beech forest in the Black Sea region and Polyporus, on Castanea sativa trees in Bolu Province and Belgrad Forest of Istanbul, have suffered a great damage.

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2:  Akman, Y., 1990. Iklim ve biyoiklim palme yay nlar. Muhendidslik Serisi, pp: 103.

3:  Breitenbach, J. and F. Kranzlin, 1984. Fungi of Switzerland. Vol. 1-5, Mycological Society of Luzerne, Switzerland.

4:  Bresinsky, A. and H. Besl, 1990. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Fungi. Wolf Publishing, London.

5:  Davis, P.H., 1965-1985. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 1-9, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

6:  Gezer, K., 2000. Contribution to the macrofungi flora of Antalya province. Turk. J. Bot., 24: 293-298.
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9:  Kirk, P.M., P.F. Cannon, J.C. David and J.A. Stalfers, 2001. Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi. 9th Edn., CAB International, Wallingford, UK..

10:  Marchand, A., 1971-1986. Champignons du nord et du midi. Vol. 1-9, Perpignan, Societe Mycologique des Pyrenees Mediterraneennes.

11:  Moser, M., 1983. Keys to Agaricus and Boleti. Gustav Fischer Verlag, London.

12:  Sesli, E. and C.M. Denchev, 2005. Checklist of the Myxomycetes and Macromycetes in Turkey. Mycol. Balc., 2: 116-119.

13:  Solak, M.H., M. Isloglu, F. Gucin and I. Gokler, 1999. Makrofungi of Izmir province. Turk. J. Bot., 23: 383-390.
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14:  TGD, 1999. The general directorship of village affairs servis. Land Belonging of Denizli, Report No. 17, Ankara.

15:  TGD, 1999. The general directorship of state meteorology. Average extreme temperature and rainfall and values. Brief Report, Ankara.

16:  Zohary, M., 1973. Geobotanical Foundation of the Midleeast. Vol. I-II, Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stutgart.

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