Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

An Investigation of Spider Fauna of Olive Orchards in Northern Part of Iran



Sahra Ghavami, Ahmadi Damghan Mohammad, Soody Saeid, Ghanad amooz Saeid and Javadi Saeb
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

The current study investigates spider fauna of olive orchards in Guilan, Ghazvin, Mazandaran, Zanjan and Golestan provinces during 2002-2003. Spiders were collected from branches, leaves, trunks, on the ground and under the stones and grasses by Steiner and Baggiolini method, bottle, aspirator, pitfall trap, pans and insect net and transfered to laboratory and classified in 45 species and 46 genera belonged to 18 families. Twenty five species, 9 genera and 2 families are reported for the first time of olive orchards.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Sahra Ghavami, Ahmadi Damghan Mohammad, Soody Saeid, Ghanad amooz Saeid and Javadi Saeb, 2007. An Investigation of Spider Fauna of Olive Orchards in Northern Part of Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 2562-2568.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2007.2562.2568

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2007.2562.2568

INTRODUCTION

Thirty five thousand species of spiders have been identified in the world. Two hundred and forty four species of spiders have been reported from Iran (Ghavami, 2006d). They are one of the most abundant predatory groups in terrestrial ecosystems. They feed on insects and small Arthropods. Therefore, they are one of the biological agent in pests control.

The northern part of Iran is situated in the south of the Caspian Sea. Forty four new species have been identified from this region. They were collected on rice fields, Cotton fields, citrus orchards and other crops (Ghavami, 2006c, d).

Twenty seven species of spiders were reported of rice fields (Mozaffarian et al., 2000). Spiders were one of the most abundant predators in these fields (Ghavami, 2004). Forty four species and 59 genera belonged to 21 families were recorded on cotton fields. Twenty one species, 15 genera and 2 families of spiders were reported as the first record of Iran. Most populations of identified species belonged to Araneidae, Clubionidae and Theridiidae families, respectively (Ghavami, 2005). Thirty four species of spiders were reported from citrus orchards. Six species of spiders were recorded for the first time from Iran (Ghavami and Gahanad amooz, 2006). The most abundant of spider species belonged to Linyphiidae and Araneidae families in these orchards, respectively (Ghavami, 2006a). Also, Many studies have been done on spider fauna, abundance and their role in pest control in many countries. In a study, spiders were one of the most frequent predators in the European and American olive orchards. Most of the spider population in European and American olive orchards belonged to Linyphiidae family (Nieuwenhuys, 1999). The role of spiders was investigated in olive orchards in Granada, Spain. Spiders were the second most abundant predators. The most abundant spider families were Salticidae and Philodromidae and most frequently caught species were followed by Salticus sp., Icius hamatus and Philodromus sp. They were the main predators of Prays oleae in these orchards. They fed on egg and larvae of P. oleae (Morris et al., 1999). Olive spiders were collected by using pitfall traps in olive groves near Viterbo, central Italy. About 70 species were found belonging to 18 families with the predominant families being Linyphiidae, Lycosidae, Dysderidae, Gnaphosidae and Theridiidae. There was only one abundant species Lepthyphantes tenuis together with 4 scarcer species, including Erigone dentipalpis, Meioneta rurestris and Pachygnatha degeeri. Other species also occurred in mid-Europe mainly in urban environments (Dysdera crocata and Scytodes thoracica) and at xerothermic sites (various species of Theridiidae, Gnaphosidae, Clubionidae, Thomisidae and Salticidae) (Thaler and Zapparoli, 1993). Over 900 predators collected during 1998 and 1999 from a Portuguese organic olive orchard were subjected to a serological bioassay for Prays oleae predation. The highest number of predators were tested positive during the phyllophagous and antophagous generations of P. oleae, ants (Formicidae) were the most common predators, followed by species belonged to Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Araneae orders (Lozano et al., 2000). Spiders were one of the most abundant predators and they had the largest population in olive orchards in Panama. Eriophora fuligninea was one of the most important spider species in these orchards (Graf and Nentwig, 2001). Spiders, ants and redbugs had the highest population in olive orchards in Greene County, Mississippi. Spiders were the most important predators in these orchards (Byron and Green, 2000). They were one of the most abundant predators and they had an important role in olive pest control in Italy (Viggiane, 1977). Also, they were natural enemies of Palpita unionalis (Triggiani and Naples, 1971) and one of the important predators of P. oleae in olive orchards in Italy. They decreased 60-80% of P. oleae population in these orchards (Sacchetti, 1990).

In this study, olive spider fauna were studied in Guilan, Ghazvin, Golestan, Mazandaran and Zanjan provinces during 2002-2003. The study area lies mainly in the olive orchards, dominated by orchards situated in the plain. In addition, orchards in the plain located on higher places and forests were also, included in the investigation locations. Spiders abundance of olive orchards studied in Guilan, Ghazvin and Zanjan provinces. Most of the populations of spiders belonged to Linyphiidae, Salticidae and Thomisidae families, respectively (Ghavami, 2006b).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area: The study sites were: 1) Guilan: Roodbar, Ali Abad and Rostam Abad. 2) Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, Manjil and Loushan. 3) Zanjan: Tarome Olia, Mamalan, Soomeabar, Hendezamin, Vanesar, Jouzargh, Guilangasheh, Alzain, Goocan and Guilvan 4) Mazandaran:Chaloos and Salman Shahr, Khoshkehdaran, Amol 5) Golestan: Noudijeh, Charehdeh, Raamian, Tooskaostan, Alazeman, Toushan, Hashem Abad, Fazel Abad, Beraftan, Nazar Abad, Gharan Abad, Kordkooy, Bandar Gaz, Azad Shahr, Zarringol, Zanghian.
Spiders sampling: Spiders were collected from branches, leaves, trunks, on the ground and under the stones and grasses by Steiner and Baggiolini method, bottle, aspirator, pitfall trap, insect net and pans throughout spring, summer and autumn during 2002-2003.Valid spider identification keys (Anonymous, 2002, Barrion and Litsingerm, 1995, Borrer et al., 1989, Kaston, 1970; Roberts, 1985) used for species classification.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this study, 45 species and 46 genera of spiders were identified. Most species belonged to Araneidae family and the fewest species belonged to Linyphiidae, Oxyopidae, Dictynidae and Scytodidae families. The number of identified spider species in Guilan, Ghazvin, Golestan, Mazandaran and Zanjan provinces were 24, 20, 40, 5 and 22, respectively. Most species were collected from Golestan (40) and the fewest were collected from Mazandaran (5) provinces. Characters of identified species, materials examined and their distribution were as follows:

Family Agelenidae: 1 species was collected of this family
Genus Agelena Walckenaer, 1805
1 species was collected of this genera
Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757)*
Material examined: Mazandaran: Salman Shahr, 17. 7. 2002, Chaloos, 15. 5. 2002, leg. Javadi, Golestan: Noudijeh, 21.6.2003, 7.7.2002, Chardeh, 21.4.2002, Raamian 12.6.2003, Kordkooy, 21.3.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Belgium, China,England, France, Poland, Russia and Iran.

Araneidae Family:
Genus Agalenatea
Archer, 1951
Agalenatea redii (Scopoli 1763) *

Material examined: Golestan: Raamian 12.6.2003, Leg. and Det. Ghavami.
Distribution: England, France, sued, Cornwall, Asia.

Genus Araniella Chamberlin and Ivie, 1942
Araniella inconspicua(Simon, 1874)*
Material examined:
Golestan: Raamian, 12.6.2003, 14.5.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland.

Araniella alpica (L.Koch, 1869)*
Material examined:
Golestan: Noudijeh, 10.6.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland.

Araniella cucurbitina (Clerck 1757)
Material examined: Golestan:
Noudijeh, 7.7.2002, 21.6.2002, Tooskaostan, 7.7.2002, 29.5.2002, 10.6.2002, 19.5.2002, 3.6.2002, Zarringol, 27.6.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland.

Genus Araneus Clerck,1757
Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757*
Material examined:
Golestan: 21.6.2002, 30.5.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland.

Genus Argiope Savigny, 1827
Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772)
Material examined: Zanjan:
4.6.2002, leg. Soody, Golestan: Tooskaostan, 2.7.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Guilan: Roodbar, 16.6.2002, 3.7.2003, Ghazvin: Loushan, 11.7.2003, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland, Asia.

Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772)
Material examined:
Zanjan: 12.5.2002, leg. Ghavami, Golestan: Tooskaostan, 2.7.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Mediterranean region, Egypt, Europe.

Genus Cercidia Thorell,1869*
Material examined: Guilan:
16.6.2002, Roodbar, 14.6.2002, 10.8.2002, Ghazvin:Loushan, 11.7.2003, leg. Ghavami, Zanjan: Soomeahbar, 28.6.2002, 26.5.2003, Vaneaser, 13.6.2002, Alazain, 1.8.2002, Jouzargh, 4.9.2003, Hendezamin, 29.6.2003, leg. Soody, Golestan: Tooskaostan, 30.5.2002, 10.6.2002, 10.6.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Europe.

Genus Cyclosa Thorell, 1869
Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772)*
Material examined:
Golestan: 1.9.2003, 11.7.2002, Kordkooy, 6.9.2003, Tooskaostan, 11.7.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Zanjan: Hendezamin, 29.9.2003, leg. Soody, Ghazvin: 10. 7. 2002, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia.

Genus Hypsosinga Ausserer, 1871
Hypsosinga pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831)
Material examined:Guilan:
Roodbar, 16.6.2002, leg. Ghavami, Zanjan: Hendezamin, 29.9.2003, leg. Soody, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland.

Hypsosinga sanguinea (C.L.Koch, 1845)*
Material examined:
Golestan: 7.4.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland.

Genus Neoscona Simon, 1864
Neoscona adianta (Walckenaer, 1802)
Material examined:
Golestan: Tooskaostan, 12.6.2003, 10.6.2002, Alazeman, 13.8.2003, Noudijeh, 20.6.2003, Zanghian, 9.10.2003,Toushan, 13.10.2003,Hashem Abad, 26.11.2003, Fazel Abad, 18.10.2003,leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Beraftan, 26.10.2003, leg. Ghavami, Guilan: Roodbar, 16.6.2002, Ghazvin: 10. 7. 2002, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia.

Genus Mangora O.P.Cambridge, 1889
Mangora acalypha (Walckenaer, 1802)
Material examined:
Golestan: Tooskaostan, 28.11.2003, 10.4.2003, Beraftan, 28.11.2002, Nazar Abad, 3.6.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Guilan: Roodbar, Ali Abad, 4.4.2002, leg. Ghanad amooz, Ghazvin: 10. 7. 2002, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Poland, Asia.

Genus Singa C.L.Koch, 1836
Material examined: Golestan:
Alazeman, 13.8.2003, Beraftan, 26.10.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Zanjan: Tarome Olia, 2.9.2002, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Europe.

Family Amaurobiidae*: Material examined: Golestan: Raamian, 11.5.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Russia, Poland.

Family Dictynidae: 1 species was collected of this family.
Genus Dictyna Sundevall, 1833
Dictyna latens (Fabricius, 1775)*
Material examined:
Golestan: 28.5.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Guilan: Roodbar, 16.6.2002, 20.7.2003 leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Belgium, Russia, Poland, Asia.

Family Eresidae: 2 genera were collected of this family.
Genus Eresus Walckenaer,1805*
Material examined: Guilan:
Roodbar, 18.6.2002, Rostam Abad, 16.6.2002, Ghazvin: Manjil, 11.7.2003, leg. and Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Europe.

Genus Dresserus Simon,1876 *
Material examined:
Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 16.6.2002, Guilan: Roodbar, 16.6.2002, leg. and Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Europe.

Family Filistatidse: Material examined: Guilan: Roodbar, 10.5.2003, leg. Ghavami, Zanjan: Guilvan, 1.4.2003, leg. Soody, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Europe.

Family Gnaphosidae: 3 genera were collected of this Family.
Genus Aphantaulax Simon, 1878*
Material examined: Guilan:
Roodbar 11.2.2003, Ghazvin: 11.5.2002, leg. Ghavami, Golestan: Chardeh, 3.5.2002, 25.10.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Zanjan: Hendezamin, 29.7.2003, leg. Soody, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Europe.

Genus Scotophaus Simon, 1893
Material examined: Zanjan:
Tarome Olia, 23.9.2002, Mazandaran: Salman Shahr 10, 7, 2002, leg. Ghavami, Amol, 15.5.2003, 21.4.2002, leg. Javadi, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Europe, Asia.

Genus Zelotes Gistel, 1848
Material examined:
Golestan: 13.8.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Mazandaran: Salman Shahr 10, 7, 2002, leg. Ghavami, Amol, 15.5.2003, 21.4.2002, leg. Javadi, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Europe, Asia.

Family Linyphiidae: 1 species and 2 genera were collected of this family.
Genus Linyphia Latreille, 1804
Material examined: Zanjan:
Tarome Olia, 11.7.2002, 20.8.2003, leg. Soody, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 20.8.2003, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Europe, Asia.

Genus Microlinyphia Gerhardt, 1928*
Material examined: Golestan:
Tooskaostan, 2.7.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Zanjan: Vaneser, 13.6.2003, leg. Soody, Guilangasheh, 29.7.2003, 16.6.2002, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Europe, Asia.

Genus Frontinella Van Helsdingen, 1969
Frontinella frutetorum (C.L.Koch, 1981)
Material examined:
Guilan: Roodbar, 6.6.2003, 16.6.2002, 1.6.2002, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 10.7.2002, leg. Ghavami, Golestan: Noudijeh, 10.7.2002, 20.6.2002, Raamian, 15.6.2002, 15.6.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Zanjan: Tarome Olia, 21.6.2003, 29.7.2003, Mamalan, 21.6.2003, Soomeaehbar, 26.11.2003, Hendezamin, 29.7.2003, Vaneser, 14.6.2003, Tarome Olia, 1.8.2003, leg. Soody, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Europe, Asia.

Family Lycosidae: 3 species were collected of this family.
Genus Pardosa C.L.Koch, 1848
Pardosa amentata group (Clerck, 1757) *
Material examined:
Golestan: 3.10.2002, 15.11.2003, 13.8.2003, Tooskaostan, 10.6.2003, 10.6.2002, 15.10.2003, 27.8.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Russia, Poland.

Pardosa agrestis (Westring, 1861)*
Material examined: Golestan:
3.10.2002, 21.9.2003, Fazel Abad, 26.1.2002, Gharan Abad, 3.6.2002, Tooskaostan, 10.6.2003, 10.6.2002, 27.8.2003, 5.10.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Guilan: Ali Abad, 2.9.2003, Ghazvin: Tarome sofla, 10.7.2002, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Russia, Poland.

Pardosa monticola (Clerck,1757)*
Material examined: Golestan:
Fazel Abad, 26.12.2002, Hashem Abad, 27.6.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Russia, Poland.

Family Metidae*: 1 species was collected of this family.
Genus Zygiella F.O.P. Cambridge, 1902
Zygiella x-notata (Clerck,1757) *
Material examined:
Golestan: 26.10.2003, leg. and Det. Ghavami.
Distribution: Asia, Europe.

Family Oxyopidae : 1 species was collected of this family.
Genus Oxyopes Latreille, 1804
Oxyopes lineatus (Latreille, 1806)
Material examined:
Golestan: Beraftan, 28.11.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Belgium, Asia.

Family Philodromidae: 2 species were collected of this family.
Genus Philodromus Walckenaer, 1825
Philodromus rufus (Walckenaer, 1825)*
Material examined:
Golestan: Tooskaostan, 9.7.2003, 18.6.2003, Zarringol, 29.12.2003, Kordkooy, 7.6.2003, Beraftan, 16.6.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan
Zanjan: Tarome Olia, 16.6.2002, Guilan: 12.6.2002, leg. Ghanad amooz, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 10.7.2002, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium.

Genus Tibellus Simon, 1875
Tibellus oblongus (Walckenaer, 1802)
Material examined:
Golestan: Nazar Abad, 3.2.2002, Zarringol, 4.9.2003, Hashem Abad, 27.6.2003, leg. Ahmadi
Damghan, Mazandaran: Amol, 10, 7, 2002, leg. Ghavami, 15.5.2003, 21.4.2002, leg. Javadi, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Russia, Poland, Belgium, England.

Family Pholcidae: 2 species were collected of this family.
Genus Psilochorus Simon, 1893
Psilochorus simoni (Berland, 1911) *
Material examined:
Golestan: Tooskaostan, 16.8.2003, Kordkooy, 16.7.2003, Chardeh, 10.8.2003, Bandar Gaz, 10.7.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla2.4.2002, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium, England.

Genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805
Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775) *
Material examined: Golestan:
Chardeh, 1.8.2003, Bandar Gaz, 12.8.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Guilan: Roodbar, 7.8.2003, 20.9.2003, 12.9.2003, 10.5.2003, 12.9.2003, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium, England.

Family Salticidae: 6 species and 4 genera were collected of this family.
Genus Bianor G. and E. Peckham, 1885
Bianor albimaculatus (Lucas, 1846)
Material examined: Zanjan:
Tarome Olia, 9.7.2002, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 10.7.2002, leg. Ghavami.
Distribution:
Asia, Europe.

Genus Evarcha Simon, 1902
Material examined:
Golestan: 13.8.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 10.7.2002, Guilan: Roodbar, 7.8.2003, leg. Ghavami.
Distribution:
Asia, Europe.

Genus Heliophanus C.L.Koch, 1833
Heliophanus cupreus (Walckenaer, 1802)
Material examined: Zanjan:
Tarome Olia, 10.7.2002, leg. Soody, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 11.7.2002, Guilan: 16.6.2002, Roodbar, 14.6.2002, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Belgium, England, Asia.

Heliophanus flavipes C.L.Koch, S.str., 1848
Material examined: Golestan:
Kordkooy, 6.9.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Ghazvin: Loushan, 10.8.2003, Guilan: 16.6.2002, Roodbar, 14.6.2002, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Poland, Belgium, England.

Heliophanus ledeufiilus (S.str. Hahn, 1831)*
Material examined:Golestan:
Tooskaostan, 13.8.2002, 5.7.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Ghazvin: Tarome solfla, 7.5.2003, Guilan: Roodbar, 7.8.2003, 20.9.2003, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Europe.

Genus Hyllus C.l.Koch, 1846
Material examined:
Guilan: Roodbar, 12.5.2002, leg. Ghavami, Zanjan: 10.7.2002, leg. Soody, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Europe.

Genus Myrmarachne Macleay, 1839
Material examined:
Golestan: Garan Abad, 28.1.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: England, Asia.

Genus Salticus Latreille, 1804
Salticus scenicus (Clerck, 1757)*
Material examined: Golestan:
Garan Abad, 28.1.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Zanjan: 13.7.2002, 11.9.2003, 10.8.2002, leg. Soody, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 10.8.2003, Guilan: Roodbar, 7.8.2003, 20.9.2003, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Poland, Belgium, England, Asia.

Genus Thyene Simon, 1885
Thyene imperialis (Rossi, 1846)
Material examined: Zanjan:
Tashvir, 30.6.2003, Jouzargh, 4.9.2003, leg. Soody, Tarome Olia, 1.9.2002, leg. Ghavami, Golestan: Chardeh, 25.10.2003, Zarringol, 4.9.2003, Azad Shahr, 20.8.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Guilan: 27.9.2003, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 10.7.2002, 5. 2.9. 2003, leg. Ghavami, Mazandaran: Amol, 10. 7. 2002, leg. Ghavami, 15.5.2003, 21.4.2002, leg. Javadi, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Europe.

Family Secytodidae: 1 species was collected of this family
Genus Scytodes Latreille, 1804
Scytodes thoracica, Latreille, 1804
Material examined: Zanjan:
Tarome Olia, 23.6.2002, leg. Soody, Golestan: 6.3.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium, England.

Family Tetragnathidae: 3 species were collected of this family.
Genus Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804
Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus, 1785)
Material examined: Guilan:
Roodbar, 12.9.2003, 16.5.2003, Ghazvin: Manjil, 9.3.2003, leg. Ghavami, Golestan: Raamian, 15.6.2003, Fazel Abad, 18.10.2003, Bandar Gaz, 16.7.2003, Zanghian, 13.10.2003, 30.6.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Swede, Belgium, England.

Tetragnatha montana, Simon, 1874*
Material examined: Golestan:
Toushan, 13.10.2003 leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Hashem Abad, 25.11.2003, Raamian, 24.8.2003, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium, England.

Tetragnatha javana (Thorell, 1890) *
Material examined: Guilan:
Roodbar, 21.9.2003, leg. Ghavami, Golestan: Toushan, 13.10.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Europe.

Family Theridiidae: 5 species and 1 genera were collected of this family
Genus Dipoena Thorell, 1869
Dipoena prona (Menge, 1868)*
Material axamined:
Zanjan: Tarome Olia, 27.6.2002, 10.7.2003, Guilan: Roodbar, 10.9.2003, 10.8.2003, leg. Ghavami, Golestan: Azad Shahr, 27.6.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium.

Genus Enoplognatha Pavesi, 1880 :
Material axamined:
Zanjan: Tarome Olia, 5.7.2003, 10.7.2003, Guilan: Roodbar, 10.9.2003, leg. Ghavami, Golestan: Azad Shahr, 27.6.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Europe.

Genus Latrodectus Walckenaer, 1805
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1790)
Material examined: Golestan:
Hashem Abad, 28.6.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Asia, Africa, Mediterranean region, Central Asia, Ethiopian and Saudian Arabia.

Genus Steatoda Sandevall, 1833
Steatoda albimaculata (Degeer, 1778)*
Material examined:
Zanjan: Tarome Olia, 1.9.2002, Goocan, 10.7.2003, Tashvir, 30.6.2003, Hendezamin, 29.7.2003, Alzain, 1.8.2003, leg. Soody, Guilvan, 26.9.2003, leg. Ghavami, Guilan: Roodbar, 10.9.2003, 10.8.2003, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 12.9.2003, leg. Ghavami, Golestan: Hashem Abad, 28.6.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Mazandaran: Salman Shahr 10, 7, 2002, leg. Ghavami, Amol, 15.5.2003, 21.4.2002, leg. Javadi, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Russia, Europe.

Genus Theridion Walckenaer, 1805
Theridion melanurum, Hahn, 1831
Material examined:
Zanjan, 22.4.2003 leg & Det Ghavmi
Distribution: Africa, Asia, England.

Theridion similie (C.L. Koch, 1836)
Material examined: Golestan:
Kordkooi, 22.4.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan,
Guilan: 27.9.2003, leg. Ghavami.
Distribution: Belgium, England, Asia

Family Thomisidae: 5 species were collected of this family.
Genus Misumena Latreille, 1804
Misumena vatia (Clerck, 1757)*
Material examined: Guilan:
Roodbar, 10.6.2002, Golestan: 6.6.2003, Soomeahbar, 28.6.2003, Raamian, 12.6.2003, 15.6.2003, Fazel Abad, 18.10.2003, Bandar Gaz, 28.8.2002, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Zanjan: Tarome Olia, 25.7.2003, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 10.6.2002, Mazandaran: 26.7.2002, 4.5.2003, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Belgium, England, Asia.

Genus Synaema Simon, 1864
Synaema globosum (Fabricius, 1775)
Material examined: Golestan:
Beraftan, 16.6.2003, Tooskaostan, 16.8.2003, 11.6.2003, 10.6.2002, 10.5.2003, Toushan, 3.10.2003, Kordkooy, 16.7.2003, 29.5.2003, Zarringol, 4.9.2003, Moodestan, 15.6.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Raamian, 11.7.2002, leg. Ghavami, Guilan: Roodbar, Ali Abad, 10.9.2003, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 10.7.2002, leg. Ghavami, Zanjan: Tarome Olia, 29.7.2003, leg. Soody, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Belgium, Russia, Mediterranean region.

Genus Thomisus Walckenaer, 1805
Thomisus onustus, Walckenaer, 1806
Material examined: Zanjan:
Jouzargh, 4.9.2003, leg. Soody, Golestan: Soomeaehbar, 26.11.2003, Toushan, 13.10.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Guilan: Roodbar, 10.6.2002, Ghazvin: Tarome Sofla, 10.7.2002, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium, England.

Genus Xysticus C.L.Koch, 1835
Xysticus cristatus (Clerck, 1757)*
Material axamined:
Golestan: Raamian, 15.6.2003, Noudijeh, 6.11.2003, Kordkooy, 26.10.2003, Toushan, 17.9.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Zanjan: Guilangasheh, 9.5.2003, leg. Soody, Guilan: Roodbar, 12.6.2002, 3.4.2003, Ali Abad, 10.9.2003, Ghazvin: Tarome Olia, 10.7.2002, leg. Ghavami, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Russia, Poland, Belgium, England.

Xysticus kochi, Thorell, 1872
Material examined:
Guilan: Roodbar, 12.6.2002 and leg. Ghanad amooz, 3.4.2003, Golestan: Hashem Abad, 27.6.2003, Tooskaostan, 5.10.2003, 9.10.2003, leg. Ahmadi Damghan, Det. Ghavami, 2003.
Distribution: Russia, Europe.
*Asterisks have shown new species, genera and families in olive orchards.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I wish to thank to Mr. Bahramishad for his field assistance.

REFERENCES
1:  Anonymous, 2002. A key of spiders of black forests, USA., http:/research.Amnh.org/ entomology/blackrock2/keyhtm.

2:  Barrion, A.T. and J.A. Litsingerm, 1995. Riceland Spiders of South and SouthEast Asia. UK and University Press, Cambridge.

3:  Borrer, D.J., C.A. Triplehorn and N.F. Johnson, 1989. An Introduction to Study of Insects Sunders College Publishing PA.

4:  Byron, E. and Jr. Green, 2000. Green County History. http//www.usgennet.org/usa/ms/county/green/byron htm.

5:  Ghavami, S., 2004. The role of spiders in biological control in Iran. Sonbol. J. Agric. Sci., 135: 24-25.

6:  Ghavami, S., M. Taghizadeh, G. Amin, Z. Karimian, M. Hossieni and S. Khormali, 2005. Investigation spider fauna of cotton field in Iran. Final Report of Project. Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute.

7:  Ghavami, S., 2006. Investigation spider fauna of citrus orchards in Northern part of Iran. Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute. Final Report of Project, pp: 36.

8:  Ghavami, S., 2006. The role of spiders in citrus orchards in Northern part of Iran. Sonbol. J. Agric. Sci., 150: 33-34.

9:  Ghavami, S., 2006. Abundance of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in olive orchards in Northern part of Iran. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 9: 795-799.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Sahra, G., 2006. Renew checklist of spiders (Aranei) of Iran. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 9: 1839-1851.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Ghavami, S. and M. Nematollahi, 2006. Investigation spider fauna of rose orchards in Kashan. Proceedings of 17th Iranian Congress on Plant Protection.

12:  Graf, B. and W. Nentwig, 2001. Ontogenetic change in coloration and web building behavior in the tropical spider Eriophora foliginea. Arachnol. J., 29: 104-110.

13:  Kaston, B.J., 1970. How to Know Spiders. M.W.C. Brown Company Publishers, USA., pp: 212.

14:  Lozano, C., T. Morris, M. Campos, J.A. Pereira and A. Bento, 2002. Detection by elisa of predators of Prays oleae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in a portuguese olive orchard. Acta Hort. (ISHS), 586: 831-834.
Direct Link  |  

15:  Morris, T., W.O.C. Symondson, N.A.C. Kidd and M. Campos, 1999. Spiders and their incidence on Prays oleae in olive plantations. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 25: 475-489.

16:  Mozaffarian, F., S. Tirgari and H.B. Asady, 2000. Investigations on the fauna of spiders in paddy fields in Mazandaran and Guilan provinces. Applied Entomol. Phytol., 1-2: 1-14.

17:  Nieuwenhuys, 1999. Sheet Web Spiders (Family: Linyphidae). http://www.xs4all.nl/edniew/spiders/ spidhome.htm.

18:  Roberts, M.J., 1985. Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. Hartley Books Essex, England, pp: 400.

19:  Sacchetti, P., 1990. Observations on the activity and biotechnology of the natural enemies of Prays oleae (Bern.) In Tuscany, Predators. Redia, pp: 243-259.

20:  Thaler, K. and M. Zapparoli, 1993. Epigetic Spiders in an olive-groove in central Italy, (Araneae). Redia, pp: 307-316.

21:  Triggiani, O. and I. Naples, 1971. Margaronia unionalis Hb. (olive Pyralid). Entomol., pp: 29-47.

22:  Viggiani, G., 1977. Biological and Integrated Control. Liguori Editore, Naples, Italy.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved