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Plant Diversity in Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve (Mazandaran Province) in North of Iran



F. Sharifnia, Y. Asri and T. Gholami-Terojeni
 
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ABSTRACT

Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve is located in north of Iran, it covers an area about 68800 ha. In this survey the plant specimens were collected from different parts of area during two growing seasons. The aim of this research was identify the plant species, introducing the Flora and determination of life forms. In Miankaleh area 261 species recognized, that belong to 60 families and 177 genera. Among these families represented in area Asteracea, Poaceae, Papilionaceae, Cyperaceae and Brassicaeae had the highest number of species 34, 34, 26, 10 and 10, respectively. Fifty four species (20.68%) were endemics of Irano-Turanian region, the following species of them were endemics for Iran: Lindelofia kandavanensis, Papaver tenuifolium, P. chelidonifolium, Scorzonera tortusissima, Scrophularia gaubae, Crepis gaubae and Crepis papposissima. Therophytes and hemicryptophytes with 137 species (52.5%) and 76 species (29%) were respectively the most frequent life forms of the Biosphere Reserve.

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  How to cite this article:

F. Sharifnia, Y. Asri and T. Gholami-Terojeni, 2007. Plant Diversity in Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve (Mazandaran Province) in North of Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 1723-1727.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2007.1723.1727

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2007.1723.1727

INTRODUCTION

Caspian Sea is the greatest lake of the world and in fact, it is a relic of early aquatic ecosystem. Floristic and phytosociology studies of Caspian Sea south coasts have been carried out by other researchers, too (Asri and Eftekhari, 2002; Asri and Moradi, 2004). The biodiversity of Biosphere Reserve is very important and then recognition and conversation of plant species are very essential for their protection. Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve is in fact a peninsula in the north of Iran situated near the south-east the Caspian Sea with an area about 68800 ha. Despite its uniform climate, Miankaleh has considerable plant diversity. It seems the distribution pattern is influenced by soil elements.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study has carried out during 2003-2004. Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve is located in south-east of Caspian Sea in Mazandaran province (36°48´-36°55´ N, 53°25´-54°02´E) (Fig. 1). It covers 68800 ha, its altitude of Sea level is 15-25 m and average of rainfall and temperature are 580 mm and 21.8°C, respectively. Miankaleh is consisted of two terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The plant specimens were recognized using Flora Iranica (Rechinger, 1963-2005). Flora of USSR (Komarov et al., 1963-1974), Flora of Turkey ( Davis, 1965-1988), Flora of Iran (Assadi et al., 1989-2005).

Life forms have determined on the basis of Raunkiaer classification (Raunkiaer, 1934). Vocher specimens are deposited in herbarium of Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Floristic list of Miankaleh is presented in Table 1. In the list 261 taxa of vascular plants in 177 genera and 60 families are recognized. The families consist of 2 families Cryptogames, 1 family Gymnosperm, 6 families monocots and 51 families dicots. Among these families represented in the area, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Papilionaceae, Cyperaceae and Brassicaeae had the highest number species, 34, 34, 26, 10 and 10, respectively (Fig. 2). The most species means 54 species (20.68%) and 52 species (19.92%) were endemics of Irano-Turanian (IT) and Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean (ES, IT, M) regions (Fig. 3). The following species were endemics of Iran: Lindelofia kandavanensis, Papaver tenuifolium, Papaver chelidonifolium, Scorzonera tortusissima, Scrophularia gaubae, Crepis gaubae and Crepis papposissima (Table 1). Therophytes with 137 species (52.5%) and hemicryptophytes with 76 species (29%) were the most frequent life forms of the Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve (Fig. 4).


Fig. 1: The map of Iran showing situation of Miankaleh in north with black square

Fig. 2: The number of species in some of families with high frequency

Fig. 3: Chorology of plant elements in Miankaleh showing percent of presence Abbreviation. IT: Irano-Turanian, ES: Euro-Siberian, M: Mediterranean, SS: Sahara-Sindian, Pl: pluriregional, Cosm:Cosmopolit

Fig. 4:

Life form of miankaleh species (abbreviation: Th = Therophytes, He = Hemicryptophytes, Ge = Geophytes, Ph = Phanerophytes, Hy = Hydrophytes, Ch = Chamaephytes)


Table 1: List of floristic elements in Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve, family, chorotype and life form of each species have been presented
(Abbreviation: Th = Therophyte, He = Hemicryptophytes, Ge = Geophytes, Ph = Phanerophytes, Hy = hydrophytes, Ch = Chamaephytes, Es = Euro-Siberian, IT = Irano-Turanian, M = Mediterranean, SS = Sahara-Sindian, Pl = Pluriregional, Cosm = Cosmopolit)
REFERENCES
1:  Asri, Y. and T. Eftekhari, 2002. An Introduction to the flora and vegetation of Siah-Keshim wetland. J. Environ. Stud., 28: 1-19.

2:  Asri, Y. and A. Moradi, 2004. Floristic and phytosociological studies of Amirkelayeh lagoon. J. Agric. Sci. Nat. Resour., 11: 171-179.
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3:  Assadi, M., A.A. Maasoumi, M. Khatamsaz, V. Mozzafarian and Z. Jamzad, 2005. Flora of Iran 1989-2005. Vol. 1-52, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran.

4:  Davis, P.H., 1988. Flora of Turkey, 1965-1988. Vol. 1-10, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

5:  Komarov, V.L. and B.K. Shishkin, 1963-1974. Flora of the USSR. Vol. 1-24, Keter and IPST Press, Jerusalem.

6:  Raunkiaer, C., 1934. The Life forms of Plants and Statically Plant Geography. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

7:  Rechinger, K.H., 1963. Flora Iranica. Vol. 1-176, Akademishe Druck University, Verlagsanstalt, Graz.

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