Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Effect of Various Substrates on the Growth and Quality of Mushrooms



P. Ponmurugan, Y. Nataraja Sekhar and T.R. Sreesakthi
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

The effect of different biowastes such as paddy straw, sorghum straw, sugarcane molasses, saw dust and paper waste on the growth and biochemical constituents of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) was studied. Favourable conditions were created to attain the maximum yield of mushrooms. The results reveled that mushroom growth was better in paddy straw followed by sugarcane molasses and least in wood saw dust and paper waste. The growth of mushrooms may be coincided with type of substrates used that leads to tremendous utilization of nutrients in the biowastes. The results further indicated that the biometric parameters such as fresh weight, dry weight and dry matter accumulation and biochemical constituents such as total sugars, protein, amino acids and lipids were also found to be higher in mushrooms grown in paddy straw followed by sugarcane molasses and least in wood saw dust and paper waste. The microelements such as phosphorous, potassium calcium and magnesium were also found to be higher in mushrooms grown in paddy straw when compared to the other substrates.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

P. Ponmurugan, Y. Nataraja Sekhar and T.R. Sreesakthi, 2007. Effect of Various Substrates on the Growth and Quality of Mushrooms. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 171-173.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2007.171.173

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2007.171.173

INTRODUCTION

Mushrooms often called as Queen of vegetables and table delicious since time immemorial. Mushrooms are good source of proteins, amino acids and vitamins. Now-a-days the cultivation of mushroom is disseminated all over the world because of its revenue activity (Sreesakthi and Ponmurugan, 2006). Mushroom includes 1-6% of sugars, 20.3-42% of proteins, 0.5-3.5% of fats, mostly glycerides and glycolipids less frequently phospholipids, 0.5-1.5% of vitamin B2, vitamin D, E and K, but there is also consisting glycogen, mannitol, traces of sorbitol, arabitol and other microelements (Shukla et al., 2005; Nataraja et al., 2005).

The cultivation of oyster mushrooms is gaining importance in tropical and subtropical region due to its simple way of cultivation and high biological efficiency in paddy straw, which gave good yield than other substrates and useful for the degradation and recycle of biowastes (Singh et al., 1990). In India, paddy straw, cotton waste, coconut coir waste, sugarcane molasses and paper wastes are using for the cultivation of mushrooms (Geetha et al., 1994). The mostly cultivating Pleurotus sp. in India is P. djamor, P. citrinopileatus, P. flabellatus, P. eous, P. oystereatus, P. sapidus, P.sajor-caju and P. Florida (Suman and Sharma, 1990). In southern parts of India especially in Tamilnadu, the agricultural wastes are present in abundance. The present study was taken up to study the effect of various substrates available in local places on the growth and quality of mushrooms in terms of estimating biochemical constituents.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The present study was conducted at School of Biotechnology, K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Namakkal District of Tamilnadu, India, for a period of one year (from May 2005 to May 2006). The oyster mushroom type Pleurotus florida is obtained from Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India, for the present study. Four types of substrates viz., paddy straw, sorghum straw, sugarcane molasses, wood waste and paper waste were used for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. In addition to that combination of different biowastes were also tested to obtain the maximal yield of mushrooms. These biosubstrates were chopped into 2-3 cm size of bits and sterilized using an autoclave (120°C at 15 psi). The sterilized materials were filled in a polythene bag (60x30 cm size) spread over with mushroom spawns.

The above prepared seed beds were kept in a room provided with a sufficient aeration, the temperature (24-30°C) and RH (80-100%) for spawn running. The beds were incubated for about 15-20 days. The mushrooms were harvested in the early morning before spraying water. The collected mushrooms were subjected to analyze the biometric parameters such as fresh, dry weight and dry matter content and biochemical parameters such as total sugars (Dubois et al., 1956), proteins (Lowry et al., 1951), nitrogen (AOAC, 1990) and amino acids (Moore and Stein, 1948). The microelements such as phosphorous, potassium calcium and magnesium were estimated in the mushrooms according to the procedure of AOAC (1990) method.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The fully flourished mushrooms were harvested on 23rd day from paddy straw, 18th day from sugarcane molasses and 17th day from sorghum straw and wood saw dust. Similarly, it was noted that mushrooms were harvested on 20th day from combination of biowastes (Table 1). The same trend was also observed by Shrama et al. (1981), Chakrabarthy and Shakar (1978). The emergence of mushrooms from the bed is purely based on the amount of cellulose present in the substrates (Sivaprakasam and Kandasamy, 1981). The yield in terms of fresh weight, dry weight and dry matter content was higher in paddy (268.94 g) and lower in wood saw dust (80.33 g). The combination of biowastes responded moderately in terms of growth of mushrooms.

The moisture content was found to be above 90% in mushrooms grown all the substrates, however, it was high in paddy straw, sorghum straw and sugarcane molasses (Table 2). The mushrooms fresh weight was 27.85 g and 22.85 g in paddy straw and sugarcane molasses, respectively. On the other hand, dry matter content was higher in wood saw dust that was recorded as 9.87% followed by combination of biowastes such as paddy straw with sugarcane molasses and sorghum straw.

The cellulosic substance will be degraded very easily by growing mushroom, whereas, non-cellulosic substances are not easily degraded. The degradable substances are used for their metabolic activities. The delayed harvesting were observed from the coir waste substrates, because the coir waste is one of the lignin substrates, it require long period for their decomposition. This observation is correlated with the work of Ramasamy et al. (1985).

Table 1:
Effect of various substrates in harvesting period and total yield of mushrooms

There was a significant difference observed at 5% level in the biochemical constituents among the substrates (Table 3). However, all the biochemical constituents were higher in mushrooms grown in paddy straw followed by sugarcane molasses and sorghum and least in wood saw dust. The suitable protein contents were 33.33 and 28.38 mg g–1 of fresh weight of mushrooms grown in paddy straw and sugarcane molasses respectively. Similarly, total sugar content was 25.73 and 22.34 mg g–1 fresh weight of mushrooms grown in paddy straw and sugarcane molasses, respectively (Table 3). It is positively correlated with the earlier investigations of the Geetha et al. (1994) and Sangwan and Saini (1995). Increase in the yield of mushroom in paddy is due to easier way of getting of sugars from the cellulosic substrates. In the analysis of mushroom composition from various substrates, mushrooms from paddy straw gave high amount of proteins and amino acids. The mushrooms absorb the soluble sugar than the lignocellulosic substances and these sugars are used for their growth and other metabolic purposes. The excess sugar is under going secondary metabolism than that of growth (Nataraja et al., 2005).

Similarly, all the microelements such as phosphorous, potassium calcium and magnesium were also higher in mushrooms in paddy straw followed by sugarcane molasses and sorghum and least in wood saw dust (Table 4). However, it was moderate in mushrooms grown in mixed biosubstrates (paddy straw + sugarcane molasses and paddy straw + sorghum straw).

Table 2:
Effect of different substrates on the biometric parameters of mushroom

Table 3: Effect of different substrates on the biochemical parameters of mushroom
* mg g–1 of fresh weight of mushrooms

Table 4: Effect of different substrates on the estimation of microelements in mushroom*
* mg 100 g of sample

These results were positively correlated with the work of Ramasamy et al. (1985). The present investigation reveals that al the cellulosic biowastes are effectively used as substrates for cultivation of mushrooms. The methods useful for cultivation of oyster mushrooms are very easy and it also protects the environment from the entry of biodegradable pollutant (Ansi and Raj, 1988, Krithiga et al., 2005). The mushroom cultivating techniques pave the way for the future food of human beings.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors are thankful to the Principal and the Management of K.S. RANGASAMY College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Tamilnadu, India, for providing necessary facilities and constant encouragement to carry out this study.

REFERENCES
1:  Ansi, J.J. and S.T.S. Raj, 1988. Cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer by using of biowastes materials. Biol. Biotechnol., 11: 114-126.

2:  AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 200-210.

3:  Chakrabarthy, P.R. and R.R. Shakar, 1978. Cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer by using of agricultural wastes. Biol. Biotechnol., 2: 17-26.

4:  Dubois, M., K.A. Gills, J.K. Hamilton, P.A. Rebers and F. Smith, 1956. Estimation of sugars by phenol-sulphuric acid method. Anal. Chem., 26: 350-350.

5:  Geetha, H.J., R.R. Shakar and P.R. Chakrabarthy, 1994. An edible new fungi Pleurotus citrinopileatus. Ind. J. Mushroom, 8: 13-15.

6:  Krithiga, S., V. Monica, P. Ponmurugan and N. Kannan, 2005. Studies on the yield performance of Oyster mushroom with different biowastes. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Industrial Biotechnology. Bioxplore, February 14-15, 2005, Vivekanandha College of Engineering for Woman, Tiruchengode, pp: 13-.

7:  Moore, S. and W.H. Stein, 1948. Photometric ninhydrin method for use in the chromatography of amino acids. J. Biol. Chem., 176: 367-388.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Nataraja, S., Y. Danda, S. Pradeep, P. Ponmurugan and N. Kannan, 2005. Effect of different substrates on mushroom cultivation under Namakkal district climate. Proceedings of the National Level Biological Conference on Biotechnology a Boon Humanity, January 28-29, 2005, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, pp: 7-.

9:  Ramasamy, G.K., R. Stanton and U.I. Rosenbrough, 1985. Nutrition value of mushrooms. Mushroom Sci., 3: 27-30.

10:  Sangwan, M.S. and L.C. Saini, 1995. Cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer on agroindustrial wastes. Mushroom Res., 4: 33-34.

11:  Shrama, J.J., K.L. Jakkulin and S.T.S. Jughula, 1981. Cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) under different climatic condition. J. Microbial World, 144: 412-414.

12:  Shukla, K., K.S. Shetty and V. Krishnamoorthy, 2005. Possibility of protein enrichment of paddy straw by mushroom Pleurotus species. PAU, Ludhiana India, pp: 363-367.

13:  Singh, K.L., S. Kannayan and K. Ramasamy, 1990. Hand Book of Edible Mushrooms-Cultivation of Pleurotus. Today and Tomorrow Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, pp: 38-72.

14:  Sivaprakasam, K. and T.K. Kandasamy, 1981. Waste material for the cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju. Mushroom, J., 101: 178-179.

15:  Krithiga, S., V. Monica, P. Ponmurugan and N. Kannan, 2005. Studies on the yield performance of Oyster mushroom with different biowastes. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Industrial Biotechnology. Bioxplore, February 14-15, 2005, Vivekanandha College of Engineering for Woman, Tiruchengode, pp: 13-.

16:  Suman, B.C. and V.P. Sharma, 1990. Compact bag method: A new method of increasing the yield of Pleurotus sajor-caju. Ind. J. Mushroom, 7: 11-13.

17:  Sreesakthi, T.R. and P. Ponmurugan, 2006. Studies on the yield performance of Oyster mushrooms with different biowastes. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Industrial Biotechnology. Bioxplore’ 06. Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Vivekanandha College of Engineering for Woman, February 17-18, 2006, Tiruchengode, Tamilnadu -.

18:  Lowry, O.H., N.J. Rosebrough, A.L. Farr and R.J. Randall, 1951. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193: 265-275.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved