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Research Article
 

Pollen Morphology of Some Species of Verbasum (Scrophulariaceae) in Urmia



Somayyeh Kheiri, Masoud Khayami , Shahrokh Kazempour Osaloo and Ahmad Mahmoodzadeh
 
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ABSTRACT

Pollen morphology of seven species was investigated by light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Pollen grains are monad and elliptic to oblique at the equatorial view, circular-triangle at the polar view, trizonocolporate, isopolar and spheroidal prolate, prolate or perprolate. The pollen is small or medium sized in V. szovitsianum Bioss., V. agrimonfolium (C. Koch) Hub-Mor., V. mucronatum Lam., V. sinuatum L., V. macrocarpum Bioss., V. oreophilum C. Koch var. oreophilum and V. cheiranthifolium Bioss., Exine ornamentation is reticulate but in V. agrimonifolium (C. koch) Hub-Mor., it is microreticulate.

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  How to cite this article:

Somayyeh Kheiri, Masoud Khayami , Shahrokh Kazempour Osaloo and Ahmad Mahmoodzadeh , 2006. Pollen Morphology of Some Species of Verbasum (Scrophulariaceae) in Urmia. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9: 434-436.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2006.434.436

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2006.434.436

INTRODUCTION

Verbascum includes 300 species worldwide (Huber-Morath, 1978) and 46 species (including hybrids) (Ghahreman and Attar, 1999) and is the largest genus in scprophulariaceae, subfamily Verbascoideae, tribe Verbaceae (Valdes, 1987). Hybrides are frequent in Verbascum. It is a southwestern Asian genus centered in Turkey, Iran and Pakistan (Zohary, 1973). It is the endemic of Turkey.

Morphology and anatomy of fruits and seeds have shown similarities among the species of Verbascum in southern Spain (Juan et al., 1997). Foliar idioblasts have been reported in the anatomy of leaves in some of the species and there is a report about Verbascum’s affinity with Scrophularia (Lersten and Curtis, 1997). Molecular data shows relationship for Scrophularia and Verbascum according to ndhf, rps2, rbcl genes (Olmstead et al., 2001). Pollen morphology of some species of the genus has been examined by many researchers (Dane and Yilmaz, 2002; Moor and Webb, 1978. However there are almost no reports on the pollen morphology of the species found in Urmia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials used for this study was collected from wild populations around Urmia. Mature pollen grains of seven species were obtained from dried herbarium specimens. Pollen grains were acetolized using the technique presented by Erdtman (1960). Morphological observations were made in a Philips LX30 Autoscan SEM and LM BX40 Olympus.

RESULTS

The structure of pollen wall was found to be rather uniform in all investigated taxa. The tectum surface is reticulate-microreticulate and all the pollen grains are tricolporate and have the polar diam that range from 25.08 to 41.38 μm and the equatorial diam that range from 15.04 to 35.11 μm.

The polar equatorial diam ratios (P/E) of pollen grains show that shapes are prolate, prolate sphroidal to perprolate.

The colpi are distinct, the colpus membranes are covered sparsely. The shape of the colpi are fusiform. The pollen grains are isopolar.

Apocolpium is present on all pollen grains where colpi are three at the poles.

Verbascum szovitsianum Boiss.: Pollen grains prolate to prolate spheroidal, polar axis 25.08-36.36 μm and the equatorial diam 16.30-30.09 μm (P/E ratio 1.04-1.93) outline at the polar view mostly circular to subtriangular with convex sides, outline at the equatorial view prolate to elliptic. Tectum reticulate (Fig. 1A-C).

Verbascum agrimonifolium (C. Koch)Hub-Mor.: Pollen grains prolate to prolate spheroidal, polar axis 25.08- 37.62 μm and the equatorial diam 15.048-30.96 μm (P/E ratio 1.08-2).

Outline at the polar view mostly circular to subtriangular, outline at the Equatorial view mostly prolate. Tectum microreticulate, reticulate supragemmate (Fig. 1D and E).

Image for - Pollen Morphology of Some Species of Verbasum (Scrophulariaceae) in Urmia
Fig. 1:
A-C: Verbascum szovitsianum; (A) equtorial view scale bar 10 mm; (B and C) polar view (B) scale bar 2 μm (C) scale bar 10 μm, D-E: V.mucronatum; (F) details of ornamentation scale bar 2 μm (I)polar View scale 10 μm, J-K: V.mucronatum (J) polar view scale bar: 5 μm; (K) details of ornamentation scale bar 2 μm; (L) V. oriphilum equatorial view scale bar 5 μm

Verbascum mucronatum Lam.: Pollen grains prolate to prolate spheroidal, polar axis 25.08-40.12 μm, equatorial diameter 15.48-28.84 μm (P/E ratio :1.1-2)

Outline at the polar view mostly circular, outline at the equatorial view mostly oblate circular. Tectum reticulate (Fig. 1F and G).

Verbascum sinuatum L.: Pollen grains prolate to prolate spheroidal, polar axis 25.08-37.62 μm, equatorial axis 15.04-25.08 μm (P/E ratio 1.25-1.85).

Outline at the polar view mostly circular, outline at the equatorial view prolate. Tectum reticulate. The size of pore 4.43-5.17 μm in length and 2.39-3.37 μm in width, apertures lolongate. Colpi clear without granules (Fig. 1H and I).

Verbascum macrocarpum Boiss.: Pollen grains prolate to prolate spheroidal to perprolate, polar axis 25.08-41.38 μm. The equatorial diam 15.04-35.11 μm (P/E ratio: 1.12-2.07). Outline at the polar view mostly subtriangular. Outline at the equatorial view prolate, elliptic. The colpus surface is grandular sparsely. Tectum reticulate with extended muries (Fig. 1J and K).

Verbascum oreophilum C. Koch var. oreophilum (BORDZ) Hub-Mor.: Pollen grains prolate to prolate spheroidal, polar axis 25.08-35.11 μm and the equatorial diam 15.048-28.84 μm (P/E ratio:1.09-1.83) outline at the polar view circular, outline at the equatorial view oblique. Tectum reticulate (Fig. 1L).

Verbascum cheirantifoluim Boiss.: Pollen grains prolate to prolate spheroidal, polar axis 25.08-35.11 μm and equatorial axis 15.048-28.84 μm (P/E ratio:1.09-1.83), outline at the polar view circular to subtriangle, outline at the equatorial view oblique. Tectum reticulate (Fig. 1M).

DISCUSSION

The results from present observation show that all Verbascum species have the same basic type of pollen morphology (reticulate). All the taxa examined are essentially similar in pollen morphology and have the same basic shape-their pollen grains are spheroidal prolate or prolate to perprolate. Tricolporate with three long tapering furrows and lolongate pori. These data support the results given by other workers on the other species of Verbascum (Dane and Yilmaz, 2002).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are grateful to the experts of the herbarium of Natural science specially Mrs. Larti who kindly helped us identifying the plant species and Miss Heidari finding the location of the species. We are grateful to the SEM expert Abdolhamid Rezaii at Tarbiat Modarres University for scientific experience of using the microscope.

REFERENCES

1:  Erdtman, G., 1960. The acetolysis method: A revised description Sue. Sk. Tid Skr., 54: 561-564.

2:  Dane, F. and G. Yilmaz, 2002. Palinological study on some Verbascum L. species. Proceedings of the III international Conference Falz Fein Reading, Apr. 25-27, Training Universty, Kherson/Ukraine, pp :151-151

3:  Ghahreman, A. and F. Attar, 1999. Biodiversity of Plant Species in Iran. Vol. I, Tehran University Publication, Iran, pp: 473-475

4:  Huber-Morath, A., 1978. Verbascum L. In: Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Davis, P.H. (Ed.). Edinburgh University Press, London, UK., pp: 461-600

5:  Juan, R. and I. Fernandez and J. Pastor, 1997. Systematic consideration of microcharacters of fruits and seeds in the genus Verbascum (Scrophulariaceae). Ann. Bot., 80: 591-598.

6:  Lersten, N.R. and J.D. Curtis, 1997. Anatomy and Distribution of foliar Idioblasts in Scrophularia and Verbascum (Scrophulariaceae). Am. J. Bot., 84: 1638-1645.

7:  Moor, P.D. and J.A. Webb, 1978. An Illustrated Guide to Pollen Analysis. Hoddar and Stoughton Publication, London, UK

8:  Olmstead, R.G., C.W. de Pamphilis, A.D. Wolfe., N.D. Young, W.J. Elisons and P.A. Reeves, 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. Am. J. Bot., 88: 348-361.
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9:  Valdes, B., 1987. Scrophulariaceae. In: Flora Vascular De Andalucia Occidental. 2, Valdes, B., S. Talvera and E.F. Galiano (Eds.). Ketres, Barcelona, pp: 486-547

10:  Zohary, M., 1973. Geobotanical Foundation of Middle East. Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, pp: 310

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