Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Effect of Sodium Chloride and Glycine Betaine on Growth and Pectate Lyase Production by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora

Hoda H. El-Hendawy and Mohamed E. Osman
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

E. carotovora subsp. carotovora was grown in YS medium containing different NaCl concentrations. The growth was stimulated, reduced and totally inhibited in presence of 1.5, 3 and 6% NaCl, respectively. Addition of glycine betaine increased the growth in presence of NaCl, but not in its absence, in comparison with the control. Assays of extracellular and cell associated pectate lyase produced by E. carotovora in NaPP-YS medium containing 1.5 and 3% NaCl revealed that the extracellular PL activity was inhibited in presence of NaCl relative to the control. On the other hand, the level of the cell associated enzyme was increased with increasing NaCl concentration. When addition of glycine betaine to the growth medium, the activity of the extracellular PL was increased even in the control medium devoid of NaCl. Also, glycine betaine released the intracellular PL, this was evidenced by the reduction of the cell associated PL activity in its presence compared with the control (absence of glycine betaine).

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Hoda H. El-Hendawy and Mohamed E. Osman , 2005. Effect of Sodium Chloride and Glycine Betaine on Growth and Pectate Lyase Production by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 8: 330-334.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2005.330.334


1:  Csonka, L.N., 1989. Physiological and genetic responses of bacteria to osmotic stress. Microbiol. Rev., 53: 121-147.
Direct Link  |  

2:  Csonka, L.N. and A.D. Hanson, 1991. Procaryotic osmoregulation genetics and physiology. Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 45: 569-606.

3:  Csonka, L.N. and W. Epstein, 1969. Osmoregulation. In: Escherichia coli and Salmonella Cellular and Molecular Biology 1, Neidhardt, F.C. (Ed.). American Society for Microbiology Press, Washington, DC., pp: 1210-1223.

4:  Abee, T., R. Palmen, K.J. Hellingwerf and W.N. Konings, 1990. Osmoregulation in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J. Bacteriol., 172: 149-159.

5:  Oren, A., 1990. Formation and breakdown of glycine betaine and trimethylamine in hypersaline environments. Antonie Leeuwenhoek, 58: 291-298.

6:  Truper, H.G. and E.A. Galinski, 1980. Biosynthesis and fate of compatible solutes in extremely halophilic phototrophic eubacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 75: 247-254.

7:  Landfald, B. and A.R. Strom, 1986. Choline-glycine betaine pathway confers a high level of osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol., 165: 849-855.

8:  Smith, L.T., J.A. Pocard, T. Bernard and D.L. Rudulier, 1988. Osmotic control of glycine betaine biosynthesis and degradation in Rhizobium meliloti. J. Bacteriol., 170: 3142-3149.

9:  Boch, J., B. Kempf and E. Bremer, 1994. Osmoregulation in Bacillus subtilis: Synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from exogenously provided choline. J. Bacteriol., 176: 5364-5371.
Direct Link  |  

10:  Eshkol, D.R. and Y.A. Dor, 1968. Studies on halotolerance in a moderately halophilic bacterium. Effect of betaine on salt resistance of the respiratory system. Biochem. J., 109: 687-691.
Direct Link  |  

11:  Rudulier, D.L. and L. Bouillard, 1983. Glycine betaine, as osmotic effector in Klebsiella pneumoniae and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 46: 152-159.
Direct Link  |  

12:  Prior, B.A., E. Hewitt, E.V. Brandt, A. Clarke and J.P. Mildenhall, 1994. Growth pectate lyase production and solute accumulation by Erwinia chrysanthemi under osmotic stress effect of osmoprotectants. J. Applied Bacteriol., 77: 433-439.

13:  Gouesbet, G., M. Jebbar, S. Bonnassie, N.H.C. Pattat, S.H. Kabbab and C. Blanco, 1995. Erwinia chrysanthemi at high osmolarity influence of osmoprotectents on growth and pectate lyase production. Microbiology, 141: 1407-1412.

14:  Gouesbet, G., A. Trautwetter, S. Bonnasie, L.F. Wu and C. Blanco, 1996. Characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi osmoprotectants transporter gene OusA. J. Bacateriol., 178: 447-455.

15:  Touze, T., G. Gouesbet, C. Boiangiu, M. Jebbar, S. Bonnasie and C. Blanco, 2001. Glycine betaine loses its osmoprotective activity in a BspA strain of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Mol. Microbiol., 42: 87-99.

16:  Touze, T., R. Goude, S. Georgeault, C. Blanco and S. Bonnassie, 2004. Erwinia chrysanthemi O antigen is required for betaine osmoprotection in high-salt media. J. Bacteriol., 186: 5547-5550.

17:  Dulaney, E.L., D.D. Dulaney and E.L. Rickes, 1968. Factors in yeast extract which relieve growth inhibition of bacteria in defined medium of high osmolarity. Dev. Ind. Microbiol., 9: 260-269.

18:  Hendawy, H.H.E., M.E. Osman and H.A. Ramadan, 2002. Pectic enzymes produced in vitro and in vivo by Erwinia spp. isolated from carrot and pepper in Egypt. J. Phytopathol., 150: 431-438.

19:  Mildenhall, J.P., W.A. Linder, B.A. Prior and K. Tutt, 1988. Elevation and release of cell-associated pectate lyase in Erwinia chrysanthemi by lithium and sodium chloride. Phytopathology, 78: 213-217.

20:  Albersheim, P., K. Muklethaler and A.F. Wyssling, 1960. Stained pectin as seen in the electron microscope. J. Biolphys. Biochem. Cytol., 8: 501-506.

21:  Bradford, M.M., 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem., 72: 248-254.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

22:  Cayley, S., B.A. Lewis and M.T. Record Jr, 1992. Origins of the osmoprotective properties of betaine and proline in Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol., 174: 1586-1595.
Direct Link  |  

23:  Bourot, S., O. Sirre, A. Trautwetter, T. Touze, L.F. Wu, C. Blanco and T. Bernard, 2000. Glycine betaine-assisted protein folding in a LysA mutant of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem., 275: 1050-1056.

24:  Pattat, N.H.C., H. Dominguez and H.R. Baudouy, 1992. Environmental conditions affect transcription of the pectinase genes of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937. J. Bacteriol., 174: 7807-7818.

25:  Stewart, C.K. and J.A. Lee, 1974. The role of proline accumulation in halophytes. Planta, 120: 279-289.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

26:  Storey, R. and R.G. Jones, 1977. Quaternary ammonium compounds in plants in relation to salt resistance. Phytochemistry, 16: 447-453.

27:  Hanson, A.D. and C.E. Nelsen, 1978. Betaine accumulation and [C14] formate metabolism in water stressed barley leaves. Plant Physiol., 62: 305-312.

28:  Monyo, E.S., G. Ejeta and D. Rhodes, 1992. Genotypic variation for its relationship to agronomic and morphological traits. Maydica, 37: 283-286.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved