Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Supplementation of a Corn-soybean Meal Diet with Manganese and Zinc Improves Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens



A. Zamani , H.R. Rahmani and J. Pourreza
 
ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing the diet of laying hens with a combination of Zn and Mn on eggshell quality. Six hundred and forty white leghorn laying hens, strain Hy-Line W36 were divided into two groups according to age (28 and 44 week old). Each group then was divided into 64 and five birds per group (totally 128 groups). In both groups every four cages were assigned to one of the 16 experimental diets. Sixteen experimental diets included a corn-soybean basal diet containing 50 mg kg-1 Zn and 30 mg kg-1 Mn supplemented with 0-0, 0-30, 0-60, 0-90, 50-0, 50-30, 50-60, 50-90, 100-0, 100-30, 100-60, 100-90, 150-0, 150-30, 150-60 and 150-90 mg kg-1 of Zn and Mn, respectively. Addition of Zn increased eggshell thickness, concentration of Ca in eggshell and eggshell index and decreased concentration of P in eggshell significantly (p<0.05) and did not affect the following measures of eggshell quality: percentage, stiffness, elastic modulus, breaking strength and fracture toughness of eggshell and egg weight. In contrast addition of Mn increased percentage, stiffness, elastic modulus, breaking strength and fracture toughness of eggshell significantly (p<0.05), but did not affect the following measures of eggshell quality: Concentration of P and Ca, index and thickness of eggshell and egg weight. Addition of Zn and Mn in combination increased percentage, index (shell weight per unit surface area), stiffness, elastic modulus, breaking strength, thickness, fracture toughness and concentration of Ca in eggshell and decreased concentration of P in eggshell and did not affect egg weight. In older hens there was a significantly increase in egg weight, breaking strength, elastic modulus, stiffness and fracture toughness of eggshell and significantly (p<0.05) decrease in thickness, percentage and index of eggshell without any effect on concentration of P and Ca in eggshell.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

A. Zamani , H.R. Rahmani and J. Pourreza , 2005. Supplementation of a Corn-soybean Meal Diet with Manganese and Zinc Improves Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 8: 1311-1317.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2005.1311.1317

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2005.1311.1317

REFERENCES
Abdallah, A.G., R.H. Harms, H.R. Wilson and O.E.L. Husseini, 1994. Effect of removing trace minerals from the diet of hens laying eggs with heavy or light shell weight. Poult. Sci., 73: 295-301.
PubMed  |  

Arias, J.L., D.J. Fink, S. Xiao, A.H. Heuer and A.I. Caplan, 1993. Biomineralization and eggshells: Cell-mediated acellular compartments of mineralized extracellular matrix. Int. Rev. Cytol., 145: 217-250.
PubMed  |  

Bain, M.M., 1990. Eggshell strength: A mechanical/ultrastructural evaluation. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Glasgow.

Faria, D.E., O.M. Junqueira, N.K. Sakomura and A.E. Santana, 1999. Effect of different levels of manganese and phosphorus on the performance and eggshell quality of laying hens. Rev. Soc. Bras. Zoot., 28: 105-112.

Garcia-Ruiz, J.M. and A. Rodriguez-Navarro, 1994. The mineral structure of the avian eggshell: A case of competitive crystal growth. Proc. Fundam. Biomin., Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., 14: 85-94.
Direct Link  |  

Holder, D.P. and D.M. Huntley, 1978. Influence of added manganese, magnesium, zinc and calcium level on eggshell quality. Poult. Sci., 57: 1629-1634.

Inal, F., B. Coskun, N. Gulsen and V. Kurtoglu, 2001. The effects of withdrawal of vitamin and trace mineral supplements from layer diets on egg yield and trace mineral composition. Br. Poult. Sci., 42: 77-80.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Karunajeewa, H. and S.H. Tham, 1987. The effect of rice pollar and manganese levels in diet on egg weight, shell quality and performance of crossbred layers. J. Sci. Food Agric., 41: 141-152.
Direct Link  |  

Kita, K., I. Hohmura and J.L. Okumura, 1997. Influence of dietary zinc-methionine on eggshell quality in laying hens under hot climate environment. Jap. Poult. Sci., 34: 21-26.

Leach, R.M. and J.R. Gross, 1983. The effect of manganese deficiency upon the ultrastructure of the eggshell. Poult. Sci., 62: 499-504.
PubMed  |  

Leach, R.M., 1976. Metabolism and Function of Manganese. In: Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease, Prasad, A.S. (Ed.). Vol. II, Academic Press, New York, pp: 235-247.

Mann, S., D.A. Archibald, J.M. Didymus, T. Douglas, B.R. Heywood, F.C. Meldrum and N.J. Reeves, 1993. Crystallization at inorganic-organic interfaces biominerals and biomimetic synthesis. Sciences, 261: 1286-1292.
CrossRef  |  

Morenge, R.E., D. Balnave and D. Zhang, 1992. Dietary zinc methionine effect on eggshell quality of hens drinking saline water. Poul. Sci., 71: 1163-1167.
Direct Link  |  

National Research Council, 1984. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals: Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 8th Rev. Edn., Nattional Acadmic Science, Washington, DC.

Nys, Y., 2001. Recent developments in layer nutrition for optimizing shell quality. Proceedings of the 13th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, (ESPN'01), Blankenberge, Belgium, pp: 42-52.

Nys, Y., J. Gautron, M.D. McKee, J.M. Garcia-Ruiz and M. Hincke, 2001. Biochemical and functional characterization of eggshell matrix proteins. Worlds Poult. Sci. J., 57: 401-403.
CrossRef  |  

Nys, Y., M.T. Hincke, J.L. Arias, J.M. Garcia-Ruiz and S.E. Solomon, 1999. Avian eggshell mineralization. Poult. Avian Biol. Rev., 10: 143-166.

Ochrimento, C., A. Lemser, G. Richtter, U. Krause and H. Bonsak, 1992. Effect of manganese content in laying hen feed with different Ca and mineral level on the eggshell quality and bone mineralization of hens. Arch. Tiernahr., 42: 25-35.
PubMed  |  

Rajam, S. and S. Mann, 1990. Selective stabilization of the face of calcite in the presence of lithium. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 24: 1789-1791.

Rodriguez, A., O. Kalin, Y. Nys and J.M. Garcia-Ruiz, 2002. Influence of the microstructure on the shell strength of eggs laid by hens of different ages. Br. Poult. Sci., 43: 395-403.
PubMed  |  

Sazzad, H.M., A.G. Bertechini and P.T.C. Nobre, 1994. Egg production, tissue deposition and mineral metabolism in two strains of commercial layers with various levels of manganese in diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 46: 271-275.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Statview, 1995. SAS Institute Inc., 1995. Version 4.5, Cary, NC., USA.

Stevenson, M.H., 1985. Effect of added cassava root meal, ZnO and their interaction on the production and quality of eggs from laying hens. J. Sci. Food Agric., 36: 909-914.

Voisey, P.W. and J.R. Hunt, 1974. Review paper: Measurement of eggshell strength. J. Text. Stud., 5: 135-182.
Direct Link  |  

Voisey, P.W. and R.M.G. Hamilton, 1975. Behaviour of eggshell under compression in relation to deformation measurements. Br. Poult. Sci., 16: 461-470.
Direct Link  |  

Whisenhunt, J.E. and D.V. Maurice, 1985. Effect of dietary manganese and phosphorus on the strength of avian eggshell. Nutr. Rep. Int., 31: 757-763.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved