Antifungal Effects of Plant Extracts on Seed-borne Fungi of Wheat Seed Regarding Seed Germination, Seedling Health and Vigour Index
M.M. Hasan ,
S.P. Chowdhury ,
Shahidul Alam ,
Ten plant extracts, such as rhizome of Zingiber officinale, bulb of
Allium sativum, Allium cepa, leaves of Adhatoda vesica, Lawsonia
alba, Azadirachta indica, Achyranthes aspera, stem of Cuscuta
reflexa, root of Vinca rosea and seeds of Nigella sativa were
tested for their efficacy in vitro against seed-borne fungi of wheat. All
the plant extracts significantly reduced the incidence of seed-borne fungi;
increased seed germination; number of healthy seedlings and vigour index.
Alcoholic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) and garlic (Allium
sativum) completely controlled the intensity of Bipolaris sorokiniana,
Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus
sp. after the treatment on wheat seeds. Next to garlic and neem, V. rosea
extract showed good inhibition and 1.40% intensity of B. sorokiniana
followed by bulb extract of A. cepa and leaf extract of A. aspera
(1.53 and 1.53%). Water extract of test plants also showed good antifungal
effects against seed-borne fungi of wheat. Treated seeds of wheat by the extract
of A. indica gave 99.33% seed germination, which is 16.86% higher over
untreated control. The highest vigour index (1936, 2194; 1826, 2223 and 1871,
2174) was recorded after the application with alcoholic and water extracts of
rhizome of ginger, bulb of garlic and leaf of neem on seeds of wheat while the
lowest was in untreated control. The highest (86.95%) and the lowest (13.05%)
healthy and infected seedlings were recorded when the seeds were treated with
neem extract. Next to neem extract, garlic extract treated wheat seeds gave
84.70% healthy seedlings and 15.13% infected seedlings, respectively.
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