Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Physiological and Biochemical Adaptation of Triticum vulgaris L. to pH Stress by Hormonal Application

Sahar A. El-Khawas
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

After a preliminary test experiment, wheat grains previously presoaked in phosphate buffer at different pHs as well as an optimum concentration of IAA were sown and grown during 2001 and 2002 growing seasons at the green house of Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University in order to study the possible adaptive mechanisms to ameliorate the pH stress on the growth parameters and anabolic capacities of both the vegetative growth and yield. The results revealed that plants under acidic pH have obvious reduced growth and metabolism. Exogenous application of IAA can stimulate resistance against the unfavourable environmental pH value and improve plant growth under stress by developing various mechanisms, which include increasing both the chlorophyll contents and their stability and consequently the soluble sugars content which play an important role in the readjustment of plant cell`s osmotic potential to prevent water loss under stress condition, minimizing the reduction of the element uptake and also correcting absorption of ions at the root epidermal plasma membrane especially K+ which accumulates more than Ca+2 suggesting that Ca+2 might have a regulatory role than being directly as osmoticum, quantitative increase in the low molecular weight protein (20.4 kDa) and increase in both the soluble protein and proline which acts as a free radical scavenger and limits the cytoplasmic acidification, thus protecting cytoplasmic enzymes. The most interesting mechanism is concerned with the ratio of total polyamine/putresine which is an indication of the deleterious injury induced in the plant cells under stress. This ratio was decreased by elevating the putresine content. In general, it could be concluded that an adaptive mechanism has been developed by Triticum vulgaris cv. Sids 1 in response to exogenous hormonal application under acidic pH stress enabling the plant to grow under such stress and improve the crop yield productivity and quality.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Sahar A. El-Khawas , 2004. Physiological and Biochemical Adaptation of Triticum vulgaris L. to pH Stress by Hormonal Application. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 7: 852-860.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2004.852.860



1:  Gerendas, J. and R.G. Raticliffe, 2000. Intracellular pH regulation in maize root tips exposed to ammonium at high external pH. J. Exp. Bot., 51: 207-219.
CrossRef  |  

2:  Zaifnejad, M., R.B. Clark and S.V. Sullivan, 1997. Aluminium and water stress effects on growth and proline of Sorghum. J. Plant Physiol., 150: 338-344.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Gadallah, M.A., 1994. The combined effects of acidification stress and kinetin on chlorophyll content, dry matter accumulation and transpiration coefficient in Sorghum bicolor plants. Biol. Planta., 36: 149-153.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Medeiros, C.A.B., R.B. Clark and J.R. Ellis, 1994. Effects of excess aluminum on mineral uptake in mycorrhizal sorghum. J. Plant Nutr., 17: 1399-1416.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Wilkinson, R.E. and R.R. Dunacan, 1994. Acid-soil stress influence on mineral ion contents of Sorghum leaves and juvenile panicles. J. Plant Nutr., 17: 1309-1332.
CrossRef  |  

6:  Salisbury, F.B. and C.W. Ross, 1992. Plant Physiology. 4th Edn., Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belnont, CA

7:  Todd, G.W. and E. Basler, 1965. Fate of various protoplasmic constituents in droughted wheat plants. Phyton, 22: 79-85.

8:  Murty, K.S. and S.K. Majumder, 1962. Modification of the technique for determination of chlorophyll stability index in relation to studies of drought resistance in rice. Cur. Sci., 31: 470-471.

9:  Prud'homme, M.P., B. Gonzalez, J.P. Billard and J. Boucaud, 1992. Carbohydrate content, fructan and sucrose enzyme activities in roots, stubble and leaves of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as affected by source/sink modification after cutting. J. Plant Phys., 140: 282-291.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Bates, L.S., R.P. Waldren and I.D. Teare, 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil, 39: 205-207.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Chaney, A.L. and E.P. Marbach, 1962. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin. Chem., 8: 130-132.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Clark, J.M. and R.L. Switzer, 1977. Experimental Biochemistry. 2nd Edn., Freedman and Company, San Francisco

13:  Bradford, M.M., 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem., 72: 248-254.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Laemmli, U.K., 1970. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature, 227: 680-685.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Shindy, W.W. and O.E. Smith, 1975. Identification of plant hormones from cotton ovules. Plant Physiol., 55: 550-554.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Shalaby, A.R., 1995. Multidetection semiquantitative method for determining biogenic amines in food. Food Chem., 52: 367-372.

17:  Smith, M.A. and P.J. Davies, 1985. Separation and quantification of polyamines in plant tissue by high performance liquid chromatography of their dansyl derivatives. Plant Physiol., 78: 89-91.

18:  Kershengal, T.S. and V.V, Rogozhin, 1998. Effect of pH and the ionic nature of the swelling medium on germination of wheat seeds. Izvestiya Timiryazevskoi Sel Skokhozyaistvennoi Akademii, 1: 141-147.

19:  Cheng-Cang, M.A., H. Fashui, C.C. Ma and F.S. Hong, 1998. Effect of pH on seed germination and seedling growth and metabolism in rap. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 24: 504-509.

20:  Bu, C.G. and Y.X. Xing, 1991. Study on the influence of nutrient solutions with different pH on the growth and development of cucumber plants. J. Shandong Agric. Univ., 22: 318-322.

21:  Fageria, N.K. and F.J.P. Zimmermann, 1998. Influence of pH on growth and nutrient uptake by crop species in an oxisal. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 29: 2675-2682.

22:  Kallenback, R.L., R.L. McGraw and P.R. Beuselinck, 1996. Soil pH effects on growth and mineral concentration of birdsfoot trefoil. Can. J. Plant Sci., 76: 263-267.

23:  Marler, T.E., 1998. Solution pH influences on growth and mineral element concentratios of Waimanalo (Papaya) seedlings. J. Plant Nut., 12: 2601-2612.
Direct Link  |  

24:  Ila-Ava, P., C.J. Asher, F.P.C. Date, N.J. Grundon and G.E. Rayment et al., 1996. Growth of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) as affected by pH in solution culture. Plant Soil Sci., 64: 627-630.

25:  Ila-Ava, V.P., C.J. Asher and F.P.C. Blamey, 2000. Response of sweet potato cultivars to acid soil infertility factors. I. Effects of solution pH on early growth. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 51: 23-28.
CrossRef  |  

26:  Clarkson, D.T., 1985. Factor affecting mineral nutrient acquisition by plants. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 36: 77-115.
CrossRef  |  

27:  Botia, J.M., A. Ortuno, F. Sabater and J. Acosta-Sanchez-Bravo, 1994. Uptake and decarboxylation of indole-3-acetic acid during auxin induced growth in lupin hypocotyls segments. Influence of pH and vanadate. Planta, 193: 224-231.

28:  Drazkiewicz, M., 1994. Chlorophyll-occurrence function, mechanism of action, effects of external and internal factors (Review). Photosynthetica, 30: 321-331.

29:  Borrell, A., L. Carbonell, R. Farras, P. Puig-Parellada and A.F. Tiburcio, 1997. Polyamines inhibit lipid peroxidation in senescing oat leaves. Physiol. Plant., 99: 385-390.
CrossRef  |  

30:  Woo, J.H., I.S. Ann and Y.G. Park, 1998. Changes in chlorophyll contents of leaves and pH of the extracted solution from the leaves of 7 tree species by pH levels. J. Korean For. Soc., 87: 145-152.

31:  Krupa, Z., 1988. Cadmium-induced changes in the composition and structure of light harvesting complex II in radish cotyledons. Plant Physiol., 73: 518-524.
Direct Link  |  

32:  Ghoshroy, S. and M.J. Nadakavukaren, 1990. Influence of cadmium on the ultrastructure of developing chloroplast of soybean and corn. Environ. Exp. Bot., 30: 187-192.
CrossRef  |  

33:  Shabala, S., O. Babourina and I. Newman, 2000. Ion-specific mechanisms of osmoregulation in bean mesophyll cells. J. Exp. Bot., 51: 1243-1253.
Direct Link  |  

34:  Skriver, K. and J. Mundy, 1990. Gene expression in response to abscisic acid and osmotic stress. Plant Cell, 2: 503-512.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

35:  Fageria, N.K. and V.C. Baligar, 1999. Growth and nutrient concentrations of common bean, low land rice, corn, soybean and wheat at different soil pH on an Inceptisol. J. Plant Nut., 22: 1495-1507.
CrossRef  |  

36:  Zoldos, F., A. Vashegyi and A. Pecsvaradi, 1994. Effect of pH and nitrate on potassium uptake and growth of rice seedling. J. Plant Physiol., 144: 358-361.

37:  Sonnevel, C., W. Voogt and R.U. Rober, 1997. Effects of pH value and Mu application on yield and nutrient absorption with rockwool grown gerbera. Acta Hortic., 450: 139-147.

38:  Wright, S.T.C., 1978. Phytohormones and Stress Phenomena. In: Phytohormones and Related Compounds Comprehensive (reatise) II, Phytohormones and the Development of Higher Plants, Letham, D.S., P.B. Goodwin and T.J.V. Higgins (Eds.). Elsevier, North Holland

39:  Venekamp, J.H., J.M.F. Lampe and J.T. Koot, 1989. Organic acids as sources for drought induced praline synthesis in field been plants (Vicia faba L.). J. Plant Physiol., 133: 654-659.

40:  Serrano, R. and R. Gaxiola, 1994. Microbial models and salt stress tolerance in plants. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci., 13: 121-138.
Direct Link  |  

41:  Sergiev, I., V. Alexieva and E. Karanov, 1997. Effect of spermine, atrazine and combination between them on some endogenous protective systems and stress markers in plants. Compt. Rend. Acad. Bulg. Sci., 51: 121-124.

42:  Basu, R. and B. Ghosh, 1991. Polyamines in various rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes with respect to sodium chloride salinity. Plant Physiol., 82: 575-581.

43:  SAS Program, 1982. SAS User`s Guide: Statistics. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC., pp: 584

44:  Hassid, W.Z. and E.F. Newfeld, 1962. Whole Starches and Modified Starches: Quantitative Determination in Plant Tissue. Whistler Academic Press, New York, pp: 33-36

45:  Whistler, R.L., M.L. Wolform, J.N. BeMiller and F. Shafizadeh, 1962. Anthrone Colorimetric Method. In: Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry, Scott, T.A. and E.H. Melvin (Eds.). Vol. 1, Academic Press, New York, London, pp: 384

46:  Saito, M., 1988. The relationship between soil pH under the rice seedling box and growth of rice seedlings. Report of the Tohoku Crop Science Society of Japan.

47:  Day, A. and K. Ludeke, 1993. Plant Nutrients in Desert Environment. Springer-Verlage, Berllin, Heidelberg, New York, Paris, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Barcelona, Budapest, pp: 117

48:  Kefeli, Z.I., 1978. Natural Plant Growth Inhibitors and Phytohormone. The Hague, Boston

49:  Galston, A.W. and R. Kaur-Sawhney, 1995. Polyamines as Endogenous Growth Regulators. In: Plant Hormones: Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Davies, P.J. (Ed.). Kluwer Academic Publications, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp: 158-178

50:  Gadallah, M.A.A. and S.A. Sayed, 2001. The impact of kinetin application on water relations, leaf osmotic potential and soluble carbon and nitrogen compound contents in Sorghum bicolor plants growing at varying levels of soil acidity. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 4: 10-16.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

51:  Velikova, V., I. Yordanov and A. Edreva, 2000. Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants: Protective role of exogenous polyamines. Plant Sci., 151: 59-66.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

52:  Smirnoff, N. and Q.J. Cumbes, 1989. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of compatible solutes. Phytochemistry, 28: 1057-1060.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2022 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved