The oil seeds of Abutilon muticum (Akri) have been studied for their chemical composition and nutritive value. Moisture and ash content are not very significant but their oil contents is important. The oil seed cakes contain a reasonable amount of protein, starch, free sugar, reducing sugar, cude fiber, inorganic material and vitamin C. physical properties such as saponification value, acid value iodine value and peroxide value for seed oil were determined. It was found that oil was non edible because acid value was high. Qualitatively analysis of amino acid was studied by paper chromatography.
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Vegetable oils are very important for human beings because oil have a nutritive value. A good percentage yield of oil crops are international demand because oil is a important component of our meals. It was found that abutilon muticum occurs in plains through out Pakistan specially more common in Sindh and abundantly in desert of Cholistan Bahawalpur. Abutilon muticum is of cotton family, perennial herb and shrub, 0.5-2 m tall, small leaves 2-16 cmm across, seeds usually 2 mm. The oil seeds contain significant amounts of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acid. (Lander and Morrison 1962). Besides these they also contain significant amount of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The oil cakes are used for diary cattle. The cakes are also used as fertilizer. They can also be used in the manufacture of soaps and pharmaceutical products. The oil seeds have some importance in the treatment of colds, cough and bronchial infections. Inflammation of urinary tract, gonozzhea diarrhea are also used in the relief of local inflammation and ulcers (Gutkin, 1950).
The present study has been undertaken to explore the physical, chemical properties and minerals contents of oil. It was further found that recent studies on essential oil give maximum information about the utility of these essential oils. ( Demiriei; 2000, Demetzos, 2000, Hadiak et, al., 2002).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Seeds were collected from Cholistan desert adjoining to department of chemistry, Islamia University Bahawalpur. Petroleum ether, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, glucose, anthrone were obtained from BDH Co Ltd. Sodium hydroxide, dinitro salicyclic acid, phenol, diethyl ether and chloroform were purchased from E. Merck. The entire reagents were of analytical grade and was used with out further purification.
Estimation of different contents: After having the knowledge of moisture content of oil seed by conventional methods, the seeds were subjected to following estimations.
|•||Protein content of different varieties of seed cakes were determined by the micro Jeldahl method (Jayaraman, 1985).|
|•||Crude fiber was estimated by the following method. The fat free cake (2-3 g) was mixed with 0.2N H2SO4 and boiled for 30 min. the mixture was filtered and residue was washed with hot water, until free from acid. The residue was boiled with 1.25% NaOH for 30 min and filtered and again washed with hot water until free from alkali, followed by washing with ethanol and ether. Finally it was dried at 110°C over night in a crucible cooled and content was then heated at 600°C for 3 h, cooled and weighed. The difference in weight represents the amount of crude fiber (AOAC, 1980).|
|•||Free sugar and starch contents of oil seeds were determined colorimetrically followed by enthrone method (Morse, 1947) and reducing sugar content was estimated by D N S method (Miller, 1959) using glucose as a standard|
|•||Phosphorous and Iron contents were estimated spectrophotometrcally (Vogel, 1953) while Calcium content was determined by titration (Oser, 1965).|
|•||The amount of vitamin C was estimated titrimetrically following the Besseys method (Bessey, 1944).|
Identification of free amino acids: Free amino acids present in seed cake was identificated by two dimensional paper. Chromatography method (Jayaraman, 1985) using n-butanol, acetic acid and water in 3:1:1: ratio and phenol with water (4:1) solvent systems.
Extraction and purification of the oil: The oil was obtained from the oil seeds by the solvent extraction process, using petroleum ether as a solvent. (40-60°C) by soxhlet apparatus (Southcombe, 1962). For purification, the oil was taken in a separating funnel along with water (100 ml), ether (200 ml) and satuated sodium chloride, the content was shaken well and allowed to stand. The aqueous layer was discarded and the process was repeated two times with organic layer. Finally the ethereal extract was taken in a conical flask and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate (20 g) and was evaporated at 40°C to get the purified oil.
Chemical properties of the oil: The saponification value (Hilditch, 1949), the quantity of unsaponification matter, iodine value (Williams, 1966) and peroxide value (Jacobs, 1958) were determined by standard methods. The saponification equivalent (Hilditch, 1949) of the oil was calculated from its saponification value. Acid value of the oil (williams, 1966) was determined as the percentage of free fatty acid (as oleic acid ) present in the oil.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The moisture, ash, oil and cake contents of seeds are shown in Table 1. The moisture contents in fresh oil seeds was 7.6%
The moisture content of oil seeds are quite close to the brassica and linseed as reported by (krishnamurthy et al., 1960). The Ash contents are 5.3% this indicates that seed contains higher percentage of mineral, matter. It was found that four amino acids were detected. The essential amino acids are Alaninie, Arginine, Glutamic acid and Leucine were present as shown in Table 2.
The Table 3 indicates the fiber, protein, carbohydrate, vitamin c and mineral elements.
It was found that these values are in close agreement with the values as reported indian sesame oil (Lander and morrison (1962).
|Table 1:|| |
Moisture, ash, oil and cake content in oil seeds*
|*Estimation was done twice and the mean value was tabulated|
|Table 2:||The free amino acid content of oil seeds|
|*+ Indicates presence – Indicates absence|
|Table 3:||Composition of oil seed cake*|
* Estimation was done twice and the mean value was tabulated
|Table 4:||Chemical and physical analysis of oil|
The result indicates that oil seed cake may be considered as a good source of calcium and phosphorus so we can used as fertilizer.
Analysis of oil: The physical and chemical analysis of oil gives information about the suitability of oil or fat for specific purpose.