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Research Article
 

Effects of Water-Logging on Juice Quality and Yield of Sugarcane



M. Fida Hasan, M.R. Alam , M.A. Jabber , M.K. Begum and M.A.S. Miah
 
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ABSTRACT

Chemical quality and yield performance were studied in six new sugarcane genotypes at normal and water-logging condition. The highest chemical indices, Brix % (22.20) and pol % (20.53) were found in January’ 2002 in I-93/93 and I-110/93 respectively and the lowest in I-39/94 (Brix %: 14.93; pol %: 12.52) at water-logged cultivated cane in all months. The highest of purity % (95.79) and recovery % (13.05) were found in I-110/93 in the month December 2001 and January’ 2002 respectively and the lowest in Isd 20 (purity % : 77.44; recovery % 6.49 in September 2001) at water-logged and normal cultivated cane respectively. The highest R.S. % (1.51) was found in I-39/94 in all months and the lowest in I-110/93 (0.09) at water-logged cultivated cane. Result showed that the highest tiller (183.3×1000 ha–1 in I-110/93), millable cane (117.8×1000 ha–1 in I-8/95), Yield (162.8 t ha–1 in I-8/95) and TSH (16.63 ton sugar ha–1 in I-110/93) were found in normal cultivated and the lowest were found in water-logged cultivated sugarcane (tiller 107.6×1000 ha–1 in Isd 20; millable cane 73.38×1000 ha–1 in Isd 30; yield 59.4 t ha–1 in Isd 20 and TSH 6.75 ton sugar ha–1 in Isd 20). It is concluded that the highest percentage in juice quality were found in water-logged condition cultivated cane, on the other hand growth & yield performance were also found in highest in normal cultivated cane. In aspect of sugar production some tested cultivars showed (Isd-20, I-93/93 and I-8/95) similar performance in normal and water-logged cultivated sugarcane due to genetic potentiality and environmental adaptation on quality, yield and growth.

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  How to cite this article:

M. Fida Hasan, M.R. Alam , M.A. Jabber , M.K. Begum and M.A.S. Miah , 2003. Effects of Water-Logging on Juice Quality and Yield of Sugarcane. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 6: 1151-1155.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2003.1151.1155

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2003.1151.1155

Introduction

In Bangladesh sugarcane, a major cash-cum-industrial crop faces different vagaries of nature especially biotic/abiotic stresses during its life cycle. The growth and yield of a plant are modulated by a number factors of abiotic stress. The yield and quality effects due to water-logging depends upon the genotypes, environmental conditions, stage of development and the duration of stress (Orchard and Jessop, 1984; Choi et al., 1986). In sugarcane cultivation, water logging is an acute problem particularly where surface drainage facilities are not adequate. Due to growing demand of vegetables and cereal crops one-third acreage of sugarcane is planted on relatively low land in Bangladesh where water remains stagnant for a longer period resulting in very poor yield. Higher water table during active growth phase adversely affects stalk weight and plant population leading to the reduction of yield of about one ton per acre for each one inch increase in excess water (Carter, 1976; Carter and Floyed, 1974). The effect of excess water stress using temporary or continuous flooding has been studied extensive (Scott et al., 1989; Jackson et al., 1978). The deleterious effects of water logging on crop growth and survival have been examined on other crops namely sunflower (Torres and Diedenhofen, 1981); wheat and barley (Pomeroy and Andrews, 1978).

Nutrient uptake is affected under water logging where aerobic respiration by sugarcane root system is poor (Singh, 1990). Furthermore, under water logging condition, some morphological, anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes take place in plant for the sack of adaptation/survival (Barclay and Crawford, 1982). In general, all plants accumulate ethanol and malate, and increased levels of alcohol and dehydrogenase. However, no significant changes have been observed in report to pyruvate decarboxylase and malate dehydronase between aerated and flood stressed plants. The levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose however were found to higher during anerobic growth, but there was no correlation between sugar levels and flooding tolerance among different plants (Rahman et al., 1985). Moreover, excess rainfall during late summer and monsoon quite often creates flooding problem and rears have no option but to use flood affected sugarcane. However, information is lacking on the effect of water. So, an effort has been made to comparative study to potential of genotypes leading to higher yield and Ton Sugar Per Hectare (TSH).

Materials and Methods

An investigation was conducted at the Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute (BSRI) farm during 2000-2001 cropping season. Six sugarcane genotypes Isd 20, Isd 30, I-93/93, I-110/93, I-39/94 and I-8/95 were planted in plots 6x8 m following Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The artificial water-logging was created for different periods ranging from 24 to 168 h, keeping 15 cm water level from the surface of soil in the filed along with control. The water depth was maintained from grand growth phase to maturity. All recommended cultural practices were done as when required.

Laboratory analysis of cane juice was done at different maturity stages. The cane samples were crushed in a three-roller mill (power crusher) to get juice for analysis. Brix was determined by Brix hydrometer standardized at 200C and Horne's dry lead method was used for sucrose determination using automatic polarimeter (ADP-220). The purity percentage of juice was calculated by ratio between sucrose content and corrected Brix reading. Purity and sugar recovery per cent were calculated from Brix and pol % as well as reducing sugars were determined by the method prescribed in Queensland Laboratory Manual (Anon, 1970). Data were recorded on different growth parameters viz. tiller number at 120 DAP (days after planting), number of millable cane, cane yield and sugar yield.

Data on different parameters were subjected to statistical analysis and mean values were compared using LSD at 5% level of significance (Gomez and Gomez, 1984).

Results and Discussion

The juice quality of sugarcane as indicated by Brix, Pol, Purity and Recovery per cent were significantly higher under water-logged condition than sugarcane grown in high lands free from water-logging in maximum cultivars of different months.

In the month of September 2001 the highest Brix per cent (21.43) was obtained in I-93/93 in water-logged sugarcane and the lowest was in I-39/94 (14.93) in normal cultivated sugarcane. In October, November, December 2001 and January' 2002 the highest Brix per cent was found in I-93/93 in water logged condition than normal condition. In December’ 2001 cultivars I-39/94 produced lowest Brix per cent (16.57) in water-logged condition.

The highest Pol per cent was found in I-93/93 in water-logged condition of different months except December 2001 and January 2002. In December 2001 cultivars I-93/93 produced highest Pol per cent (17.99) in normal cultivated sugarcane. On the contrary, the lowest Pol per cent was found in Isd 20 in the month of September (11.70) and November (15.46) in normal condition. In January’ 2002 the lowest Pol percent (15.68) was found in I-39/94 in normal cultivated sugarcane. I-110/93 produced lowest Pol per cent (14.03) in October and I- 8/85 produced lowest (16.42) in December 2001 in normal cultivated sugarcane.

The highest Purity percent was found in the clone of I-110/93 in different months in water-logged condition. The lowest purity percent was found in Isd 20 in the month of September, October and November 2001 in normal condition. In the month of December 2001 and January 2002 the lowest purity percent was found in I-39/94 in normal cultivated sugarcane.

In the month of September, October and November’ 2001 cultivars I-93/93 showed highest recovery per cent in water-logged condition but in December’ 2001 and January 2002, I-110/93 showed highest recovery per cent. On the other hand, the lowest recovery per cent was found in Isd 20 in normal cultivated in the month of September, October and November 2001. In the month of December' 2001 and January’ 2002 cultivars I-8/95 and I-39/94 showed lowest recovery per cent respectively, in normal cultivated sugarcane. The water-logging decrease reducing sugars in maximum tested cultivars. In the month of January 2002, purity and recovery percentage were no significant difference between water-logged and normal cultivated cane.

We know that water-logged condition create red rot disease. Although the juice quality of sugarcane which indicated by Brix, Pol, Purity and Recovery per cent were significantly differ in water-logged condition than normal condition in maximum cultivars. Parthasarathy (1969) observed that the sugarcane crop is more susceptible to water-logging in the first 3 or 4 months it is somewhat tolerant and beyond that, hastens maturity. It has been reported elsewhere that physical and chemical properties of sugarcane are greatly affected with the change of maturity status (Dilley, 1970; Alexander, 1973). Dilley (1970) reported sharp physical and chemical changes during ripening as a result of catabolic and anabolic processes.

The growth parameters of sugarcane, which is estimated by, tiller, millable cane, cane yield and sugar yield were higher in different clones and varieties in normal cultivated sugarcane than water-logged sugarcane.

The highest tiller (183.3) was produced in I-110/93 in normal cultivated sugarcane. While the lowest in Isd 20 in water-logged sugarcane. Genotype I-8/95 produced highest millable cane (117.8) and highest yield (162.8) in normal cultivation practice while the lowest millable cane was found in Isd 30 (73.3), Isd 20 produced lowest cane yield (59.4) in water-logged sugarcane. The detrimental effects of water-logging on ton sugar per hectare, yield, millable cane and other parameters except chemical quality (Brix, pol, purity, recovery). Cultivars I- 110/93 showed the highest yield loss (33.97 t ha-1) while I-93/93 showed the lowest (9.05 t ha-1).

Table 1:
Brix per cent in juice of normal cultivated and water-logged sugarcane
Image for - Effects of Water-Logging on Juice Quality and Yield of Sugarcane

Table 2:
Pol per cent in juice of normal cultivated and water-logged sugarcane
Image for - Effects of Water-Logging on Juice Quality and Yield of Sugarcane
N = Normal Cultivated Sugarcane; WL = Water-logged Sugarcane; Different letter indicates significance difference as per LSD at 5% level; NS = Not Significant

Table 3:
Purity per cent in juice of normal cultivated and water-logged sugarcane
Image for - Effects of Water-Logging on Juice Quality and Yield of Sugarcane

Table 4:
Recovery per cent in juice of normal cultivated and water-logged sugarcane
Image for - Effects of Water-Logging on Juice Quality and Yield of Sugarcane
N = Normal Cultivated Sugarcane; WL= Water-logged Sugarcane; Different letter indicates significance difference as per LSD at 5% level; NS = Not Significant

Table 5 : Reducing Sugars per cent in juice of normal cultivated and water-logged sugarcane
Image for - Effects of Water-Logging on Juice Quality and Yield of Sugarcane
SEm (±)0.060.120.080.080.03 N = Normal Cultivated Sugarcane ; WL = Water-logged Sugarcane; NS = Not Significant

Table 6:
Growth and yield performance of normal cultivated and water-logged sugarcane
Image for - Effects of Water-Logging on Juice Quality and Yield of Sugarcane
N = Normal Cultivated Sugarcane ; WL = Water-logged Sugarcane; Different letter indicates significance difference as per LSD at 5% level;

On the other hand, Isd 30 showed the highest loss of ton sugar per hectare (TSH) (26.57 t ha-1) and at the lowest loss was found in I-8/95 (4.04 t ha-1) at water-logged cultivated cane. In water logged cultivated cane yield was lower in different varieties ranged between 9.05-33.97% and sugar yield was also lower ranged between 4.04-26.57% than normal cultivated cane. Singh et al. (1980) evaluated some sugarcane varieties under waterlogged condition and found that the cane yield were significantly reduced by water logging.

Therefore it may be concluded that sugarcane growth and yield attribute showed significant different in normal and prolonged water-logged cultivation, but chemical quality like purity, recovery per cent were showed non significant in the month of January 2002.

REFERENCES

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13:  Rahman, A.B.M., F.A. Martin and M.E. Terry, 1985. The flooding tolerance of sugarcane species. J. Am. Soc. Sugarcane Technol., 4: 117-117.

14:  Scott, H.D., J. Deangulo, M.B. Daniels and L.S. Wood, 1989. Flood duration effect on soybean growth and yield. Agron. J., 81: 631-636.

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