Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Response of Hybrid and Inbred Rice Varieties to the Application Methods of Urea Supergranules and Prilled Urea



M.S. Hasan, S.M.A. Hossain, M. Salim, M. P. Anwar and A.K.M. Azad
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

The response of hybrid (Sonar Bangla-1 and Alok 6201) and inbred (BRRI Dhan 34) rice varieties was determined to the application methods of urea supergranules (USG) and prilled urea(PU). Grain and straw yields were highest (4.87 and 7.72t ha -1, respectively) in BRRI Dhan 34. The highest grain yield of BRRI Dhan 34 was mostly the outcome of highest number of grains panicle -1. Sonar Bangla-1 produced the second highest (4.28t ha -1) grain yield while the lowest one (3.86t ha -1) was produced by Alok 6201 which was the consequence of lowest number of grains panicle-1 and highest number of sterile spikelets panicle -1. BRRI Dhan 34 showed the best performance among the varieties studied for almost all the growth and yield characters. Grain yield was recorded the highest (4.5t ha -1) in the method of half USG + half PU at 10 and 30 DAT which maintained similarity with recommended method of USG and furrow placement of USG. BRRI Dhan 34 interacted favourably with furrow placement of USG to produce the highest grain yield.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

M.S. Hasan, S.M.A. Hossain, M. Salim, M. P. Anwar and A.K.M. Azad, 2002. Response of Hybrid and Inbred Rice Varieties to the Application Methods of Urea Supergranules and Prilled Urea. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 5: 746-748.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2002.746.748

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2002.746.748

Introduction

It is a fact that rice plants require more nutrients especially nitrogen, to produce more yield. The efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer especially urea is very low in rice but urea is the principal source of nitrogen for rice in Bangladesh. This important element has been found to be deficit in most of the soils of Bangladesh. However, the nature and magnitude of N loss largely depend on the sources and methods of N fertilizer application. Prilled urea (PU) is a fast releasing nitrogen fertilizer which is usually broadcasted in splits, that causes considerable loss as ammonia volatilization, immobilization, denitrification and surface run off. Fertilizer N loss as ammonia volatilization from the flooded rice field could be as high as 40-60% (Sreenivasan and Subrahmanyan, 1995). On the other hand, deep placement of slow releasing nitrogenous fertilizer such as urea supergranule (USG) reduces the N loss as well as increases N use efficiency in wetland rice. According to Crasswell and De Datta (1980), broadcast application of urea on the surface soil causes losses up to 50% but point placement of USG in 10cm depth results in negligible loss and also provides a bonus of nitrogen to the soil. Modified urea fertilizers are designed to control one or more types of N loss to which ordinary urea is commonly susceptible. To minimize the losses of nitrogen, slow releasing of nitrogenous fertilizer has been advocated with deep placement. Slow release nitrogenous fertilizer dissolves slowly in the soil providing a steady supply of available nitrogen throughout the growing period of the crop. Placement of urea supergranules in the root zone is the most effective method for increasing the nitrogen use efficiency and rice yield (Sharma, 1985). It is known that the response of crops to nitrogen varies due to variety. So, it becomes essential to investigate the response of newly developed hybrid rice varieties to different forms of urea fertilizer and mode of its application under rainfed conditions. The superiority of USG, a slow releasing nitrogenous fertilizer, over PU is not yet well established especially under irrigated or rainfed conditions in Bangladesh. Therefore, a study was undertaken with a view to study the response of some hybrid and inbred rice varieties to the application methods of urea supergranules and prilled urea in transplant aman season.

Materials and Methods

The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh in the aman season during June to December 2000. Soil of the experimental field was more or less neutral in reaction (pH=6.45), low in organic matter content (1.37%) and its general fertility level was also low. The experimental area was under the sub-tropical climate. Two factors were included in the experiment: (a) variety BRRI Dhan 34 , Sonar Bangla-1 and Alok 6201; (b) method of application of urea supergranule (USG) and prilled urea(PU)-recommended method of USG, recommended method of PU, furrow placement of USG, side placement of USG, two third USG+ one third PU at 10 days after transplanting (DAT )and half USG + half PU at 10 and 30 DAT. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Each replication (block) was divided into 18 unit plots where treatment combinations were allocated at random. Unit plot size was 4.0x2.5m2 with 1.0m distance between two replications. A piece of high land was selected for raising seedlings. Sprouted seeds were sown in nurseries on 20th June 2000. The experimental land was first opened with a tractor drawn disc plough and then puddled thoroughly by ploughing and cross ploughing with a country plough and subsequently leveled by laddering. The field layout was made on 13th July 2000 according to experimental specification immediately after final land preparation. Individual plots were cleaned off weeds and stubbles and finally leveled by wooden plank.

BRRI Dhan 34 was fertilized with 130kg ha–1 PU/USG, 100kg ha–1 triple super phosphate (TSP), 70kg ha–1 muriate of potash (MP), 60kg ha–1 gypsum and 10kg ha–1 ZnSO4. Sonar Banlga-1 was fertilized with 260kg ha–1 PU/USG, 90kg ha–1 TSP, 67kg ha–1 MP, 112kg ha–1 gypsum and 15kg ha–1 ZnSO4. Alok 6201 was fertilized with 260kg ha–1 PU/USG, 130kg ha–1 TSP, 120kg ha–1 MP, 70kg ha–1 gypsum and 10kg ha–1 ZnSO4.

TSP, MP, gypsum and ZnSO4 were applied as basal during final land preparation in all the plots. But PU or USG were applied as per experimental specifications. USG was applied at 10 DAT and recommended method of PU was applied at 10, 30 and 45 DAT. One seedling hill–1 was transplanted on 15th July 2000 maintaining hill spacing of 15cm and row spacing of 25cm. All intercultural operations like gap filling, weeding and irrigation were performed as and when necessary. No remarkable pest infestation was noticed. Ten hills (excluding border hills) from each plot were randomly selected, uprooted and properly tagged before harvesting for recording the necessary data. The crop was harvested at full maturity when 90% of the grains turned golden yellow in colour. Sonar Bangla-1 was harvested on 19th October, Alok 6201 was harvested on 24th October and BRRI Dhan 34 was harvested on 23rd November 2000. Alok 6201 took 5 days more to mature in comparison with Sonar Bangla-1 and BRRI Dhan 34 took 30 days more to mature compared with Alok 6201. Pedal thresher was used to thresh the crop of individual plots. Grains were sun dried to a moisture content of some 14% and then weighed. Straw was sun dried and weighed. Yields of both grain and straw were converted to t ha–1. The collected data was analyzed following the ANOVA technique and the mean differences were adjudged by the Duncan’s Multiple Range test (Gomez and Gomez, 1984) by using a statistical computer package MSTAT.

Results and Discussion

Effect of variety: Variety exhibited significant influence on all the plant characters including grain and straw yields of rice (Table 1). BRRI Dhan 34 produced the tallest plant (163.74cm), highest number of grains panicle–1 (177.43), and lowest number of sterile spikelets panicle–1. As a result, BRRI Dhan 34 became the highest grain yielding variety (4.87t ha–1). Sonar Bangla-1 ranked second regarding grain yield but produced highest number of total tillers hill–1 (12.45) and highest 1000-grain weight (24.11g). Although in respect of productive tillers hill–1 Alok 6201 produced the highest value (8.48) but this variety failed to give the highest grain yield due to lowest number of grains panicle–1 (91.87) and highest number of sterile spikelets panicle–1 (51.87). As a result, Alok 6201 produced lowest grain yield (3.86t ha–1). Grain yield differences due to variety were also reported by Anwar et al. (1999). The highest straw yield (7.72t ha–1) was observed in BRRI Dhan 34. While the lowest one (5.58t ha–1) was observed in Sonar Bangla-1. Variation in straw yield was also reported by Anwar et al. (1999). The highest harvest index (43.46%) was observed in Sonar Bangla-1 while BRRI Dhan 34 (38.69%) and Alok 6201 (37.98%) were statistically similar in terms of straw yield.

Effect of application method of USG and PU: The effect of application method of USG and PU was not significant in respect of number of total tillers hill–1, panicle length, number of sterile spikelets panicle–1 and 1000-grains weight (Table 2). The tallest plant (134.42cm) at harvest was recorded with half USG and half PU at 10 and 30 DAT. The highest number of productive tillers hill–1 (8.53) was recorded with two third USG and one third PU at 10 DAT which was statistically similar to side placement of USG (8.24), recommended method of USG (8.2), and half USG + half PU at 10 and 30 DAT (7.93).

These results are not in agreement with those obtained by Jee and Mahapatra (1989). Number of grains panicle–1 was found highest (124.96) with recommended method of USG which was at par with side placement of USG. Sarder et al. (1988) also agreed to this view. Grain yield (4.21t ha–1) and straw yield (6.38t ha–1) were recorded lowest with recommended method of PU. Number of total tillers hill–1 (11.01) and number of productive tillers hill–1 (7.31) were found to be lowest but straw yield (6.78t ha–1) was recorded the highest with furrow placement of USG. Side placement of USG produced the shortest plant (126.20cm). Plant height (134.42cm), grain yield (4.5t ha–1) and harvest index (41.45%) were found to be highest with half USG + half PU at 10 and 30 DAT. Bhale and Salunke (1993) also recorded highest grain yield with half USG + half PU. But Mishra et al. (1994) reported highest grain yield with prilled urea applied in three splits.

Effect of interaction: Variety coupled with USG and PU application method significantly influenced the plant height, number of productive tillers hill–1, number of grains panicle–1, grain yield, straw yield and harvest index (Table 3). The tallest plant was produced in BRRI Dhan 34 grown with half PU + half USG at 10 and 30 DAT. The highest number of grains panicle–1 (188.4) was given by BRRI Dhan 34 grown with recommended method of USG. The results clearly indicate that BRRI Dhan 34 produced the lowest number of sterile spikelets panicle–1 regardless the method of USG and PU application. BRRI Dhan 34 produced the highest grain yield when grown with furrow placement of USG with half USG and half PU at 10 and 30 DAT BRRI Dhan 34 produced the highest straw yield (8.33t ha–1) when grown with recommended method of USG or side placement of USG. Sonar Bangla-1 grown with recommended method of PU produced highest harvest index (47.26%).

Table 1:Effect of variety on different plant characters of hybrid and inbred rice varieties

Table 2: Effect of application method of USG and PU on different plant characters of hybrid and inbred rice varieties
NS =Not significant; In a column, figures with the same letter or without letter do not differ significantly whereas figures with dissimilar letter differ significantly (as per DMRT).
F1= Recommended method of USGF2= Recommended method of PUF3= Furrow placement of USG
F4= Side placement of USGF5= Two third USG +one third PU at 10 DAT F6= Half USG+half PU at 10 and 30 DAT

Table 3: Effect of interaction of variety and method of application of USG and PU on different crop characters of hybrid and inbred rice varieties
NS= Not significant; In a column, figures with the same letter or without letter do not differ significantly whereas figures with dissimilar letter differ significantly (as per DMRT). See Table 2 for F1-F6

From the above discussion it is clearly found that different varieties responded differently to different methods of application of USG and PU. BRRI Dhan 34 gave highest grain yield in furrow placement of USG which was identical with half USG and half PU at 10 and 30 DAT. Sonar Bangla-1 produced highest grain yield in recommended method of USG which was similar to recommended method of PU i.e. USG had no advantage over PU in this variety. In case of Alok 6201, two third USG and one third PU at 10 DAT produced highest grain yield which was statistically similar to recommended method of PU. Half USG + half PU at 10 and 30 DAT also gave similar results.Considering the price of USG and its laborious method of application half USG and half PU may be recommended for BRRI Dhan 34 and Alok 6201. Sonar Bangla-1 responded similarly to recommended method of USG and recommended method of PU. On the same ground the use of prilled urea in Sonar Bangla-1 may be suggested.

REFERENCES
1:  Anwar, M.P., S.M.A. Hossain and M.A. Islam, 1999. Response of hybrid and inbred rice varieties to different levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Prog. Agric., 10: 111-116.

2:  Bhale, V.M. and V.D. Salunke, 1993. Response of upland irrigated rice to nitrogen applied through urea and supergranules. Mysore J. Agric. Sci., 24: 1-4.

3:  Crasswell, E.T. and S.K. de Datta, 1980. Recent developments in research on nitrogen fertilizers for rice. IRRI Research Paper Series No. 49, pp: 11.

4:  Gomez, K.A. and A.A. Gomez, 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd Edn., John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, USA., Pages: 704.

5:  Jee, R.C. and A.K. Mahapatra, 1989. Effect of time of planting of some slow released nitrogen fertilizer on low land rice. Int. Rice Res. Newslett., 12: 52-53.

6:  Mishra, P.C., A.K. Sarker and B. Mishra, 1994. Relative efficiency of different nitrogen sources in transplant rice of Chotanagpur region. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 42: 333-335.

7:  Sharma, S.K., 1985. Present status of intermediate technology in rice production including the possible utilization of blue green algae and azolla. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 59: 154-156.

8:  Sreenivasan, A. and V. Subrahmanyan, 1995. Biochemistry of waterlogged soils. Part N: Carbon and nitrogen transformations. J. Agric. Sci., 25: 6-21.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved