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Research Article

Reaction of Some Wheat Varieties to Seed Borne Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium moniliforme

M.A.K.S. Siddique, A.Q.M. Bazlur Rashid, I. Hossain , K. M. Khalequzzaman and Md. Kalim Uddin
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Reaction of five wheat varieties to Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium moniliforme was assessed in terms of prevalence of the pathogen on the seeds, symptom severity on the growing plants and effects of the pathogens on the yields. Prevalence of B. sorokiniana was 4-4.25% in kanchan and Akbar and of Fusarium monilifome was 2.25-2.75% in Gourab and Kanchan. Disease severity was the highest in Barkat both in laboratory and field conditions. However, Bipolaris sorokiniana infection was more severe than that of Fusarium moniliforme. Percent diseased grains were high in Barkat, while grain yield was low in barkat and sonalika due to inoculation of B. sorokiniana and F. moniliforme. Thus, there was a significant variation in reaction among the wheat varieties to the pathogens.

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  How to cite this article:

M.A.K.S. Siddique, A.Q.M. Bazlur Rashid, I. Hossain , K. M. Khalequzzaman and Md. Kalim Uddin , 2002. Reaction of Some Wheat Varieties to Seed Borne Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium moniliforme. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 5: 1211-1213.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2002.1211.1213



Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is staple food crop for about one billion people in as many as 43 countries and provides about 20% of the total food calories. In fact it has the broadest adaptation of all the cereal crop species in the world. Bangladesh has moved from the rank of nontraditional wheat growing countries into traditional wheat growing countries (Klatt, 1988).

There are many factors being the low yield of sheat in Bangladesh. Among these, diseases play a vital role. Diseases reduce wheat yields approximately 15-20% and cause 20-30 million tons loss to developing countries annually (Hanson et al., 1982). In Bangladesh, about 10% yield reduction was reported due to diseases (Miah, 1985). The crop suffers from as many as 200 diseases of which 50 were routinely important (Wiese, 1985) and damaging ones are seed borne (Noble and Richardson, 1968).

Among the various constraints threatening to wheat cultivation in the country, diseases caused by different pathogens particularly Bipolaris sorokiniana play a vital role. The pathogen is seed borne and seed transmitted in nature (Bazlur Rashid, 1998) and may exist in different parts of the seeds. It can cause seedling blight, head blight, leaf blotch, leaf spot, leaf blight, foot rot, discoloured grain, black pointed grain and also may result in sterile spikes if the infection is severe (Mitra, 1931). Not a single cultivated wheat variety in the county is found free from B. sorokiniana (Hossain et al., 1992b). The disease causes a serious problem to the wheat cultivation all over the world (Duveiller and Glchrist, 1994).

Fusarial diseases are certain to be significant constraints to wheat constraints to wheat production. They are quiet widespread and appear to be alarming due to their increase (Anonymous, 1982). Fusarium head blight of wheat or scab is an important fungal disease in many areas of the worked especially where humid moist conditions prevail from heading to maturity (Zhuping, 1994). It is also a prominent problem in Europe, USA, Canada (Wiersma et al., 1996). The same fungi also cause seedling blight, crown rot, stem and node blight and grain rot on all small grain cereals. In Bangladesh head blight or scab of wheat was first reported by Anderson (1976). Fakir et al. (1998) found seedlings to be the foliar parts to become paler. Some times the white mycelial growth of the pathogen was visible on the infected parts and the seedlings die quickly.

In view of the above facts, the present research work was undertaken to know the prevalence of seed-borne fungal pathogens (B. sorokiniana and F. moniliforme) of wheat varieties and to find the effect of variety and pathogens or disease severity and grain yield of wheat.

Materials and Methods

The experiment was undertaken in the Seed Pathological Laboratory (SPL) and the Field Laboratory, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during 2000-2001. Seeds of wheat varieties viz. Kanchan, Barkat, Sonalika, Akbar and Gourab were collected from Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur and used in this experiment. Seedborne Bipolaris sorokinia and Fusarium moniliforme were isolated from the wheat seeds following incubated moist blotter method. Single conidium of each of the organism was carefully taken with the help of a fine pointed needle and transferred to PDA. and pure cultures of the fungi were maintained and made ready for inoculation. To make the inoculum suspension 6 ml sterilized water was poured into the 7 days old pure culture on PDA plates and rubbed gently by a clean brush to flood the conidia. The concentration of conidial suspension was prepared to 104 conidial suspension was prepared to 2.3x105 conidia ml–1 (Mihuta and Forster, 1989).

The factorial experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. There were 20 different treatment combinations. The treatments were as follows: Five wheat variety; V1=Kanchan, V2=Barkat, V3=Sonalika, V4=Akbar and V5=Gourab and Pathogens used for inoculation T0=Control (no inoculation), T1=Bipolaris sorokiniana, T2=Fusarium moniliforme T3=Bipolaris sorokiniana±Fusarium moniliforme. The unit plot size was 2.0x1.5 m2. In each unit plot there were 6 rows of plants having 20 cm distance between the rows and 5 cm distance between the seeds within rows, where block to block and plot to plot distances were 1m and 50 cm respectively. The field was fertilized at the rate of 200 kg Urea, 200 kg TSP, 80 kg MP and 20 ton cowdung per hectare. The seeds were sown at the rate of 120 kg ha–1. Intercultural operations like weeding and irrigation were done in order to maintain the normal hygienic conditions of crop growth. At the botting stage the plants were sprayed as per treatment with the respective spore suspensions by using a hand sprayer.

Data were collected on disease severity (%), diseased grains/ear and grain yield. Disease index of the leaf blight reaction was recorded at anthesis stage. Disease index of leaf blight severity was scored following 0-5 scale of Bazlur Rashid et al. (1987). The disease index (DI) was calculated by the formula of Singh (1984). Data in respect of different growth and yield contributing characters were statistically analyzed and means were compared following LSD.

Results and Discussion

Percent seed germination was found almost similar, although the maximum (99%) was found in variety Barkat and minimum (91%) was in variety Akbar (Table 1). Seed health test by blotter method indicated that the prevalence of seed borne Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium moniliforme varied depending on the wheat variety and pathogen.

Table 1:
Germination of wheat seed and prevalence of seedborne Bipolaria sorokiniana and Fusarium moniliforme in vitro

Table 2:
Effect of varieties and seed borne fungi on the leaf spot severity, diseased grains/ear and grain yield

Table 3:
interaction effect of different wheat varieties and inoculation pathogens on the leaf spot severity, grain yield of wheat
In a column, figures having a common letter(s) do not differ significantly
NS= non significantly

As high as 4.25 and 4.0% prevalence of B. sorokiniana were recorded in var. Kanchan and Akbar respectively and the prevalence were statistically similar. While maximum of 2.75 and 2.25% F. moniliforme were recorded in var. Gourab and Kanchan respectively (Table 1).

The disease severity under different inoculation treatments were found significantly different at 1% level (Table 2). The highest severity (57.66%) was recorded in V2 (Barkat) followed by V3 (Sonalika) and the lowest (45.73%) was recorded in V5 (Gourab) which was also statistically similar to V4 (Akbar). The highest disease severity (61.83%) was recorded in case of T1 (B. sorokiniana) while lowest was recorded in T0 (control). Percent disease severity differed significantly due to interaction of variety and inoculation treatment combination of T1V2 and T3V3. The lowest percent of disease severity (26.66%) was obtained by the treatment combination of T0V5 which was statistically identical with that of T0 V4, T0 V3, V2 and T0 V1 (Table 3).

The percent diseased grains/ear differed significantly from one variety to another (Table 2). It varied from 12.93 to 17.00%. The highest and the lowest values were recorded in Barkat (V2) and Sonalika (V3), respectively. The impact of inoculation treatments has also been found prominent in percent diseased grains/ear (Table 2). The highest percent of diseased grains/ear (18.74) were found in T1 (B. sorokiniana) followed by T2 (F. moniliforme) and the lowest (8.92) was found in T0 (control) which was highly significant. Percent of diseased grains/ear differed significantly due to interaction of variety and inoculation treatment as well (Table 3). The highest percent diseased grains/ear (26.27) was obtained with the treatment combination of T3 V2. The lowest percent of diseased grains/ear (6.61) was obtained by the treatment combination T0V5 which was statistically identical with that in T0V1, T0V2, T0V3 and T0V4. The second highest percent diseased grains/ear (21.43) was obtained in T2V5 being statistically identical with the treatment combinations T2V1 and T3V1.

The yield performance of wheat for different varieties (Table 2) indicated that the maximum grain yield/ha (1263.88 kg) was recorded in V1 (Kanchan) followed by V5 (Gourab). The lowest grain yield/ha (1002.77 kg) was recorded in V3 (Sonalika), which was statistically similar to V2 (Barkat) and V4 (Akbar). Different inoculation treatments differed significantly from each other. The highest grain yield ha–1 (1315 kg) was found in T0 (control) and the lowest (980.0 kg) was in T1 (B. sorokiniana). Interaction effect of variety and inoculation treatments was non significant for grain yield ha–1. Numerically, the highest grain yield ha–1 (1608.33 kg) was obtained with T3V1 and the lowest (916.66 kg) was obtained by T1V2 (Table 3).

Germination of wheat seeds cv. Kanchan, Barkat, Sonalika, Akbar and Gourab was studied in vitro. The results indicated that the germination rates of the seeds were quite good and statistically non significant and all varieties begot the prevalence of seedborne infection by the pathogens B. sorokiniana and F. moniliforme but it did not affect the seed germination. Chaudhary (1984) reported that germination of the diseased seeds both in blotter and in pot soil was found to decrease by 11.6 and 16.0%, respectively. Seed health test following blotter method indicated that the prevalence of seedborne Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium moniliforme varied depending on the wheat varieties were free from seedborne Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium moniliforme. Hossain et al. (1992b) reported that not a single cultivated wheat variety in the country was free from B. sorokiniana.

Hossain and Azad (1992a) reported the leaf blight or leaf spot of wheat as the major disease of wheat in Bangladesh. Alam et al. (1994) also reported the leaf blight or spot blotch as the number one disease of wheat in Bangladesh. Windels and Holen (1989) found that Bipolaris sorokiniana was the most prevalent fungus causing necrosis of basal stems, crowns, subcrown internodes and roots of wheat. Fakir et al. (1998) reported that wheat seedlings were more frequently affected by Fusarium sp. The seedlings were attacked at or below the soil level by the Fusarium sp.

Regarding the variation in grains/ear and yield of wheat due to seedborne Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium moniliforme. It was observed that the varieties differed significantly from one another. This variation might be due to I) the effect of B. sorokiniana on formation of grains ii) effect of Fusarium sp. on formation of grains iii) variation of genetic make up of wheat materials and iv) growth conditions of plants. Bazlur Rashid et al. (1987), and Alam et al. (1983) reported yield reduction of wheat due to B. sorokiniana. They reported higher yield with largest size grains when the plants showed tolerance to B. sorokiniana. They also reported that grain yield and gain number along with the number of tillers decreased when the disease severity was increased.

Noble and Richardson (1968) have listed 35 seed-borne pathogens of wheat occurring in different countries of the world. Out of these Fusarium sp., F. nivale, F. graminearum, were of major importance. Zwatz (1975) recorded high infestation of wheat seeds by F. graminearum, F. nivale and F. avenaceum in 1974 in Australia, which resulted in reduction of the grain quality and yield losses by 10-20%. Ali (1981) recorded 16 different fungi on seven wheat cultivar from Bangladesh where F. graminearum and F. oxysporium were more frequent. Singh and Aujla (1994) reported that head scab of wheat caused by Fusarium moniliforme and F. subglutinans reduced wheat yield and resulted in shriveled grains reducing the value of the crop. Khalil et al. (2000) stated that nineteen cultivars and 21 genotypes of wheat were evaluated for their reaction to head scab, grain formation and seed infection. Five cultivars and five genotypes were free from head scab, but the rest were highly susceptible.

Finally it has been concluded that the prevalence of seedborne Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium moniliforme varied depending on the wheat variety and the pathogen. The tested wheat varieties differed significantly from one another as regards the disease severity, percent diseased grains/ear and grain yield ha–1 (kg). From the findings of the present study it has been indicated that the pathogens either alone or in combination showed significant effect in reducing the yield of wheat by creating higher disease severity.

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