Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Grain Yield and Economic Effect of NP Fertilizers Application on Dryland Barley

Aslam Khan, Mir Azam and Munir Khan
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal used as feed and forage crop in Pakistan. Information on the economical dose of NP fertilizer application on barley are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the agronomic and economic effects of NP fertilizers on barley production under dryland conditions. The study was conducted at Malakandher Farm of the Agriculture University Peshawar, during 1991-92, in a randomize complete block design with 4 replications. Fertilizer treatments were: 23-0, 46-0, 69-0, 23-23, 46-23, 69-23, 23-46, 46-46, 69-46, 23-69, 46-69, 69-69 of N P205 kg ha–1 respectively vs control (0-0). Barley cultivar Frontier 87 was sown 13, Nov. 1991 in 6 rows 5 m long 30 cm apart. The results on grain yield revealed that maximum grain yield of 2995 kg ha–1 was harvested from 69-69 NP205 kg ha–1 treatment and the lowest grain yield of 507 kg ha–1 was obtained from control treatment fertilizer applied plots significantly increased grain yield as compared to control. From the economic analysis, a maximum marginal rate of return (MRR) of 5460 percent was obtained from 23-23 NP205 kg ha–1 fertilizer application, followed by 46-46 NP205 kg ha–1 fertilizer treated plot with 5210 percent MRR suggesting their use to farmers under conditions similar to those of this study. More research is needed to conclude valid recommendations for barley growers in different agroecological zones of the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Aslam Khan, Mir Azam and Munir Khan, 2000. Grain Yield and Economic Effect of NP Fertilizers Application on Dryland Barley. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 3: 816-818.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2000.816.818



Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important crop grown in rainfed areas of Northwest Frontier Porovince (NWFP) and is used for food, feed and forage purposes. In NWFP barley was planted on 59600 ha producing 59700 tonnes grain with average grain yield of 1093 kg ha–1 during 1996-97 (Anonymous, 1998). This yield of barley is very low and could be improved considerably, if appropriate agronomic practices were adopted. Fertilizer application, had a significant influence on grain yield in many crops. Sultan et al. (1991) conducted from experiment on wheat that the highest grain yield was given by 60 N-20 P kg ha–1 application and that the use of fertilizer were profitable with a cost benefit ratio ranged from 1:1.94 to 1:3.96. Becher and Omani found that the grain yield increased up to 100 kg N/ha applied.

Rajput et al. (1989) found that 100 N-60 P kg ha–1 increased grain yield. Khoso et al. (1989) reported that the increased levels of NP combination progressively increased the grain yield. Roy et al. (1978) tested four barley cultivars under rainfed conditions at Behar, India and found 40 kg N/ha increased grain yield from 0.94 to 1.55 t ha–1.

Jalil and Ghani (1982) reported that grain yield increased with increased level of nitrogen. Zada and Karim (1982) observed that grain yield increased progressively with increased application of P. Khan et al. (1992) concluded from the economic analysis that the use of 56 N- 45 P205 kg ha–1 was best recommendation followed by 56 N-27 P205 kg ha–1 with a marginal rate of return of 1100 percent an 197%, respectively. However, little efforts have been made to optimize the NP application for barley production in the NWFP. Therefore this study was designed to determine the grain yield and economic effects of NP fertilizer application on dryland barley.

Materials and Methods

An experiment was conducted to determine the grain yield and economic effects of NP fertilizers application on barley under dryland conditions at Malakandher Farm of NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, during 1991-92. Barley cultivar Frontier 87 was sown at a seeding rate of 100 kg ha–1 on 13 Nov. 1991. A randomized complete design was used with four replication. Each treatment plot size was 6 row, 5m long 30cm apart. Fertilizer treatments used were: F0(0-0), F1(23-0), F2(46-0), F3(69-0), F4(23-23), F5(46-23), F6(69-23), F7(23-46), F8(46-46), F9(6946), F10(23-69), F11(46-69) and F12(69-69) NP,O, kg ha–1. Source of fertilizers used were urea (46 % N) and diammonium phosphate (18-46-0). A basal dose of 50 k/hs K20 in the form of K2SO4 was used. Four central rows were harvested for recording grain yield data, in kg ha–1. Economic analysis was calculated as prescribed by CIMMYT (1998), using market prices prevailed at the time of harvest of the experiment.

Results and Discussion

The data measured on grain yield (Table 1) reveled that grain yield was significantly affected by N Pfertilizer application. Maximum grain yield of 2995 kg ha–1 was harvested from a plot of 69 N-69 P205 kg ha–1 fertilizer applied. Whereas, lowest grain yield of 507 kg ha–1 was obtained from control (0 N-OP205) treatment. These result are in agreement with other researchers Khan et al. (1992), Khoso et al. (1989) and Rajput et al. (1989), who reported similar response in grain yield of wheat or barley to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer application. They observed progressive increase in grain yield with NP fertilizer application as compared to control in their studies. From the partial budget analysis (Table 1) it is observed that treatments dominated F3,' F10 and F11, which mean that these have higher variable costs and lower net benefit as compared with non dominated treatments (Table 2). From the marginal analysis of non-dominated treatments (Table 3) the maximum marginal rate of return (MRR) of 5460 percent was obtained from treatment recieved 23N-23 P205 kg ha–1 of fertilizer, followed by 46N-46 P205 kg ha–1 fertilizer application with 5210 percent MRR, giving a choice to farmers depending on their financial conditions. Khan et al. (1992) also recommended NP fertilizer application treatments with maximum marginal rate of return in their study on wheat which were not essentially:

Table 1:Partial budget of average data from fertilizer trials on (per hectare basis)

Table 2:Dominance analysis fo NP fertilizers response
*Dominated Treatment

Table 3:Marginal analysis of the undominated NP fertilizers response data

The highest levels of N P205 fertilizers used, with increased grain yield. However, soil, rainfall and transport costs vary widely from location to location, reseach efforts are needed to optimize the NP fertilizer application in different agro-ecological zones of the NWFP for enhancing barley production.

1:  CIMMYT., 1998. From Agronomic Data to Farmer Recommendations: An Economics Training Manual. CIMMYT Economics Program, Mexico, DF.

2:  Jalil, A. and C.A. Ghani, 1982. Yield and quality of barley as affected by different doses of urea. Pak. J. Agric. Res., 3: 26-30.

3:  Khan, A., M. Khan and K. Gul, 1992. Grain yield and economic responses of wheat and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers application on fallow. Sarhad J. Agric., 8: 267-271.

4:  Khoso, A.W., S.M. Qayyum, C.R.M Panhawar and A.H. Ansari, 1989. Effect of different N and P2O5 fertilizer combination levels on the yield performance of two promising varieties of barley. Pak. J. Agric. Eng. Vet. Sci., 5: 41-46.

5:  Anonymous, 1998. Agricultural statistics of Pakistan 1997-1998. Govt. of Pakistan, Ministry of Food, Agricultural and Livestock Division, Economic Wing, Islamabad.

6:  Rajput, T.K., S.M. Alam and A.W. Baloch, 1989. Effect of different NP combination on the growth and yield of wheat. Sarhad J. Agric., 5: 347-349.

7:  Roy, R.K., S.N. ojha and J.N. Ojha, 1978. Response of barley varieties to nitrogen under late sown rainfed condition. Indian J. Agron., 22: 52-53.

8:  Sultan, M., M. Ifthair and K.J. Gulfam, 1991. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus levels on the yield of wheat. Sarhad J. Agric., 7: 115-118.

9:  Zada, K. and M. Karim, 1982. Effect of phosphorus and late sowing on grain yield, maturity and 100-grain weight of barley. Pak. J. Agric. Res., 3: 224-227.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved