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On Some Monosacate Pollen from Borehole Jhang, Pakistan

Shahida Khurshid
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The present paper deals with some mono saccate pollen grains isolated from core samples obtained from "Borehole" near Jhang, Pakistan. Most of the grains have been recorded by Balme (1970) Twenty Two mono saccate pollen were isolated and described. Most Probably these grains belong to permian era.

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Shahida Khurshid , 2000. On Some Monosacate Pollen from Borehole Jhang, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 3: 191-192.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2000.191.192


Palaeozoic micro flora from Pakistan is very fragmentary. The 1st record of bisaccate pollen from Khathwai, central salt range Punjab was made by Chinna-Virkki (1937) and Masood (1983) described a no of monosaccate pollen grains from Gondwana of Salt Range, Pakistan, Monosaccate Pollen grains are not avaibable in any published form except Jain and Sah (1969) who desribed a few monosaccate grains Pram Jurassic of Nammal Gorge, Salt Range, Pakistan. Thus the information regarding the microflora of palaeozic, in particular concerning Pakistan, is very meagre. Geological Survey of Pakistan provided the material which tempted the writer to investigate its Palynologically.

The geological formation of Pakistan have wholly or partially been formulated Palaeontologically. Some have authentic reports and some deposits are still to be explored in the right direction. Khan (1996) and Khurshid (1995) has described mono-Saccate pollen grains from permian era obtained from ‘Borehole’ near Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan. Geological survey of Pakistan make a Borehole at Jhang upto the Depth of 2368 ft. The core samples were provided to the writer for investigation. The Samples were treated with 40 percent hydroflouric acid at room temp. upto 3 weeks, a small quantity of HCI was also added. The residue was Oxidized in fuming nitric acid for 24 hours. It was washed and heavy liquid separation was given to float off the orgainic material as recommended by Riley (1974) Terminolgy was borrfowed from Hart (1964).

Systematic Description
Anteturma: Pollenites H. (Potonic and Sah, 1960)
Turma: Saccites (Erdtmann, 1947)
Subturma: Mono Saccites (Cbitaley) (Potonic and Kremp, 1954)
Infraturma: Tribtisuccites (Leschik, 1956)
Genus: StrimonoSaccites (Bharadwaj, 1962) emended (Hart, 1964)

Strimonosaccites punjabensis sp. Nov.
Diagnosis: Miospore, monosaccate, diapolesaccites oval in appearance, central body oval to subtraingular, Dearing number of spherical bodies of unknown nature. Each of the body is granulated. They are packed to form a network on the body as well as on the saccus. Germinal aperture absent. Saccus overlapping clearly define saccus uniformly spread (Fig. 1).

Description: Miospore, monosaccate, oval, central body will distinct bearing a number of spherical bodies which are granulated. They form network both on body as well as on the saccus.

Specimen counted: 22, Equatorial diameter 108.9 (135.5) 167.3 um.

Striomonosaccites ovatus Bharadwaj (1962) in Hart (1964) Fig. 226, p.96 except the peculiar spherical network present on the proximal surface of the species. This feature is not given in the diagnosis for the genus. However, 22 species of this kind was isolated and has been assigned to Striomonosaccites punjabensis sp. nov.

These specimen are found at the depth of 2318 ft.

Genus:Cannanorapollis (Potonic and Sah, 1960)
Type species:Cannoropolis janalcil (Potonic and Sah, 1960)
Cannoropollis obscrus (Lele) (Bose and Maheshwari, 1968)

1964: Parasaccities sp. of (Bharadwaj and Tiwari, 1964) P1. 1, Fig. 2
1964: Virikkipollenites obscrus, Lele, p. 160-161, P1.2, Fig. 17-18
1964: Parasaccites distinctus (Tiwari, 1964) p.163, P1.4, Fig. 76-77
1968: Cannaropollis obscrus (Lele) (Bose and Maheshwari, 1968) p. 32, P 1.5, Fig. 2
Holotype: Cannoropollis obscrus (Lele) (Bose and Maheshwari, 1968) P1.5, Fig. 2

Description: Pollen grain, monosaccate, trilete marking ill defined, amb circular to broadly oval, central body circular to oval Laesurae simple, covers 1/2 of the central body, exoexine of the C.B. Infrareticulate. Thin with number of exinal folds. Saccus attachment equatorial on proximal surface, subequatorial on distal surface. Saccus 1-2 um thick, exoexine of saccus. Infrareticulate brochi 0.5-1.0 um in diameter, margin of the saccus undulating.

Dimension: Specimen counted: 3, Equatorial diameter: 112.2 (112.1) 115.5 um.

Comparison: This palynomorph resembles closely with Cannoropollis obscrus (Lele) Bose and Maheshwari (1968), P1.5, Fig. 2 in morphological details and size range.These specimen are fund at the depth of 2327 ft. and belong to permian era.

Fig. 1:Stlionionosaccate ovatus

Fig. 2:Cannanoropollis obscurus

Many monosaccate pollen grains have been described. Most of these grains have easily been assignable to well established genera like Cannanoropollis, Striomonosaccites, Plicatipollenites. It is interesting to note that Bose and Maheshwari (1968) have regarded Virkipollenites as a junior synonym of Cannanoropollis. Hart (1969) has regarded Virkipollenites and Cannoropolfis as thejunlo synonyms of Cordaitina.

1:  Balme, B.E., 1970. Palynology of Permian and Triassic Strata in the Salt Range and Surghar range, West Pakistan. Vol. 4, University Press of Kansas, Kansas, Pages: 148.

2:  Bharadwaj, D.C., 1962. The miospore genera in the coals of Raniganj Stage (Upper Permian), India. Palaeobotanist, 9: 68-106.

3:  Bharadwaj, D.C. and R.S. Tiwari, 1964. On two monosaccate genera from Baraka stage of India. Palaeobotanist, 12: 139-146.

4:  Bose, M.N. and H.K. Maheshwari, 1968. Palaeozoic sporae dispersae from congo VII. Coal measures near Lake Tanganyika, south of Albertville: Annales du Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale. Sci. Geol. 60: 1-116.

5:  Erdtmann, G., 1947. Suggestion of the classification of fossil and recent pollen/spores. SVENS Botannist Tids Krift Bd., 41: 104-114.

6:  Hart, G.F., 1964. A review of classification and distribution of the permian miospores: Disaccate striate. Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Carboniferous Stratigraphy and Geology, (CSG’63), Paris, pp: 1171-1199.

7:  Hart, G.F., 1969. Palynology of the Permian Period. In: Aspects of Palynology: An Introduction to Plant Microfossils in Time, Tschudy, R.H. and R.A. Scott (Eds.). Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp: 271-289.

8:  Khan, Q.M., 1996. Palynological studies of permian deposits (Nilawahan and Zaluch Group) in Winhar Valley, central salt range, Punjab. Ph.D. Thesis, University of the Punjab, Lahore.

9:  Khurshid, S., 1995. Palonological studies of core samples obtained from borehole near Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan. Ph.D. Thesis, University of the Punjab, Lahore.

10:  Jain, K.P. and S.C.D. Sah, 1969. A lower jurassic miospore assemblage from the variegated shale, Nammal Gorge, salt range (West Pakistan). Palarobot, 19: 103-117.

11:  Masood, K.R., 1983. Studies on gondwana flora of salt range of Pakistan. Ph.D. Thesis, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

12:  Potonic, R. and G.O.W. Kremp, 1954. Die gattungun der palaozoischen sporae dispersae und lhre stratigraphic. Geol. Jahrb., 69: 111-194.

13:  Potonic, R. and S.C.D. Sah, 1960. Sporae dispersae of the lignites from cannanore beach on the Malabar coast of India. Palaeobotanist, 7: 121 -135.

14:  Riley, L.A., 1974. Miospores from the upper jurassic of Cabo Espichel. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Stratigraphical Palynology, (Sp’74), India, pp: 33-41.

15:  Chinna-Virkki, 1937. On the occurrence of winged spores in the Lower Gondwana rocks of India and Australia. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Sect. B, 6: 428-431.
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16:  Leschik, G., 1956. Sporen aus dem salzton des zechstein von Neuhof (Bei ffuda). Palaeontographic, B100: 122-142.

17:  Tiwari, R.S., 1964. New Miospore genra in the coal of Barker (Lawer Gondwana) of Indian. Palaeobotanist, 12: 225-259.

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