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Research Article
 

Evaluation of Planting Density and Nitrogen on the Performance of Kaon [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.]



S. M. E. Hassan, M.Sq. Rahman, M. F. Hossain, M.R. Amin and M. M. Alam
 
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ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out to ascertain the effect of planting density and nitrogen on the performance of kaon. The planting density was regulated by the seed rate per hectare. Four different seed rates (4, 6, 8 and 10 kg ha–1) and five nitrogen levels (0, 15, 30 and 60 ka ha–1) were used for this study. The result of the study revealed that the planting density significantly influenced the yield and yield contributing characters such as plant population per square meter, plant height, number of tiller per plant, effective tiller per plant, grains per panicles, grain and straw yields. Nitrogen too significantly influenced the yield and yield contributing characters except plant population per square meter. The maximum grain yield (1.98 t ha–1). The dose of 60 kg N ha-1 produced the highest grain yield (1.87 t ha–1) and it was statistically similar to 45 kg N ha–1 (1.82 ha–1). The interaction effect due to seed rates and nitrogen levels showed significant influence on effective tiller per plant, grain and straw yield and harvest index. The combination of 10 kg seed and 60 kg nitrogen per hectare produced the highest grain yield (2.15 t ha–1).

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  How to cite this article:

S. M. E. Hassan, M.Sq. Rahman, M. F. Hossain, M.R. Amin and M. M. Alam, 2000. Evaluation of Planting Density and Nitrogen on the Performance of Kaon [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.]. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 3: 1863-1864.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2000.1863.1864

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2000.1863.1864
 

Introduction

Kaon is a minor cereal crop in Bangladesh. In our country, it is grown either as sole or as mixed crop specially in the river bank areas with minimum care and input. Planting density, governed by seed rate per hectare, has a large effect on the growth and productivity of crop plants., Population density modifies plants micro-climate and influences availability and uptake of nutritional components as well as eventually affects yield. Kaon is generally regarded as poor tillering type species (Horiuchi and Yasue, 1980) among the millet group. Therefore, high yield potential is mostly dependent on the number of crop per unit area. Appropriate plant density should be determined which governs the ultimate ear density and grain yield, Cereal crops generally uptake a large quantity of nitrogen for yield. Adequate information is not available in Bangladesh regarding planting density and nitrogen level for maximization of yield of kaon with optimum level of nitrogen governing minimum cost. Farmers of different areas of Bangladesh grow it at different times without any recommended seed rate and nitrogen dose which resulted in low grain yield. Hence, the present experiment was undertaken in order to evaluate the planting density and nitrogen levels on the performance of kaon and to determine the optimum level of planting density and nitrogen for maximization of grain yield of kaon.

Materials and Methods

The experiment was carried out during the period from November, 1998 to April, 1999 at Agronomy Farm, Hajee Mohammad Danesh University of Science and Technology, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. The soil of the experimental site was sandy loam with PH value of 6.5 to 7.5. Organic matter content was moderate and general fertility was low (BARC., 1989). Shibnagar cultivar of kaon was used as materials for the study. The experiment was laid out in split plot design replicated thrice, keeping for seed rates i.e., 4, 6, 8 and 10 k ha–1 in main plots and five nitrogen levels namely 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kg/ha–1 in subplot. The crop was fertilized with nitrogen as (per schedule of the experiment along with 35 kg P205 and 30 kg K2O per hectare through urea, triple super phosphate and muriate of potash, respectively. One half of total nitrogen and whole of P2O5 and K2O were applied at the final land preparation. The rest of nitrogen was applied in two equal splits at Crown Root Initiation (CRI) and mid tillering (MDT) stage, respectively. Before harvesting, ten sample plants were randomly selected from each plot was measured after proper drying in a storable condition (12% moisture condition).

Results and Discussion

Effect of planting density: Table 1 shows that planting density significantly influenced on the plant population per square meter. The lowest number of plant was produced by the planting density of 4 kg seed per hectare but it was found identical to that of 8 kg seed per hectare. Almost similar response was found by Sardar et al. (1987) where the maximum grain yield of foxtailmillet was found from 8 kg seed/ha. This best yield was supported by the yield contributing characters such as number of effective tillers per plant, number grains per panicle, weight of 1000 grains but panicle length did not show any significant differences. The response of straw yield showed similar trend as in grain yield due to the better response of plant height and total number of tiller per plant.

Effect of nitrogen level: Table 2 also shows that yield and yield contributing characters of foxtailmillet are progressively increased with the increasing levels of nitrogen. Among the different nitrogen levels, the best yield was produced by the treatment of nitrogen 60 kg ha–1 which was statistically found similar to that of nitrogen 45 kg ha–1.

Table 1:Effect of different planting densities on yield and yield contributing characters of Kaon
Image for - Evaluation of Planting Density and Nitrogen on the Performance of Kaon [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.]
Figure in the column having same letter (S) do not differ significantly at 5% level

Table 2:Effect of nitrogen levels on yield and yield contributing characters o Koan
Image for - Evaluation of Planting Density and Nitrogen on the Performance of Kaon [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.]
Figure in the column having same letter (S/ do not differ significantly at 5% level

Table 3:
Interaction between planting densities and nitrogen levels on crop characters, grain and straw yields and harvest index
Image for - Evaluation of Planting Density and Nitrogen on the Performance of Kaon [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.]

The present study was almost similar to Haque and Khan (1989) where it was reported that nitrogen 49 kg ha–1 produced the highest grain yield. Again it was paretically in agreement with that of Ghaffer (1995) who reported that nitrogen 75 kg ha–1 produced the highest grain yield. The highest response of the trail was supported by the yield contributing characters such as plant height, number of effective tillers per plant, number of grain per panicle, weight of 1000 grains. Plant population/m2 and panicle length did not show any significant difference. The control plots showed significantly the least response in yield and yield contributing characters. Similar trend of nitrogen response was observed in case of straw yield.

The interaction between planting densities and nitrogen levels have no significant influence on most of the crop characters studied except the number of effective tiller/plant, grain and straw yield and harvest index (Table 3). The result is in conformity with that of Ghaffer (1994) where the maximum grain yield of foxtailmillet was found from the combination of 10 kg seed and 60 kg nitrogen/ha.

REFERENCES

1:  BARC., 1989. Fertilizer Recommendation Guide. BARC, New Airport Road, Dhaka, pp: 11-41

2:  Ghaffer, M.A., 1994. Development of management practices of millets for higher production. BAU Res. Prog., 8: 14-18.

3:  Ghaffer, M.A., 1995. Development of management practices of millets for higher production. BAU Res. Prog., 9: 16-20.

4:  Haque, M.M. and M.R. Khan, 1989. Study of the seed rates and fertilizer rates of Kaon. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Bangladesh Science Conference, January 27-30, 1989, Dhaka, pp: 139-140

5:  Horiuchi, T. and T. Yasue, 1980. Studies on corresponded relations between plant characters and cultivation methods. II. Growth response of the native millets to the technical differences between direct sowing and transplanting. Jpn. J. Crop Sci., 49: 593-601.
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6:  Sardar, F., A. Hossain and S.H. Hawlader, 1987. Study of the seed rates and fertilizer rates of Kaon. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Bangladesh Science Conference, July 1987, Dhaka, pp: 8-

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