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Research Article

Comparative Efficacy of Insecticides, Insect Growth Regulator and M.Y. Strategy Against Insect Pets of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)

Muhammad Tariq, M. Altaf Sabri and M. Javed Sultan
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The efficacy of Azodrin and Pirate (insecticides), Cascade (insect growth regulator) and Pressurized water spray (M.Y. strategy) was evaluated against insect pests of okra. Cascade was found to be the best efficient against Helicoverpe emigrate and Earias spp. Pirate showed maximum efficacy against Amrasca biguttuia biguttula, whereas, against Bemisia tabaci, the most effective treatment was Azodrin followed by M.Y. strategy.

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  How to cite this article:

Muhammad Tariq, M. Altaf Sabri and M. Javed Sultan, 2000. Comparative Efficacy of Insecticides, Insect Growth Regulator and M.Y. Strategy Against Insect Pets of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 3: 1166-1167.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2000.1166.1167



Okra is a favourite summer vegetable in Pakistan. Its immature fruit is used as vegetable either boiled or fried and added to soups. Its fruit have mucilage content and ripe seed contain 20% edible oil (Hill, 1983). Its fruit have nutritive value as 100 gms contains water 90 ml, carbohydrate 6 gms, protein 2 gms, fiber 1 gm, calcium 70 mg, iron 1 mg, vitamin A 1501.V. (variable), thiamin 0.1 my, riboflavin 0.1 mg, nicotinamide 1 mg, ascorbic acid 25 mg and fat negligible (Tindall, 1978).

Among insect pests of okra, jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttuhi), cotton whitefly (Bemis's tabaci), American bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and spotted bollworm(Ear/as spp.) are the notorious insect pests (Singh et al., 1993). These pests are difficult to control with insecticides because they are more hazardous to human being. New insecticides, insect growth regulator and mechanical methods are being used to control insect pests these days.

Among the previous investigations about the control of insect pests of okra by different workers include Sammour and Abdalla (1989) who evaluated insect growth regulators, diflubenzuron and triflumuron and found that triflumuron was more toxic than diflubenzuron. Bagle and Verma (1991) applied monocrotophos to the okra and found that monochrotphos gave 60% mortality of nymphs. Watkins and Head (1994), Townsend (1995) and Whitehead and Treacy (1995) evaluated that Pirate controlled Helicoverpa armigera and other bollworms successfully. Yousuf (1995) developed and evaluated M.Y. Strategy and found that pressurized water spray reduced the Bemisie tabaci population below economic threshold level. Castle et al. (1998) used sprinkler and furrow irrigation to control the cotton whitefly and found that cotton whitefly population was significantly reduced with sprinkler irrigation. Fazal (1998) evaluated M.Y. strategy and noticed that pressurized water spray reduced Bernisia tabaci population upto 70-80%.

Keeping in view the importance of this crop and resistance in insect pests, the present project was planned to study the effectiveness of Azodrin and Pirate (insecticide). Cascade (insect growth regulator) and pressurized water spray (M.Y. Strategy) as a better choice in future.

Materials and Methods

The trials were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (ROM) and there were five treatments including an untreated check, having four repeats of each.

The insecticides and Insect growth regulator were applied at an interval of fifteen days with the help of knapsack hand sprayer and for M.Y. Strategy, solo power sprayer were used and water was sprayed at an interval of 7 days. Data were recorded before one day of application and 24, 48 and 72 hours after application. The population of jassid and whitefly were recorded from upper, middle and lower leaves of fifteen randomly selected plants. The infestation of American and spotted bollworms was recorded from fifteen selected plants in three sets of five consecutive plants. The data so obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's New Multiple Range Test as described by Steel and Torrie (1980).

Results and Discussion

The treatments showed significantly better results over the untreated check. Cascade was proved to be the most effective against H. armigera and Earias spp. in lowering the fruit infestation upto 9.63 and 10.52%, respectively, as compared with 13.72 and 16.99%, respectively, in the check. Pirate showed maximum efficacy in controlling the cotton jassid population level upto 3.86 per leaf as compared with 13.63 per leaf in the check. With the treatments, viz., Cascade, Azodrin and M.Y. strategy, cotton jassid population was found to be 3.99, 4.53 and 16.15 per leaf, respectively. Azodrin was found to be the most effective in lowering the Bernisia tabaci population level upto 0.60 per leaf as compared with 1.85 per leaf in the untreated checkand and it was followed by M.Y. Strategy, Cascade and Pirate in controlling the whitefly population upto 0.67, 0.75 and 0.86, respectively.

Table 1:Effect of different control measures against insect pests of okra

These results are similar to those of earlier workers, viz., Sammour and Abdalla (1989), Bagle and Verma (1991), Watkins and Head (1994). Townsend (1995), Whitehead and Treacy (1995), Yousuf (1995), Castle et al. (1998) and Fazal (1998) who got effective control of these pests by using the Azodrin, Pirate, Cascade and M.Y. Strategy treatments (Table 1).

1:  Bagle, B.G. and S. Verma, 1991. Persistence and residual toxicity of monocrotophos against jassid on okra Leaves. J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ., 16: 135-136.

2:  Castle, S.J., T.J. Henoeberry and N.C. Tosnano, 1998. Suppression of Sernisou tabscif (Homootera: Aleyrodida) infestations ur cantaloupe and cotton with sprinkler Irrigation. Crop Protection, USDA., pp: 15.

3:  Fazal, S., 1998. Integrated pest management of cotton whitefly (Berrayie (abaci) and American bollworm Ifolicoverpal ettirigeral on cotton. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

4:  Hill, D.S., 1983. Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and their Control. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp: 611-612.

5:  Sammour, E.A. and S.A. Abdalla, 1989. Effect of Diflubenzuron, Triflumuron and their mixtures with some insecticides on the American bollworm Heliothis armigera (Hbn.). Bull. Faculty Agric. Cairo Univ. Cairo, 40: 651-660.

6:  Singh, J., A.S. Sohi, Z.S. Dhaliwal and H.S. Mann, 1993. Comparative incidence of Haficoverper armigera Hb. and other pests on okra and sunflower intercrops in cotton under Punjab conditions. J. Insect. Sci., 6: 137-138.

7:  Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie, 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, pp: 232-251.

8:  Tindall, D., 1978. Commercial Vegetable Growing. The English Language Book Society and Oxford University Press, London, pp: 190-192.

9:  Townsend, J.R., 1995. A consultant's experience with pirate insecticide in Mississippi delta cotton in 1994. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference, January 1995, National Cotton Council, USA., pp: 915-917.

10:  Watkins, B. and J. Head, 1994. Pirate insecticide-mitioicle: Comparative impact on beneficial insects and Heliothr's population in experimental use permit trials in Mississippi during 1994. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference, January 1995, National Cotton Council, USA., pp: 913-915.

11:  Whitehead, J. and K. Treacy, 1995. An overview of the 1994 pirate insecticide- Miticide EUP program in the mid-south. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference, January 1995, National Cotton Council, USA., pp: 911-913.

12:  Yousuf, M., 1995. Strategy to control the cotton whitefly. Pak. Entomol., 17: 132-132.

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