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Research Article
 

Estimation and Utilization of Heterosis and Heterobeltosis in Some Breadwheat Crosses Derived from Diverse Germplasm



M.Y. Mujahid, N.S.Kisana , Zaheer Ahmad , Iftikhar Ahmad , S.Z.Mustafa and A.Majid
 
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ABSTRACT

Wheat is the staple food of the people of Pakistan grown on an area of about 8.4 million hectares annually (MINFAL 97-98). The wheat production is affected due to the varying degree of different biotic and abiotic stresses in the country. The success of a breeding programme aims at the development of high yielding wheat varieties which are developed by making recombinants for the traits of economic importance. Forty bread-wheat cross combinations were attempted during the year 1997-98 to determine the heterotic and heterobeltotic effects of the recombinants in Fl generation. The parental material also included local types from highland and dryland areas to utilize the useful diversity in the breeding programme. Maximum degree of heterosis (increase over mid parents) was manifested by the cross number 21 (C-273/WCB BO) for all the trails studied. The same cross-showed the maximum haterobeltosis (increase over better parents) for plant height, spike length, # of spikelets per spike and grain weight. Another cross (Local white/sannine) also showed the same effects for all the trials. There was a varying degree of heterosis in different crosses showing that different combinations can be exploited for the manifestation of heterosis and suggest the choice of selection of desirable parents for the development of better recombinants.

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  How to cite this article:

M.Y. Mujahid, N.S.Kisana , Zaheer Ahmad , Iftikhar Ahmad , S.Z.Mustafa and A.Majid , 2000. Estimation and Utilization of Heterosis and Heterobeltosis in Some Breadwheat Crosses Derived from Diverse Germplasm. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 3: 1148-1151.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2000.1148.1151

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2000.1148.1151
 

Introduction

Wheat is the staple food of the people of Pakistan and grown on an area of about 8.4 million hectares annually. The wheat production in the country varies depending upon different biotic and abiotic stresses which drastically reduce the grain yield. The success of a plant breeding program really aims at the development of high yielding and stress resistant wheat varieties for the target environments. The choice of parental material used In the hybridization scheme does contribute significantly for the development of a suitable genotype. The parents chosen which are genetically superior and diverse in the traits of interest are utilized for varietal development or exploitation of the heterosis (Khan et al., 1995a). There are certain reports available showing the heterotic effects of Fl hybrids over mid-parents or better parents. El-Haddad et al. (1996), Khan et al. (1995b) and Khaliq et al. (1985) observed significant heterosis and heterobeltosis in 1000 grain weight, plant height and other physiological traits in some of the Fl wheat hybrids made through simple and reciprocal crosses and suggested the utilization and potential of the crosses.

Deshpande and Nayeem (1999), Liu et al. (1999) and Khan and Khan (1996) estimated heterosis for yield and yield components in some wheat crosses involving different wheat cuftivars. High percentage of heterosis for 1000 grain weight, number grains per spike and plant height was observed in the crosses studied. Parsad et al. (1998) and Vitkare and Atale (1991) studied the different F1 hybrids resulting from crosses made in diallel and half diallel fashion and Investigated the extent of heterosis and heterobeltosis In traits of economic importance. Maximum better parent heterosle was in grain yield per plant and biological yield per plant.

Materials and Methods

Forty bread wheat crosses were attempted in the field during the crop year 1996-97 at the National Agricultural Research Centre wheat experimental area. The FO seed of the crosses alongwith the parents were planted during the year 1997-98 (Anonymous, 1997). Diverse parental sources were used in the hybridization scheme keeping in view the main priority areas of wheat research in the country. Some of the parents involved, were local wheata/landraces grown in the high elevation areas of Pakistan while others included improved types and different groups constituting the crossing block. One row of five meter length of each of the cross in the middle and parents on both sides of the cross were hand dibbled. All the other cultural practices were kept uniform on the experiment. Data were recorded on five random plants for plant height, number of spikelets per spike, spike length and 500 grain weight in each cross and parent. The average of 5 plants were used to estimate the heterosis (increase over mid parent) and heterobeltosis (increase over better parent) with the following equations.

Heterosis (%) = F1-MP/MP×100
Heterobeltosis (%) = F1-BP/BP×100

where:
MP = Mid parent
BP = Better parent

Results and Discussion

The details of the crosses attempted and mid parental values are given in Table 1. The means of different traits of the better parents are presented in Table 2. The mean performance of the Fl 's regarding plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike and 500 grain weight is presented in Table 3. Plant height ranged from 59-122 cm (mid-parent) while range for better parent was from 95-136.4 cm. The range for hybrids was (78.5-137.8 cm) (Table 3) showing some hetrosis and heterobelosis effects respectively (Table 4, 5).

Cross number 21 (C 2731VVCB 80) manifested the maximum heterosis (108.5%) and 4.03% of heterobeltosis for plant height. The same cross had the maximum degree of heterosis (135.9%) for spike length; 128.92% for number of spikelets per spike and 115.87% for 500 grain weight (Table 4). The maximum heterobeltotic effects were also manifested by the same cross number 21 which showed the positive effects for all the traits studied. Another cross number 7 (local white/sannine) also showed a reasonable degree of heterotis and heterobeltotic effects for plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike and 500 grain weight. This cross was made between the two local wheats, one from the northern high elevation areas of Pakistan and the other from the Baluchistan area reflecting the greater magnitude of genetic diversity present in the two different wheat growing areas. There was a varying degree of heterosis and heterobeltosis in all the crosses for the traits showing that different cross combinations/parents can be selected for the traits of interest and utilization of hybrid vigour.

Table 1: Means of the prents for plant height, spike length, Number of spikelets per spike and 500 grain weight
HT : Plant height (cm) SPLEN : Spike length
SPLTS : Number spikelets per spike S000WT : 500 gain weight (g)

Table 2: Range, mean and standard deviation of the 40 better Parents regarding plant height, spikelength, number of spikeiets per spike and 500 grain weight
HT : Plant height (cm) SPLEN : Spike length
SPLTS : Number spikelets per spike 500GWT : 500 gain weight (g)

Table 3: Mean values of the Ft hybrids developed at NARC during 1997-98
HT = Plant height icrrd SPLEN: Spike length SPLTS: Number spikelets per spike 500 GWT: 500 grain weight (g)

Table 4: Manifestation of Heterosis (%) in 40 crosses of breed wheats for different traits developed during the year 1997-98
HT: Plant height (cm) SPLEN: Spike length SPLTS: Number spikelets per spike 500 GWT: 500 grain weight (g)

Table 5: Manifestation of heterobeltosis (%) in 40 crosses of breadwheat for plant height, spike length, Number of spikelets per spike and 500 grain weight
HT : Plant height (cm) SPLEN : Spike length
SPLTS : Number spikelets per spike 500GWT : 500 gain weight (g)

The manifestation of the degree of heterosis and heterobeltosis for different traits of economic importance suggests the utilization of hybrid vigor and determination of gene action in a variety of crosses made through the involvement of local wheats from high elevation areas of Pakistan and improved commercial wheat varieties/types. The study also provides a basis for the selection of better parents which might prove to be good combiners and hence could be used in the breeding program to develop the wheat varieties suitable for the specific target environments.

REFERENCES
1:  Deshpande, D.P. and K.A. Nayeem, 1999. Heterosis for heat tolerance, protein content, yield and yield components in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Indian J. Genet. Plant Breed., 59: 13-22.
Direct Link  |  

2:  El-Haddad, E.L., A. Sarrafi, J.L. Fabre and T. Aussenac, 1996. Genetic expression of some grain quality and yield components in hexaploid wheat. (Triticum aestivum L.). Cereal Res. Commun., 24: 323-329.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Khaliq, A., M.A. Chaudhry, G. Nabi and A.H. Shah, 1985. Study of heterosis in various interspecific crosses of wheat. J. Agric. Res., 23: 5-9.

4:  Khan, M.A. and A.S. Khan, 1996. Heterosis studies for yield and yield components in some crosses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 33: 66-68.

5:  Khan, N.U.I., H. Gul, M.S. Swati and M.A. Khan, 1995. Estimation of heterotic response for yield and yield components in a 5x5 diallel cross of spring wheat. Sarhad J. Agric., 11: 477-484.

6:  Khan, N.U., M.S. Swati, G. Hassan and Q. Nawaz, 1995. Heterosis exhibited by some morphological traits of diallel crosses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Sarhad J. Agric., 11: 485-489.

7:  Liu, Z.Q., Y. Pei and Z.J. Pu, 1999. Relationship between hybrid performance and genetic diversity based on RAPD markers in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. Plant Breed., 118: 119-123.
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8:  Parsad, K.D., M.F. Haque and D.K. Gangul, 1998. Heterosis studies for yield and yield components in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Ind. J. Genet. Plant Breed., 58: 97-100.

9:  Vitkare, G.D. and S.B. Atale, 1991. Studies on heterosis for the yield attributes in 15x15 diallel in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). PKV Res. J., 15: 111-116.

10:  Anonymous, 1997. Agricultural statistics of pakistan, 1997-98. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Food, Agriculture and Livestock Division (Economic Wing), Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

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