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Meta Analysis of Literature Towards Improved Agriculture



Muhammad Safdar Baloch, Obaid Ullah Sayal and Muhammad Zubair Sulemani
 
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ABSTRACT

An overview of the research findings related to the role of inputs (water and nutrients) in five major field crops was gathered in a number of experiments conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, during 1995-97. Yield and yield components of the major five field crops were significantly affected by the application of irrigation water and fertilizers. The importance of these components are clearly evident in the Quranic Injections. Proper water level plus seeding intensity are concluded as one of the right ways that can be helpful in boosting the poor yield of wheat, rice, maize, cotton and sugarcane.

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  How to cite this article:

Muhammad Safdar Baloch, Obaid Ullah Sayal and Muhammad Zubair Sulemani, 1999. Meta Analysis of Literature Towards Improved Agriculture. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 2: 386-389.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.1999.386.389

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.1999.386.389

Introduction

The Holy book of Muslims has marvelously enlightened our life set-up. Now a days what we see and observe all has been described and explained in Quran. From protoplasm to the dead organic matter all has been mentioned in the Holy book. One can better understand and comprehend that how the Holy Quran has guided by the revelation and injections. Succeeding paragraphs make it more clear. The base of life, protoplasm contains 75-85 percent water, 10-20 percent protein, 2-3 percent lipid, 1 percent carbohydrate and 1 percent inorganic material (DeRobertis et al., 1975). Its vitality is because of high percentage of water. According to Quranic verse "We made from water, all living things" (Sura Anbiyah, Ayah 30). The source of water supplies is atmospheric precipitation: rain fall, dew, mist/fog, hail and snow. Amongst these, however, rainfall is the most important (Saeed, 1994) and also limiting climatic factor hindering crop productivity. The rain water contributes substantially to crop water requirements. The significance of water for flora and fauna has also been explained by the Holy Quran at several places; And Thou (Muhammad) seest the earth barren, but when We send down water thereon, it doth thrill and swell and put forth every lovely kind" (Sura Haj, Ayah 5); "Have they not seen how We lead the water to the barren land and therewith bring forth crops where of their cattle eat and they themselves" (Sura Sajdah, Ayah 27); "It is Allah Who has created the Heavens and the Earth and sendeth down rain from the skies and with it bringeth out fruits wherewith to feed you" (Sura Ibrahim, Ayah 32); "And Allah it is Who send winds and they raise a cloud; then We lead it unto a dead land revive there with the earth after its death" (Sure Fatir, Ayah 9). Boyer (1970), Hussain (1994) and Saeed (1994) have also found the results already explained in the Holy Quran. Beside water, food is also necessary for the synthesis of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and inorganic materials of protoplasm. In case of plants they start making these constituents by combining carbon dioxide, water and mineral elements, using radiant energy from the sun (Hussain, 1994). All plants need nitrogen, phosphorous and potash for their growth. It is absolutely impossible for man to apply these nutrients to million and trillion of plants. Allah has created micro organism in the roots of legume crops to fix atmospheric nitrogen into the soil and make it readily available to standing and succeeding crops. According to the survey of WFO, there are 20,000 plant species of leguminoseae family on the earth which take 80 million tonnes nitrogen from the air and provide it to plants, whereas we apply 40-50 million tonnes nitrogen to the plants in the form of artificial fertilizer (Anonymous, 1992a). These microbes add phosphorous to the soil by decaying. They are vary in number but however, 0.5 g of soil contains more microorganisms than the human race on the earth (Wahab, 1967). There are 135×109 micro-organisms (Bacteria) and 315×105 protozoan in 31.25 g of soil (Berk, 1994). That's why Allah has rightly asked that "Have you seen which you cultivate ? Is it you who foster it, or are We the foster ? If We willed, We verily could make it chaff than would you cease not to exclaim ? (Sura Waqia, Ayah 63-65); "It is Allah Who splits the seed and the fruit stone. He brings forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living" (Sura Anam, Ayah 95). After completing the vegetative growth, all plants undergo their reproductive process where fertilization takes place. Allah says "We send the winds fertilizing and give it to you" (Sura Hajr, Ayah 22); "All things We have created by pairs" (Sura Zariaat, Ayah 49). It is a matter of great concern that Pakistan is one of the most thickly populated countries of the world. Unfortunately no attention has been given to bring new area for cultivation and increase the productivity per unit area, per unit time for ever increasing growth rate of Pakistan. The average yield of major crops i.e. wheat; 2170 kg ha–1, Rice; 1567 kg ha–1, Maize; 1507 kg ha–1 Cotton; 849 kg ha–1 and Sugarcane; 43.9 t ha–1 (Agri. Stat. Pak., 1991-92), which is not praise worthy when compared with developed countries. The present study was undertaken with the following objectives:

1. To compare and compile the research findings of the five major field crops in the light of Quranic verses.
2. To investigate the relationship of Quranic evidences and five major field crops regarding input's (water and nutrients) optimization.

Materials and Methods

The present dissertation is the elaboration of research work already done by the authors at the Faculty of Agriculture, Gomel University, D.I. Khan, in the period from 1995-1997. The work has been gathered for comparative studies. In this regard, five major crops of Pakistan (wheat, rice, maize, cotton and sugarcane) have been taken for results exploration. The varieties studied were Pirsabak-85 (wheat), KS-282 and Basmati-385 (rice), Sarhad-white (maize), B-557 (cotton) and BL-4 (sugarcane). The crops were sown according to their sowing time as well as seeding rate. Similarly all the cultural practices, fertilizer and water requirements of each crop were followed as recommended by Shah (1994) and Khan et al. (1999) for wheat; Barik (1991), Baloch (1994) and Sulamani (1997) for rice; Gopang (1993) for cotton; Chaudhry (1994) for maize; Nazir (1994) for sugarcane and Gupta (1983), Misra and Ahmad (1987) for irrigation. The detail of treatments regarding water requirements of each crop is given in Table 1.

Table 1:
Water requirements of five major crops of Pakistan and their critical growth stages with respect to water requirements
Source: Gupta (1983), Misra and Ahmad (1987).

Results and Discussion

According to Holy Quran "Allah has sent down water from the sky and has caused it to penetrate the earth as water springs and after wards thereby produceth crops of diverse huses" (Sura Zumar, Ayah 21). The data given in Table 2 revealed that yield and yield components of wheat were affected by different manures. However, the application of chemical fertilizer out yielded (4383 kg ha–1) other fertilizer regarding grain yield. The green manure (berseem) plot produced low grain yield of 3250 kg ha–1. Shah (1994) observed that plant height, number of grains per ear, weight of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were higher with the application of 55 kg nitrogen along with basal dose of 55 kg phosphorus per hectare on the economic production of wheat, Wahab (1967) reported 2328 research trials of wheat and concluded that the application of nitrogen alone produced 400 kg grain ha–1 while nitrogen + phosphorus yielded 900 kg grain/ha. He further reported that wheat crop produced 2300 kg grain ha–1 and 4900 kg straw/ha by 11 of irrigation water. Michael (1978) obtained wheat yield of 5000 kg ha–1 by 40 cm irrigation water while the productivity per unit of water was 12.5 kg/ha/mm.

Allah says that "He is Who sendeth down water from the sky, whence you drink and whence are trees on which you send your beasts to pasture. Therewith He causeth crops to grow for you" (Sura Nahl, Ayah 10-11). The results presented in Table 3 indicated that paddy yield of 7.83 t ha–1 and 3.98 t ha–1 obtained in both direct seeding and transplanting respectively, were higher as compared to average paddy yield 1.5 to 2 t ha–1 of Pakistan (Anonymous, 1992b), This increase was due to sufficient amount of nutrients and moisture at tillering initiation, fertilization and panicle emergence stages of the crop, Fertilizer trial indicated that the application of nitrogen alone in paddy, contributed 600 kg ha–1 and with phosphorus 1250 kg ha–1 in average yield of 2595 kg ha–1 (Wahab, 1967). The rice crop produced 4500 kg ha–1 yield with 120 cm irrigation water. The productivity per unit of water was 3.7 kg/ha/mm (Michael, 1978).

Table 2:Effect of irrigation and fertilizer on yield and yield components of wheat
Source: Department of Agronomy, Gomal University, D.I. Khan, Pakistan

Table 3:Effect of irrigation and fertilizer on yield and yield components of Rice
Source: Department of Agronomy, Gomal University, D.I. Khan, Pakistan

The significance of water has been explained in the Holy Quran that "How We pour water in showers, then split the earth in clefts and cause the grain to grow then in" (Sura Abase, Ayah 25-27). A thorough probe in to Table 4 enunciated that all yield components of maize crop were affected by the application of fertilizer and irrigation which raised the yield favourably. Wahab (1967) advocated higher performance of maize and stated that the application of nitrogen alone contributed 500 kg ha–1 and nitrogen+phosphorus produced 900 kg ha–1 in average yield 2000 kg ha–1 of maize. Chaudhry (1994) reported that higher yield of maize is associated with 6 irrigation and fertilizer dose of 120:50:0 NPK kg ha–1. Michael (1978) obtained maize yield of 500 kg ha–1 with 62.5 cm irrigation water. He further analyzed that the productivity per unit of water was 8 kg/ha/mm.

Table 4:Effect of irrigation and fertilizer on yield and yield Components of Maize
Source:Department of Agronomy, Gomal University, D.I. Khan, Pakistan

Table 5:Effect of irrigation and fertilizer on yield and yield components of cotton
Source:Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I.Khan, NWFP, Pakistan

Table 6:Effect of irrigation and fertilizer on yield and yield components of Sugarcane
Source:Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomel University, D.I.Khan, NWFP, Pakistan

The subject regarding role of water in crop growth has been given in the Sura Naba, Ayah 15 "And have sent down from the rainy clouds abundant water, thereby to produce grain and plant and gardens of thick foliage". A perusal of Table 5 elucidated that there exist highly difference of yield of seed cotton (1645 kg ha–1) as against average yield (849 kg/ha) of Pakistan (Anonymous, 1992c). The higher yield was due to availability of water an plant food nutrients which eventually boosted the photosynthetic activity of the crop. A yield of 2000 kg/ha of seed cotton by the application of 30" of irrigation water was reported by Wahab (1967). Gopang (1993) recommended six irrigation and a fertilizer dose o 100:50:50 NPK kg ha–1 for efficient growth and yield of cotton.

The Quranic injection has already revealed that "He (Allah), has sent down water from the sky, with it We have produced diverse pairs of plants each separate from th other" (Sura Taha, Ayah 53). On the study of Table 6, it is manifested that the application of fertilizer dose 175:70:45 NPK kg/ha economically increased the yield of millable cane (8033 t ha–1) over all other combinations.

Nitrogen plays vital role in plant growth; Phosphorus fo developing roots, influencing the ripening process and purifying the juice; and potassium for promoting cell activity and growth, increasing resistance to infection and lodging and improving sucrose content of cane (Nazir, 1994) Barnes (1970) reported t ha–1 a cane crop yielding 125 t ha–1 will remove 84-101 kg of N, 56-67 kg of P and 100 kg of K. For cane 17" of irrigation water produced 12000 kg ha–1 of molasses (Wahab, 1967). By the application of 2 kg nitrogen, 150 kg phosphorus and 125 kg potash per hectare, 2-3 times increase in average cane yield may obtained (Anonymous, 1992c).

REFERENCES
1:  Anonymous, 1992. Causes of low yield of sugarcane' Pakistan. Zaree Service, NFC., Lahore, Pakistan, pp: 13-19

2:  Anonymous, 1992. Significance of inoculation. Zaree Service, NFC., Lahore, Pakistan, pp: 8-13

3:  Anonymous, 1992. Agricultural statistics of Pakistan 1991-92. Planning Unit, Ministry of Food, Agriculture a Cooperatives, Food and Agriculture Division (Econo Wing), Government of Pakistan.

4:  Baloch, M.S., 1994. Economic acceptability of differe seed rates alternatives for weed control in broadcast wet seeded rice. M.Sc. Thesis, Gomal University, D.I. Khan.

5:  Barik, T., 1991. A high seed rate for rice is useful in Oris. Indian Farm., 41: 23-25.

6:  Barnes, A.C., 1970. The Sugarcane, Botany, Cultivation and Utilization. L. Hill Ltd., London, New York.

7:  Berk, G.J., 1994. Dou Quran. Asad Publications, Lahore, pp: 64-98.

8:  Boyer, J.S., 1970. Leaf enlargement and metabolic rate in corn soybean , and sunflower at various leaf water potentials. Plant Physiol., 46: 233-235.
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9:  Chaudhry, F.M., 1994. Kharif Cereal Crops. In: Crop Production, Bashir, E. and R. Bantel (Eds.). National Book Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp: 252-260.

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12:  Gupta, B.L., 1983. Irrigation Engineering. Satya Tech, Ind. Publication, New Delh, pp: 32-44.

13:  Khan, Z.A., M.A. Khan and M.S. Baloch, 1999. Effect of different manures on the yield of wheat. Scient. Khyber, 12: 41-46.

14:  Misra, R.D. and M. Ahmad, 1987. Manual on Irrigation Agronomy. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., Ltd., New Delhi, pp: 220-293.

15:  Hussain, A., 1994. Crops and Their Relations to Environment. In: Crop Production, Nazir, S., B. Elena and B. Robyn (Eds.). National Book Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp: 27-48.

16:  Michael, M.L., 1978. Irrigation Theory and Practice. 1st Edn., Vikas Publication House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, pp: 567.

17:  Nazir, M.S., 1994. The Sugarcane. In: Crop Production, Nazir, S., B. Elena and B. Robyn (Eds.)., National Book Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp: 421-450.

18:  Saeed, M., 1994. Crop Water Requirements and Irrigation Systems. In: Crop Production, Nazir, S., B. Elena and B. Robyn (Eds.)., National Book Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp: 49-84.

19:  Shah, P., 1994. Rabi Cereal Crops. In: Crop Production, Nazir, S., B. Elena and B. Robyn (Eds.)., National Book Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp: 233-250.

20:  Sulamani, M.Z., 1996. Physio-chemical properties, adoption and productivity of some fine (Basmati) rice varieties in D.I. Khan. M.Sc. Thesis, Gomal University, D.I. Khan.

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