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Research Article
 

Effect of Post-emergence Application of Herbicides On Weed Control



Mohammad Amjad Nadeem, Inayat Ullah Awan, Mohammad Ayaz Khan and Kashif Waseem Khan
 
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ABSTRACT

The herbicides application increased number of tillers per m2, number of productive tillers per m2, biological yield t ha–1, grain yield t ha–1 and decreased the weed density per m2. While number of un-productive tillers per m2, plant height at maturity, spike length, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and harvest index were not significantly affected by herbicides application over the weedy check. Agro-economical analysis of yield data of wheat indicated higher benefit cost ratio in case of Logran Extra 64 WG (2.86) closely followed by Buctril M 40 EC (2.82). Net income was more in case of Buctril M 40 EC than Logran Extra 64 WG. All the prevailing weeds of the crop were effectively controlled by the application of Buctril M 40 EC.

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  How to cite this article:

Mohammad Amjad Nadeem, Inayat Ullah Awan, Mohammad Ayaz Khan and Kashif Waseem Khan, 1999. Effect of Post-emergence Application of Herbicides On Weed Control. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 2: 1455-1457.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.1999.1455.1457

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.1999.1455.1457

Introduction

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was being cultivated before the human race started to live on this planet. During the year 1996-97, wheat was planted on about 8.085 million hectares in Pakistan with the production of 16.377 million tonnes and the average yield of 2026 kg ha–1. (Khan, 1997). Although wheat is the major food grain crop of Pakistan but its yield is quite low mainly due to the existence of some persistent and noctious weeds. These unvaluable and unwanted plants pose a serious threat by depriving the crop plants of nutrients, moisture and light (Anderson, 1983). Many weeds are noted to have an allelopathic effect on the crop (Khalid and Shad, 1987). Weeds not only decrease the yield but also affect the quality of the crop resulting in lower income. The experimental evidence based on small scale trials conducted by agricultural experts has shown that the losses in wheat production due to weeds ranged from 17-25 percent (Shad, 1987). Hence the weeds must be controlled so as to increase wheat production. Several methods were applied for check weeds population in crop field. Among those, chemical weed control is the most efficient, time, money and energy saving method.

Materials and methods

The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with nine treatments and three replicates. Test variety was Inqulab-91. The plot size was 3x4 (12m2). The crop was sown on a well prepared seedbed. The land was prepared thoroughly by ploughing 3-4 times. More emphasis was given to the levelling of land for uniform distribution of irrigation water. The crop was planted with hand drill in lines 30 cm apart. The seed rate used was 110 kg ha–1. The 1st irrigation was applied after 30 days of sowing (DAS) and subsequently after 2-3 weeks interval. The fertilizers (NPK) were applied uniformly to all the treatments at the rate of 120-90-90 kg ha–1. The sources of NIPIC were Urea, Tripple Super Phosphate (TSP) and Sulphate of Potash (SOP).

The data were analyzed statistically by using the Analysis of Variance Techniques (Steel and Torrie, 1980) and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1955) was used at 1 percent level of significance to compare the differences among the treatment means, if any.

Results and Discussion

There were significant differences among the treatment means of weed density and productive tillers. As far as different treatments are concerned, Buctril M40 EC plots produced minimum number of weeds 56.33 and 30.00 at 30 and 60.

Table 1:
Weeds density (m–2) 30 and 60 days after herbicides application and number of productive tillers (m–2) as affected by different herbicides application

Means having common letters are not significantly different at 1 percent level of probability days after herbicide application, respectively. The maximum number of productive tillers per m2 (421.67) were also observed in Buctril M40 EC plots which showed that the application of Buctril M 40 EC has effectively controlled the weeds as compared to other treatments. These findings were supported by Cheema et al. (1988) and Ahmad et al. (1991) who noted that Buctril M 40 EC controlled weeds more economically than conventional methods (Table 1).

Table 2:
Plant height (cm) at maturity and spike length (cm) as affected by different herbicides application
N.S. Non-significant

Table 3:
Number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight (g) as affected by different herbicides application
N.S. Non-significant

Table 4:
Biological yield (t ha–1) and grain yield (t ha–1 as affected by different herbicides application
Means having common letters are not significantly difference at 1 percent level of probability

The data concerning plant height at maturity and spike length indicated that there were non significant variation among all the treatments. However, the maximum plant height (96.23 cm) and spike length (12.86 cm) were recorded in Buctril M 40 EC (Buctril M40 EC) treated plot which were closely followed by Sencor 70WP plots 196.1 cm) plant height and Logran extra 64 WG plots (12.85 cm) spike length respectively. The minimum plant height (91.3 cm) and s pike length (12.05 cm) were produced by Panth and Sencor 70WP plots respectively. Similar results were reported by Randhawa and Kausar (1974) and Khattak (1985) who found that plant height and spike length were not affected by herbicidal treatments (Table 2).

Table 5:Economic analysis of wheat as affected by different herbicides application during 1997-98
T1 = Weedy check
T2 = Dicuran MA 60 WP at 2.5 kg ha–1 at Rs. 625/- per 1000 g
T3 = Tolkan 50 WP at 2 kg ha–1 at Rs. 480/- per 800 g
T4 = Buctril M 40 EC at 1.75 liters ha–1 at Rs. 590/- per 1000 ml
T5 = 2,4-D Powder at 865 g ha–1 at Rs. 180/- per 700 g. Wheat straw rate. As 50/- per 40 kg
T6 = Graminon 500 FW at 2.5 liters ha–1 at Rs. 448/- per 800 ml. Wheat grains rate. Rs. 280/- per 40 kg
T7 = Logran Extra 64 WG at 250 g ha–1 at Rs. 258/- per 100 g
T8 = Panther at 1.625 liters ha–1 at Rs. 650/- per 750 ml
T9 = Sencor 70 WP at 250 g ha–1 at Rs.405/-per 250

The data concerning the number of grains per spike and 1000 grains weight indicated that the differences among all he treatment means as affected by herbicides application were non-significant. As regard the treatments, maximum lumber of grains per spike (69.24) and seed index (47.51g) were recorded in Logran extra 64 WG plots which were followed by Buctril M40 EC (66.76) grains per spike and (47.46 g) seed index respectively. The minimum number of grains (61.14) per spike and 1000-grain weight (46.72 g) were found in Sencor 70WP and 2,4-D powder plots respectively. The increase in number of grains per spike and seed index might be due to flourishing growth of wheat plants. These findings were in accordance with those of Ahmed et al. (1993) who reported that herbicides were more effective in increasing the number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight of wheat crop (Table 3, 4).

The data concerning biological yield and grain yield as affected by different herbicides application. The data revealed that all the treated plots produced more biological and grain yield over control. Among the treatments, Buctril M40 EC plots produced 10.67 t ha–1 biological and 4.86 t ha–1 grain yield. It was followed by Logran extra 64 WG (10.65 t ha–1) and (4.76 t ha–1) respectively. Minimum biomass (8.43 t ha–1) and grain yield (3.83 t ha–1) were produced by weedy check (Weedy check control) plots. Increase in yield components in weed control plots was probably due to more nutrients uptake by crop plants as compared to control plots. Similar type of extractions were reported by Ahmed et al. (1993).

The economic analysis of wheat given in Table-5 revealed that the highest benefit cost ratio of 2.86 was recorded for Logran Extra 64 WG followed by 2.82 for Buctril M 40 EC and 2.67 for 2,4-D Powder respectively. The maximum net income was noted in Buctril M40 EC Rs. 26641.75 ha–1 as against the lowest of Rs. 18976.50 ha–1 for weedy check plots.

REFERENCES
1:  Ahmad, S., Z.A. Cheema, R.M. Iqbal and F.M. Kundi, 1991. Comparative study of different weedicides for the control of broad leaf weeds in wheat. Sarhad J. Agric., 7: 1-9.

2:  Anderson, W.P., 1983. Weed Science Principles. 2nd Edn., West Publishing Co., St. Poul, Minnesota, USA., pp: 33-42.

3:  Cheema, M.S., M.A. lqbal and M.S. Ahmad, 1988. Economics of Weed control in wheat. Pak. J. Agric. Res., 9: 32-36.

4:  Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Khalid, S. and R.A. Shad, 1987. Role of allelopathy in weed management. Progr. Farming Pak. Agric. Res. Council Islamabad, 7: 73-76.

6:  Khan, R.A.R., 1997. Role of credit in developing agriculture in barani areas. The Frontier Post, October 13, 1997, pp: 7.

7:  Khattak, A.J., 1985. Study of the effect of some herbicides on weed population in wheat crop. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan.

8:  Randhawa, M.A. and G.A. Kausar, 1974. Response of Mexi-pak wheat to time and rates of application of 2, 4-D. Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 10: 102-106.

9:  Shad, R.A., 1987. Status of weed science activities in Pakistan. Progr. Farming, 7: 10-16.
Direct Link  |  

10:  Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie, 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 2nd Edn., McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, USA., ISBN-13: 9780070609266, Pages: 633.

11:  Ahmed, K., Z. Shah, I. Awan, H. Khan and Hayatullah, 1999. Effect of some post-emergence herbicides on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and associated weeds. Sarhad J. Agric., 9: 323-326.

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