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Growth and yield response of two cultivars of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) to various levels of phosphorus



M. S. Sharar, M. Ayub, M. Adil Choudhry, M.A. Rana and M.M.Z. Amin
 
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ABSTRACT

Response of two mungbean cultivars namely NM-54 and NM-92 to phosphorus levels of 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha–1 was studied in field conditions during the autumn 1997. The growth and yield parameters like plant height, pods plant, seeds pant–1, 1000-seed weight and seed yield were influenced significantly by both phosphorus application and cultivars. However, number of pod bearing branches plant–1 were not influenced significantly by both cultivars and fertilizer levels. the maximum seed yield of 1095 kg ha–1 was obtained by the application of 100 kg P205 ha–1, The cultivar NM-54, yielding 1060.09 kg ha–1 seed proved to be superior than NM-92 (956.77 kg ha–1). The application of 100 kg P205 ha–1 was found to be the optimum level for obtaining higher yield of mungbean in Faisalabad conditions.

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  How to cite this article:

M. S. Sharar, M. Ayub, M. Adil Choudhry, M.A. Rana and M.M.Z. Amin, 1999. Growth and yield response of two cultivars of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) to various levels of phosphorus. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 2: 1385-1386.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.1999.1385.1386

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.1999.1385.1386

Introduction

Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the most important conventional pulses grown in Pakistan. Average yield of nungbean in Pakistan is 462 kg ha–1, which is much lower than yields obtained in many other countries of the world Ike Egypt, Lebanon, Ireland having average yield of 2824, 2273, 4595 kg ha–1 respectively (Anonymous, 1997). Among the various possible factors responsible for low field, phosphorus is considered the most important nutrient for increasing the yield of green gram (Dubey et al., 1993). Saraf (1983) reported that phosphorus deficiency is the aredominant cause of low yield of pulses in India. Studies have shown that phosphorus application to mungbean increased plant height, number of pod bearing branches slant–1, number of seeds pod–1, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and protein content of grain (Ayub et al., 1998; Khan et al., 1999). Similarly Ali et al. (1999) applied 0, 35, 30 and 85 kg phosphorus to mungbean and obtained highest seed yield (961.9 kg ha–1) with phosphorus application of 85 kg ha–1 but was statistically similar to 65 P205 ha–1. The increase in yield was associated with ncreased number of pods plant–1 and 1000-grain weight. Whereas, Balachandran and Sasidhar (1991) reported that phosphorus application increased number of pods plant–1 and number of seeds pod–1 but not 1000-seed weight.

Reddy and Palaniappan (1979) concluded that application of 10.40 kg P205 to soil or as a foliar spray had non-significant effect on yield component and seed yield of green gram, when soil had medium phosphorus content. Varieties vary in yield and yield components (Bilal, 1994) and response to phosphorus application (Rao et al., 1993). Panwar et al. (1978) applied 0-90 kg P205 ha–1 to five cultivars of mungbean and observed a significant yield response up to 60 kg P205 ha–1 but the interaction between phosphorus and varieties was not significant. Similarly Khan et al. (1999) reported that yield and yield contributing parameters were significantly affected by phosphorus application. However, no statistical difference between cultivars was detected. The interaction of phosphorus with cultivars was also non-significant.

The present study was, therefore, planned to evaluate the effect of different levels of phosphorus on two mungbean cultivars in Faisalabad conditions.

Materials and Methods

The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of phosphorus on the growth and yield of two mungbean cultivars at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad on a sandy clay loam soil having 0.42 percent N, 9.1 PPM available P and 137 PPM K. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four replications. The net plot size measured 1.8 x 6 m. Phosphorus levels were randomized in main plots and varieties were kept in sub plots. Mungbean varieties NM-54 and NM-92 were sown in the first week of August, 1997 on a well prepared seedbed in 30 apart rows with single-row hand drill. The experiment comprised 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg P205 ha–1. The nitrogen was applied at the rate of 30 kg ha-1. The entire quantity of N and P205 was side drilled just after sowing in the form of urea and triple super phosphate. The crop was sown at the seed rate of 20 kg ha–1. Plant to plant distance of 10 cm was maintained by thinning out the surplus plants one week after germination. All other agronomic practices were kept uniform and normal for all the experimental units. The crop was harvested manually in October, 1997. For recording individual plant observations like plant height, number of branches and number of pods plant–1, ten plants were selected randomly from each subplot and averages were computed. For number of seeds plant–1 total number of pods from ten plants were threshed and seeds were separated and averages were calculated. 1000-seed weight was taken by electrical balance. Data collected were analysed statistically using Fisher's analysis of variance technique and treatments means were compared by using least significant difference (LSD) test at 5% probability level (Steel and Torrie, 1984).

Results and Discussion

The data regarding various parameters recorded are given in Table 1. The plant height was affected significantly by phosphorus application. All levels of P205 produced significantly taller plants than control. The differences between 50, 100 and 150 kg P205 ha–1 were else significant. The tallest plants were produced by the application of 150 kg P205 ha–1. The minimum plant height was recorded in control. Increase in plant height by P205 application has also been reported by Ayub et al. (1998).

Table 1:Growth and yield of two mungbean cultivars as influenced by phosphorus levels
Means followed by the same letters did not differ significantly at 5% probability level

NM-54 produced significantly taller plants than NM-92. The results are contradictory to those of Khan et al. (1999). These contradictory results might have been due to different genetic traits of crop plants.

The number of pod bearing branches plant–1 were not affected significantly by the application of phosphorus. The maximum and minimum number of pod bearing branches plant–1 was recorded with the application of 150 kg P705 ha and control respectively. The results are contradictory to those of Yasin (1981) and Ayub et al. (1998). Both the varieties also have statistically similar number of pod bearing branches plant–1 and numbers noted were 3.37 and 3.21 for NM-54 and NM-92 respectively. The results indicate that both varieties have similar genetic potential for number of pod bearing branches plant–1. Phosphorus application at the rate of 50, 100 and 150 kg ha–1 produced statistically similar number of pods plant–1 but significantly higher than control. The maximum number of pods plant was recorded with the application of 100 kg P205 ha–1. Significant effects of phosphorus application on the number of pods per plant have been reported by Ayub et al. (1998), Ali et al. (1999) and Khan et al. (1999). NM-92 produced significantly more number of pods plant' than NM-54. The number of seeds pod–1 was not affected significantly by different levels of phosphorus. However, Balachandran and Sasidhar (1991), Ayub et al. (1998), Ali et al. (1999) and Khan et al. (1999), had reported significant effects of phosphorus application on number of seeds pod–1. The cultivar NM-54 produced significantly more number of seeds pod–1 than NM-92. The cultivar NM-54 possesses better genetic potential than NM-92 for seeds pod–1. Non-significant differences among the cultivars for number of seeds pod have been reported by Khan et al. (1999). 1000-seed weight was affected significantly by phosphorus application. The application of 100 and 150 kg P205 ha–1 remaining at par with each other produced significantly higher 1000-seed weight than 50 kg P205 ha–1 and control. Significant effects of phosphorus application on 1000-seed weight have been reported by Ayub et al. (1998), Ali et al. (1999) and Khan et al. (1999), but the results are contradictory to those of Balachandran and Sasidhar, (1991). NM-54 produced significantly heavier seeds than NM-92. Khan et al. (1999) have reported nonsignificant differences among the two cultivars of mungbean.

All the P205 levels produced significantly higher seed yield over control. The differences within phosphorus levels were also significant. A significant decrease in seed yield occurred at phosphorus application of 150 kg ha–1. The maximum seed yield was obtained by the application 100 kg P205 ha–1. The reduction in the yield might be due to nutritional imbalance and genetic inability of the cultivars to get more phosphorus beyond certain limit. The increase in seed yield at 100 kg P205 ha–1 has been mainly due to higher num of pods plant–1 and 1000-seed weight. Ayub et al. (1998), Ali et al. (1999) and Khan et al. (1999) had a reported similar results. NM-54 produced significant higher yield (1060.09 kg ha–1) than NM-92 (956.77 ha–1). The increase in yield has been due to higher num of pods plant–1, number of seeds pod and 1000-weight, Significant Ent differences among cultivars mungbean for seed yield have been reported by Bilal (1994) (Table 1).

REFERENCES
1:  Ali, A., M.A. Malik, M.A. Choudhry, M.A. Siddique and M. Rafique, 1999. Growth and yield response of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) to different seed rates and levels of phosphorus. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2: 879-880.
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2:  Ayub, M., R. Ahmad, A. Tanveer, J. Iqbal and M.S. Sharar, 1998. Response of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) to different levels of phosphorus. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 1: 283-284.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

3:  Anonymous, 1997. Production Year Book. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

4:  Balachandran, P.V. and V.K. Sasidhar, 1991. Phosphorus nutrition of green gram. Agric. Res. J. Kerala, 29: 49-50.
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5:  Bilal, M., 1994. Effect of sowing date and cultivars on the growth and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.). M.Sc. Thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

6:  Dubey, S.K., Sinha and B.R. Yadev, 1993. Effect of water and applied phosphorus on uptake of phos and grain yield of green gram. J. Ind. Soc. Soil, 41: 208-209.

7:  Khan, M.A., M.S. Baloch, I. Taj and I. Gandapur, 1999. Effect of phosphorus on the growth and yield of mungbean. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2: 667-669.
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8:  Panwar, K.S., K. Pandey and M. Sing, 1978. Rasp some promising varieties of mungbean to the I phosphorus. Ind. J. Agron., 23: 366-367.

9:  Rao, P.G., A.M. Shrajee, K.R. Rao and T.R.K. Reddy, 1993. Response of greengram (Phaseolus-radiatus) cultivars to levels of phosphorus. Indian J. Agron., 38: 317-318.

10:  Reddy, S.D. and Palaniappan, 1979. Studies: Response of green gram to phosphorus appli. Madras Agric. J., 66: 305-308.

11:  Saraf, C.S., 1983. Advances in fertilizer management for rainfed pulses. Fert. News, 28: 91-98.

12:  Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie, 1984. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw Hill, New York, pp: 172-177.

13:  Yasin, M., 1981. Effect of time of sowing and a application of N, P and K on growth and yield of mungbea (Vigna radiate L.). M.Sc. Thesis, University of Faisalabad, Pakistan.

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