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Research Article

Practice Based Guidelines for Effective Software Architecture of Web Based Applications

Parminder Kaur and Hardeep Singh
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Software architecture is emerging as an important discipline for engineers of software. Software architects have been limited by a lack of standardized ways to represent architecture as well as analysis methods to predict whether an architecture will result in an implementation that meets the requirements. Architects also have had little guidance in how to go about designing the architecture, which decisions should be made first what level of detail the architecture should encompass, how conflicting concerns should be satisfied and what range of issues the architecture should cover. This study makes an attempt to illustrate architectural design guidance in form of functional dimensions and structural dimensions required to identify the requirements as well as overall structure of a user-interface system.

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  How to cite this article:

Parminder Kaur and Hardeep Singh, 2011. Practice Based Guidelines for Effective Software Architecture of Web Based Applications. Journal of Software Engineering, 5: 102-107.

DOI: 10.3923/jse.2011.102.107

Received: August 06, 2011; Accepted: November 13, 2011; Published: December 31, 2011


Software architecture is emerging as a natural evolution of design abstractions for engineering the software. The success of a software system depends on a good architectural design. As the size and complexity of software systems increase, the design and specification of overall system structure become more significant issues than the choice of algorithms and data structures for computation. Software architectural patterns and styles deal with various structural issues like organization of a system as a composition of components, global control structures, the protocols for communication, synchronization and data access, the assignment of functionality to design elements, the composition of design elements, physical distribution, scaling and performance, dimensions of evolution and selection among design alternatives (Taylor et al., 2009; Garlan and Shaw, 1994, 2010).

Architectural design guidance helps in formulating design rules that indicate good and bad combinations of choices and use them to select an appropriate system design based on functional as well as structural dimensions (Lane, 1990a, b).

Software architecture encompasses the structures of large software systems, where every system comprises of elements and the relations among them. “The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software elements, the externally visible properties of those elements and the relationships among them, (Bass et al., 2003).

Fig. 1: Relation of software architecture to other development activities (Hofmeister et al., 2000)

Fig. 2: The ‘4+1’ view model (Muskens, 2002)

According to Boehm (1995), If a project has not achieved a system architecture, including its rationale, the project should not proceed to full-scale system development. Specifying the architecture as a deliverable enables its use throughout the development and maintenance process. Jacobson et al. (1999) defines software architecture as “An architecture is the set of significant decisions about the organization of a software system, the selection of the structural elements and their interfaces by which the system is composed, together with their behavior as specified in the collaborations among those elements, the composition of these structural and behavioral elements into progressively larger subsystems and the architectural style that guides this organization these elements and their interfaces, their collaboration and their composition”. Fig. 1 shows that how software architecture fits in with other development tasks.

As its essence, software architecture is defined as a set of principal design decisions made about the system. The ‘4+1’ view model is depicted in Fig. 2 (Muskens, 2002), which consists of logical view, development view, process view and physical view along with use cases or scenarios which can be considered as fifth view. For each view, most of the design decisions are independent of other views but there are some decisions that are affected by the views that are designed later.

Few common software architectures: The success of a software system depends on a good architectural design. There are a number of common software architectural styles and patterns such as pipelines, client-server organization, layered architecture, component-based architecture, message bus architecture and Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) (Garlan et al., 1992; Shaw, 1990, 1991, 1993; Allen and Garlan, 1992; Erich et al., 1995; Pree, 1995).

Table 1: Common software architectures

Table 1 lists the major areas of focus and the corresponding software architectures (Garlan and Shaw, 1994).

Design space dimensions: The notion of design space is useful in its own right as a shared vocabulary for describing and understanding systems for specific domains. A multidimensional design space helps in classifying system architectures. Each dimension describes variation in one system characteristics or design choice. A specific system design corresponds to a point in the design space, identified by the dimensional values that describe its characteristics and structure. Lane (1990a) discussed two major types of dimensions i.e., functional dimensions and structural dimensions. Functional dimensions identify the requirements for user-interface system that most affect its structure. It deals with the requirements of particular applications, users, I/O devices to be supported, constraints imposed by the surrounding computer system, key decisions about the user-interface behavior, development cost considerations and degree of adaptability of the system. Structural dimensions deals with the decisions that determine the overall structure of a user-interface system. It deals with the issues like how system functions are divided into modules, the interfaces between modules, information contained within each module, data representations used within the system and dynamic behavior of the user-interface code.

In order to study the practices followed by the undergraduate students with respect to the various architectural features for the development of different web-based applications. Two primary dimensions of software architecture namely functional dimensions and structural dimensions were considered as the benchmarks for evaluating these projects. A total of 30-35 projects with respect to different types of applications, were taken into consideration as part of the study. The various features available in these projects are listed in the Table 2 and Table 3 against the threshold features.

It has been conclusively found that the majority of the projects make use of at the most six to seven features of architectural dimensions. This can be attributed to a number of reasons namely:

The lack of awareness of various architectural practices among the students
International ignorance of various architectural features because of paucity of time and resources. Thereby compromising on the overall application quality
Lack of the specification of exact requirements with respect to the architecture of the overall application
The ad-hoc development approaches result in degradation of overall software architecture over a period of time

Table 2: Functional dimensions for web-based user-interface systems

Table 3: Structural dimensions for web-based user-interface systems


In order to develop a good quality software based on a strong architecture it is suggested that the corresponding practices be exhaustively taught to the developers of various applications. Their effective implementations must also be effectively demonstrated. This shall remove the gap between the acquired levels of competence in this area and desired levels at the application development level. However, this should all be the part of overall application development environment which includes different processes like requirement engineering and the translation of the software architecture into effective design and code.

There is a requirement to supplement these results with the study of applications from other domains like database applications, file-based applications and the function-based applications.


We thankfully acknowledge the contribution of various students of our department towards this study.

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