Antipyretic Activity of Ethanol Extract of Cansjera rheedii J. Gmelin (Opiliaceae)
S. Darlin Quine
The antipyretic activity of ethanol (95%) extracts of
Cansjera rheedii J. Gmelin aerial parts of the plant was evaluated
against brewer`s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats to assess their antipyretic
activity. Rectal temperatures were recorded before and after inducing
pyrexia at interval of one hour to five hours. At the same time parallel
experiments were run with a standard antipyretic paracetamol (100 mg kg-1)
and control (Normal Saline 5 mL kg-1). Ethanol extract of Cansjera
rheedii J. Gmelin at dose of 250 mg and 500 mg kg-1 body
weight showed the antipyretic activity significantly (p<0.001) compared
to that of control.
In traditional medicines, various herbal preparations are being used
for treating rise in body temperature. In order to reduce the side effects
in modern medicine, efforts are being made to find out suitable
herbal drugs. In earlier study, we have reported the antipyretic activity
of Toddalia asiatic Linn (Ruckumani et al., 1996). The present
study was taken up to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of aerial
parts of the plant Cansjera rheedii J. Gmelin against brewer`s
Cansjera rheedii (Family:Opiliaceae) is a climbing shrub, sometimes
armed, commonly known as Kalimanakeerai in Tamil is generally found in
India through Malaya to Hong Kong and North Australia (Gamble, 1981; Matthew,
1991). The whole plant of C. rheedii was used for the treatment
of post-natal pain (Ravikumar and Vijaya Sankar, 2003). Hepatoprotective
effect (Mounnissamy et al., 2008) and cytotoxic effect (Mounnissamy
et al., 2007) of the plant were also reported. The tribes of Nilgiris
in Tamil Nadu, India using the plant extract for the treatment of intermittent
fever (Hosagoudar and Henry, 1996). So, the present study is focused to
establish a scientific evidence for its antipyretic activity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The aerial parts of the plant of Cansjera rheedii (Opiliaceae)
were collected in and around Auroville, Puducherry in the month of June
2006 and it was identified and authenticated by Auro Herbarium Sakthi
Botanical Survey Department, Auroville. A voucher specimen has been kept
in our laboratory for future reference (VS-12). The aerial parts of the
plants of Cansjera rheedii were cut into small pieces, shade dried
and powdered. The coarse powder was subjected to continues hot extraction
in a soxhlet by using ethanol (95% v/v). The ethanol was removed by distillation
under reduced pressure. This extract was dissolved in Normal Saline (0.9%
w/v Sodium Chloride) and used for the experiment.
Adult male Wister rats weighing between 150-175 g were procured from
Adhiparasakthi College of Pharmacy, Melmaruvathur, Chengalpet district,
Tamil Nadu, South India. They were fed on commercial diet (Hindustan Lever
Ltd., Bangalore) and water ad libitum. All the animals acclimatized
for a week before use. The room temperature was maintained at 25 ±
The LD50 value of ethanol extract of C. rheedii was
determined by using different doses of the extract according to the up
and down method (Ghosh, 1984).
Antipyretic activity of drug was measured by the method described
by Smith and Hambourger (1935). The normal body temperature of each rat
was measured rectally by using digital thermometer (Make-SK-1250MC, Sato
Keiryoki Mfg. Co. Ltd., Japan) and recorded. Pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous
(SC) injection of 20% w/v brewer`s yeast suspension (20 mL kg-1)
into the animals back below the nape of the neck region. The site of injection
was massaged in order to spread the suspension beneath the skin. The room
temperature is kept at 25 ± 1 °C. Immediately after yeast administration,
food is withdrawn. Eighteen hours after post challenge, the rise in rectal
temperature of each rat was measured using digital thermometer. The measurement
is repeated after 30 min. Only rats that showed an increase in rectal
temperature of at least 0.7 °C were selected for the study and were
divided into four groups (1-4) comprising each of 6 animals. The Group
1 served as control and received 5 mL kg-1 of normal saline
orally. Groups 2 and 3 treated with ethanol extract of Cansjera rheedii
orally at a dose of 250 and 500 mg kg-1, respectively and
Group 4 were treated with paracetamol (100 mg kg-1 orally)
as reference drug. The rectal temperature was measured by digital thermometer
at an interval of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h, after test extract/reference drug
The data are expressed as Mean ± SEM and were analyzed statistically
by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test between two groups; control
and test groups, followed by student`s t-test. Significant levels were
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The LD50 study showed that the extract was safe at dose of
2 g kg-1 body weight. The ethanolic extract at a dose of 250
mg and 500 mg kg-1 body weight has shown significant (p<0.001)
antipyretic activity, it has shown significant fall in body temperature
up to 5 h following its administration. The antipyretic activity started
as early as 1 h and the effect was maintained for 5 h. The response was
comparable to that of paracetamol a standard antipyretic drug (Table
Fever may be due to infection or one of the sequels of tissue damage,
inflammation, graft rejection, or other disease states. Antipyretic are
agents, which reduce the elevated body temperature. Regulation of body
temperature requires a delicate balance between production and loss of
heat and the hypothalamus regulates the set point at which body temperature
is maintained. In fever this set point elevates and a drug like paracetamol
does not influence body temperature when it is elevated by the
|| Effect of ethanolic extract of C. rheedii on
yeast-induced pyrexia in rats
|N = 6 animals in a group, Values are expressed as Mean
± SEM, *p<0.001 vs control, data were analyzed by using
one way ANOVA followed by student`s t-test
factors such as exercise or increase in ambient temperature (Hullatti
and Sharada, 2007). Yeast-induced fever is called pathogenic fever, its
etiology includes production of prostaglandins, which set the thermo regulatory
center at a lower temperature (Howard, 1993). The results show that ethanolic
extract of C. rheedii possesses a significant antipyretic effect
in yeast-provoked elevation of body temperature in rats and its effect
is comparable to that of paracetamol (standard drug). So, inhibition of
prostaglandin synthesis could be the possible mechanism of antipyretic
action as that of paracetamol (Chandrashekaran et al., 2002). Also,
there are several mediators or multi-processes underlining the pathogenesis
of fever. Inhibition of any of these mediators may bring about antipyresis
(Akio et al., 1988). From the above study we have concluded the
antipyretic activity of the plant Cansjera rheedii J. Gmelin (Opiliaceae).
Fractionation of the extract to find out its chemical nature and also
to elucidate the probable mechanism of action of antipyretic activity.
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