Sensory Evaluation of Four FHIA Tetraploid Hybrids for Kaakle (a Local Dish) in Ghana
The success of the introduction of any new Musa hybrid hinges on the acceptance of common dishes prepared from these hybrids by the local people. A study was conducted to assess the consumer acceptability of four FHIA hybrids (FHIA-21, FHIA-01, FHIA-03 and FHIA-25 for a popular food preparation called kaakle with local Apantu (local False Horn plantain) as control. Kaakle is prepared by blending the pulp of over-ripened pulp of plantain or banana fruits. The paste produced is mixed with 20% corn flour. Salt and spices are added to the composite paste produced to taste. The composite paste is then packaged and wrapped in green plantain leaves and boiled for 1 h. In some localities it is boiled for 1 h especially in the evening and left on fire overnight. It is eaten without sauce after peeling off the plantain leaves. An untrained panel reflecting the range of social class of consumers within the ethnic group was presented with coded samples of the food preparation. All the varieties were accepted for use in preparing kaakle with overall acceptance ranging from 70% (FHIA-25) to 100% (FHIA-21 and FHIA-01). The local Apantu and FHIA-21 were highly accepted compared to the other hybrids. In the processed form the tetraploid hybrids compare favourably with the triploids. There was a significant difference in the overall acceptance between cooking bananas (FHIA-25 and FHIA-03) and plantains (FHIA-21) and dessert banana (FHIA-01). This is not surprising since in the raw ripe state the cooking bananas have low sugar content. FHIA-25 in the raw ripe state lack the banana aroma associated with bananas. The results indicated that considering the food habit of the ethnic group, the new varieties that may be rejected in some localities may receive favourable responses from others. It is therefore relevant to allow various ethnic groups to evaluate new hybrids according to the food habits and if possible release these varieties as ecotypes.
Plantains (Musa sp., AAB group) are grown mainly by smallholders in
sub-Saharan Africa and tropical America, who sell their fruits to local urban
and rural markets (Stover and Simmonds, 1987).Their cultivation
has become a feature of great socioeconomic importance in sub-Sahara Africa
from the point of view of food security and job creation.
Plantain and banana (Musa sp.) are very important starchy staples in
the West and Central African sub-region (Stover and Simmonds,
1987). They are consumed both as energy yielding food and as dessert. Plantain
and banana are also very important sources of rural income (Ortiz
and Vuylsteke, 1996). Because they are unpalatable when raw, plantain fruits
are usually cooked, roasted, fried, steamed, boiled, or pounded before consumption.
Plantains are relatively high in calories at 125/200 g. It is an excellent
source of potassium, a good source of vitamin C, contains no cholesterol and
is low in sodium. Two hundred gram of cooked plantain yields a trace of fat,
2.3 g dietary fiber, 465 mg potassium, 26 mcg folate, 10.9 mg vitamin C, 909
IU vitamin A, 32 mg magnesium and 31.1 g carbohydrates (King,
2007). Green plantains, which are very hard and starchy, have little banana
flavor and no sweetness. They may be boiled or fried or added to soups and stews.
Yellow-ripe plantains are more tender but can be used in these same ways and
will have a creamier texture. They can also be mashed, grilled or baked. Among
other popular plantain snacks are tostones (Dadzie, 1998).
Plantains and bananas are used as fufu, ampesi and as snack. They
could also be processed into tatale, kakro, kaakle, or
apiti, chips, pastries, flour and abetie. Recently bananas are
being used for fruit juice. In Ghana like in other West and Central African
countries, the names of some of the local dishes vary according to the ethnic
group and the local language spoken.
Despite the high value of plantain and banana, growing pest and disease pressures
have adversely affected production (IITA, 1992; Stover
and Simmonds, 1987; Swennen, 1990). Yield losses due
to the pests and diseases are highly significant ranging from 20-50%. As a long
term solution to address these problems, new hybrids, resistant/tolerant to
these pests and diseases have been introduced from Honduran Agricultural Foundation
(FHIA), Hunduras for evaluation for their agronomic performance and consumer
acceptability. Most of the introduced hybrids have been studied to be agronomically
stable, high-yielding and disease and pest resistant or tolerant. However, their
food quality and consumer acceptability is important if any meaningful achievement
could be made with the hybrids. The food habits differ from one ethnic group
to the other. Nevertheless scientists often evaluate new varieties across locations
to substantiate the performance and acceptability of the variety across locations
before their release. It is sometimes obvious that a variety that may perform
well at a location may not be accepted by some ethnic groups as a result of
their food habit. Most often these varieties are discarded due to their rejection
across selected locations. It is therefore relevant to consider the food characteristics
of the various ethnic groups and if possible release some varieties as ecotypes.
This study was therefore conducted to evaluate the food qualities and consumer
acceptability of four hybrids (FHIA-21, FHIA-03, FHIA-25 and FHIA-01) when used
for kaakle in one community in the Ho district of the Volta region of
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Physiologically matured unripe bunches of the hybrids, FHIA-21, FHIA-01, FHIA-03, FHIA-25 and standard cultivars, apantu were harvested from the backyard of a farmer at Sokode in the Ho district in the Volta region of Ghana. The samples were given to a local food vendor in the community to prepare kaakle. Consumer acceptability test was held on the four hybrids to compare the quality of the dish. A total of 20 panelists selected from the community comprising civil servants, students, plantain farmers and plantain sellers.
Kaakle is prepared by blending the over-ripe pulp of plantain or banana fruits. The paste produced is mixed with twenty percent corn flour, salt and spices are added to taste. The composite paste is then packaged and wrapped in green plantain leaves and boiled for 1 h. In some localities it is boiled for 1 h especially in the evening and left on fire overnight. It is eaten without sauce after peeling off the plantain leaves.
Untrained panelists from a community comprising both males and females were
used in the study. Assessors were not trained to produce a panel showing definite
preference but rather one which consistently reflected the range of preferences
likely to be typical of ethnic consumers. At each time, panelists were presented
with two coded samples (A and B) of kaakle comprising apantu and
plantain hybrids, FHIA-21, FHIA-25, FHIA-01 and FHIA-03. Assessors were asked
to compare the two coded samples on the bases of texture, taste, colour and
overall acceptability, using the hedonic descriptive scale of 1-5 (Table
1) (Dadzie, 1998). In addition, panelists were asked
to state which of the two samples they preferred most. All assessors were instructed
in basic taste panel procedures: to make their own individual judgments after
a moderate amount of consideration. They were instructed to take a sip of water
and pause briefly before tasting each sample and to re-taste if they are not
sure of their decisions.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The textural quality of kaakle is an important factor for consumers.
The texture of kaakle made from all the four hybrids compared favourably
with that made from apantu. Of the 20 panelists who participated in the
sensory evaluation studies 100% indicated their acceptance of the texture (Table
2). In similar sensory evaluation study in Ghana (Dzomeku
et al., 2006a, b) FHIA-21, FHIA-03 and FHIA-25
were accepted when processed into various food recipes.
The taste of the kaakle is also an important feature for consumers.
Of the 20 panelists 80% express their reservation about the taste of FHIA-25
compared to 20% who accepted the taste as good. There was no significant difference
between the taste of FHIA-25 and FHIA-03. The taste of FHIA-21 and FHIA-01 compared
favourably with the local apantu (Table 3). The colour
of kaakle is just as important for consumers as texture and taste. In
the comparative sensory studies, all the panelist indicated that the colour
was good compared to kaakle from apantu. In a similar study in
Nigeria and Ghana, the hybrids were most preferred when processed (Ferris
et al., 1996; Dzomeku et al., 2006a).
However FHIA-21 compared favourable with local triploid when boiled as slice
(Dzomeku et al., 2006b).
The sweetness is important to consumers. The panelists were thus asked to compare
the sweetness based on the hedonic scoring scale of 1-5 (Table
1). A total of 70% indicated that kaakle from FHIA-25 were not sweet
compared to FHIA-21, FHIA-01, FHIA-03 and Apantu.
|| Hedonic scoring for the assessment of consumer acceptability
of unripe plantain
||Percentage score on comparative sensory evaluation of kaakle
of hybrid FHIA-21, FHIA-01, FHIA-03, FHIA-25 and Apantu plantain
|| Comparative sensory evaluation of kaakle of hybrid
FHIA-21, FHIA-01, FHIA-03, FHIA-25 and Apantu plantain
|Letter(s) in common within columns were not significantly
different at the 1% level
Based on the overall acceptability, results indicated that FHIA-21 and FHIA-01
were excellent, FHIA-03, was very good and FHIA-25 was good when used for kaakle.
Correlation analysis of the results showed that though sweetness (R = 0.046;
p<0.0001) and colour (R = 0.23; p<0.0001) were important for consumers,
texture (R = 0.56; p<0.0001) and taste (R = 0.63; p<0.0001) were the most
important factors for the overall acceptance of the dish. The results of this
study confirmed similar studies conducted by Dadzie (1998)
to compare FHIA hybrids with Cuerno plantain in Honduras. FHIA-01, like other
dessert bananas could also be used for kaakle.
The success of the introduction of any new Musa hybrid hinges on the acceptance of common dishes prepared from these hybrids by the local people. The four FHIA hybrids were all accepted when processed into kaakle (a local dish) in the Volta region of Ghana. The food habit of the various ethnic groups must be considered when sensory evaluation of introduced crops is being conducted. The farmers must be allowed to determine the possible food preparations that can be made out of new varieties. The new varieties that may be rejected by an ethnic group may receive acceptance from others. It is therefore relevant to allow various ethnic groups to evaluate new hybrids according to their food habits and if possible release these varieties as ecotypes.
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