Evaluation of Herbal Ointments Formulated with Methanolic Extract of Cajanus scarabaeoides
The plant Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) possess wound healing, anti-diabetic, anti- inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diarrhoeal, anthelmintic and anti-bacterial activities. The emulsifying ointment formulations containing extracts of the above mentioned herb were formulated, evaluated and their wound healing activity was studied on experimentally induced open wounds in albino rats. The extract (0.5 and 1.0. g) was incorporated into 10 g of a simple ointment base by melting and triturating to give two batches of each the both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ointment formulation. The pH, viscosity, spreadability, stability studies and skin irritation test were determined. The measurement of the wound areas were taken up-to 18th days and the percentages of wound closures were calculated. Blank ointment base and Gentamycin ointment (1% w/w) served as the control and standard treatments. The prepared ointments were passed all the physical evaluation parameters. There were no changes in pH, viscosity, spreadability, consistency, and phase separation when the ointments were kept at different temperatures for 90 days. These formulations did not produce any skin irritation .Topical application of the prepared ointment on the excision wound in rats caused a significantly (p<0.05) higher rate of wound healing and reduced the epithelialization period in a dose-related manner. Application of the hydrophilic ointment containing the highest concentrations of Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) extract (1, 10 g ointment) showed the highest rate of wound closure . The formulated ointments were evaluated and effective in wound care and should be explored in harnessing the potentials of the plant in the treatment of topical diseases.
Received: May 02, 2011;
Accepted: June 01, 2011;
Published: August 29, 2011
The delivery of drug through the skin has long been a promising concept because
of the ease of access, large surface area, vast exposure to the circulatory
and lymphatic networks and non-invasive nature of the treatment (Daniels
and Knie, 2007). Along with other topical dosage forms, herbal drugs are
also formulated in the form of ointment. Wound is a break in the normal tissue
continuum, resulting in a variety of cellular and molecular sequel. Wound may
be created by physical, chemical, thermal, microbial or immunological abuse
to the tissue (Patil et al., 2009). The wound
healing process consists of integrated cellular and biochemical events leading
to reestablishment of structural and functional integrity with regain of strength
of injured tissue (Panda et al., 2010). Wound
healing is an extreme complex phenomenon involving a number of well-orchestrated
processes, including coagulation, inflammation, formation of granulation tissue,
synthesis of extracellular matrix protein, remodeling of connective tissue parenchymal
components, collagenization and acquisition of wound strength (Subramanian
et al., 2006). Cutaneous wound repair is accompanied by an ordered
and definable sequence of biological events starting with wound closure and
progressing to the repair and remodeling of damaged tissue (Norfarizan-Hanoon
et al., 2009). A number of drugs ranging from simple non-expensive
analgesics to complex and expensive chemotherapeutic agents administered in
the management of wound affect healing either positively or negatively (Esimone
et al., 2009).
The literature reveals that the plant C. scarabaeoides leaves are useful
in treatment of dropsy, fever, pains, sores, anemia, cholera and dysentery.
The leaves are mixed with honey and given to the women after child birth. The
plant is reported useful in rheumatism and fever and poses proteinase inhibition
activity and in vitro digestibility of seed protein. The essential oil
obtained from it leaves possess fungicidal activity in different test pathogens
In our earlier study it was reported that medicinal plant C. scarabaeoides
(Family: Fabaceae) commonly known as Rantur or Banna adhaki, shows the presence
of alkaloids and glycosides in petroleum ether extract, glycosides and steroids
in chloroform extract and glycosides and flavonoids in methanol extract. In
pharmacological screening it was found that the methanolic extract of C.
scarabaeoides exhibit significant antimicrobial, antidiabetic (Pattanayak
et al., 2009a) and antidiarrheal activity (Pattanayak
et al., 2010).
Hence, by correlating above consequence (presence of flavonoids, analgesic activity, antimicrobial activity and antidiabetic activity) an effort has been made to establish the scientific validity to investigate the possible wound healing activity of different ointments preparation made from the methanolic extract of C. scarabaeoides and perform possible evaluation tests for ointments.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant materials: The whole plant of C. scarabaeoides was collected in August 2010 from Midnapur, West Bengal, India. The whole plant material was taxonomically identified by Dr. S.C. Majumdar, Taxonomist, Botanical Survey of India, Koregaon Road, Pune 411 001. The whole plant were dried under shade with occasional shifting and then powdered with a mechanical grinder and stored in an airtight container.
Preparation of methanolic extracts: The powder obtained was subjected to successive soxhlet extraction with the solvents with increasing order of polarity i.e., petroleum ether (50°C), chloroform (50°C) and methanol (60°C). The percentage yield of methanolic extracts was found 8.94% w/w.
Drugs and chemicals: The following drugs and chemicals were used with their sources: Petroleum ether (SD Fine, Mumbai), chloroform (SD Fine, Mumbai), methanol (SD Fine, Mumbai), anesthetic ether, Liquid paraffin, Triethanolamine, Sodium hydroxide (Reseach Lab, Pune), Proylene glycol, White petrolatum, PEG 6000 (Polyoxyethylene glycol), Petroleum jelly, Methylparaben (Himedia Laboratories Private Ltd., Mumbai, India), Stearyl alcohol, Propylene glycol, Sodium lauryl sulphate (Loba Chemical Private Ltd., Mumbai).
Preparation of ointments: In preparation of hydrophilic ointments of Cajanus scarabaeoides (C.S.H.L.-I and C.S.H.L.-II) stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum were melted together at about 75°C. The other agents including extracts in different concentration were dissolved in purified water are added with stirring until the mixture congeals. Sodium lauryl sulphats were act as emulsifying agents with stearyl alcohols and white petrolatum comprising the oleaginous phase of emulsion and the other ingredients aqueous phase. At the last methyl and propyl paraben were added which is preservative.
In preparation of hydrophobic ointments of Cajanus scarabaeoides (C.S.H.H.-I and C.S.H.H.-II) the waxy bases were melted using water bath. Petroleum jelly which having high melting point were melted first. Then low melting substances cetostearyl alcohol, PEG 6000 and liquid paraffin were melted. After that different concentration of extracts were dissolved in small quantity of purified water and added it in large volume non-aqueous phase. At the last methyl paraben is added. Cooled under stirring and soft mass of ointment is obtained.
Animals: Thirty five Swiss Albino rats of either sex weighing 150-200g were used with the approval of the Institute Animal Ethics Committee (1197/C/08/CPCSEA). Animals were fed a standard pellet (Lipton India, Ltd.) and water ad libitum and maintained at 24-28°C temperature, 60-70% relative humidity and 12 h day and night cycle.
Physical evaluations: Preliminary evaluation of formulations at different concentrations was carried out as follows:
pH: The pH of various formulations was determined by using Digital pH
meter (Digital pH meter 335, Systronics, Noroda, Ahmedabad). The 0.5 g of the
weighed formulation was dispersed in 50 mL of distilled water and the pH was
(Panigrahi et al., 1997).
Homogeneity: All the developed ointments were tested for homogeneity
by visual inspection. They were tested for their appearance with no lumps (Panigrahi
et al., 1997).
Viscosity: The measurement of viscosity of prepared ointments was carried
out with Brookfield Viscometer (model LV-DV-II, Helipath spindle type S-96).
The values of each formulation were done in triplicate and average values were
depicted in Table 1. The viscosity values are expressed as
Mean±Standard deviation (Kim et al., 2003).
Spreadability: Spreadability of the formulation was determined by an
apparatus suggested by Mutimer et al. (1956) which
was suitably modified in the laboratory and used for the study. The experiment
was performed as described by Wood et al. (1963).
Spreadability was determined by using the formula. (S = M.L/T). Where S = spreadability,
M = Weight tied to upper slide, L = Length of glass slides and T = Time taken
to separate the slides completely from each other. In this present experiment,
M = 80 g, L = 10 cm and T was recorded in the Table 1 (Ehrlich
and Hunt, 1968).
|| Preparation of medicated formulations with methanolic extract
of Cajanus scarabaeoides
|C.S.H.L.-I: Hydrophilic ointments of Cajanus scarabaeoides
(5% w/w), C.S.H.L.-II: Hydrophilic ointments of Cajanus scarabaeoides
(10% w/w), C.S.H.H.-I: Hydrophobic ointments of Cajanus scarabaeoides
(5% w/w), C.S.H.H.-II: Hydrophobic ointments of Cajanus scarabaeoides
Acute skin irritation study: This test was performed on albino rats
and weighing between 150-200 g. The animals were given standard animal feed
and had free access to water ad libitum. The total mass was separated
into four groups, each batch containing five animals. Dorsal hairs at the back
of the rats were removed one day prior to the commencement of the study and
kept individually in cages to avoid contact with the other rats. Two groups
of each were used for control and standard irritant. Other two groups were used
as test. The 50 mg of the each formulation of different concentrations were
applied over one square centimeter area of whole and abraded skin to different
animals. Aqueous solution of 0.8% formalin was used as standard irritant. The
animals were observed for seven days for any signs of oedema and erythema (Marzulli
and Maibach, 1997).
Stability studies: The stability studies were carried out in all formulations
at different temperature conditions (4, 25 and 37°C) for 3 months. All the
evaluation parameters i.e., pH, viscosity, spreadability, consistency and phase
separation studied at different time intervals i.e., 15, 30, 60 and 90th days
(Shinde et al., 2005; Mohanta
et al., 2007).
Evaluation of wound healing activity (Excision method): The animals
were divided into 7 groups of 5 rats each.
||Group I served as control (Blank hydrophilic ointment base)
||Group II served as control (Blank hydrophobic ointment base)
||Group III served as standard (Gentamycin ointment 1%)
||Group IV served as test group treated with C.S.H.L.-I
||Group V served as test group treated with C.S.H.L.-II
||Group VI served as test group treated with C.S.H.H.-I
||Group VII served as test group treated with C.S.H.H.-II
Dorsal hairs at the back of the rats were removed by hair remover cream. Rats
were anaesthetized by anesthetic ether prior to excision. A circular wound of
about 2.5 cm diameter was made on depilated dorsal thoracic region of rats under
aseptic conditions and was observed throughout the study. Area of the wounds
were measured (in sq. mm) instantaneously by placing a transparent polythene
graph paper over the wound and then tracing the area of the wound on it (Approx.
area 500 sq. mm). All the samples e.g., control, standard and four formulated
ointments, were applied once daily for 18 days, starting from the day of wounding.
The observations of wound area and percentage wound closure were made on 3rd,
6, 9, 12, 15 and 18th post wounding days. The percentage of wound contraction
was calculated by the formula (1-wound area at the studied day/wound area at
initial day)x100. Reduction in the wound area was expressed as percentage of
the initial wound diameter (Panda et al., 2009;
Mankani et al., 2004).
Statistical analysis: The experimental results were expressed as the Mean±Standard Error of Mean (SEM) and the statistical significance was evaluated by One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett<s t-test. The Graphpad Prism version 4 software was used for analyzing the experimental results.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The various physicochemical parameters utilized to evaluate the prepared ointment formulations are shown in Table 2.
The pH of the formulations lies in the normal pH range of the human skin (6.8±1). All the formulations did not produce any skin irritation, i.e., erythema and edema for about a week when applied over the skin. The rheological behaviors of the different formulations of ointments in Rotational Brookfield Viscometer indicated that the when speed of spindle increases viscosity decreases. A comparative study of viscosity and spreadability showed that the viscosity of the formulations increases, spreadability decreases and vice versa. These formulations did not produce any skin irritation for about a week when applied over the skin. From the stability studies, Ointments showed no changes in pH, viscosity, spreadability, consistency and phase separation after keeping at different temperatures for 90 days.
All the ointment formulations with methanolic extracts of C. scarabaeoides showed significant promotion of wound-healing activity with statistically significant (*p<0.05) in all the seven groups of animal which were depicted in the Table 3. The highest wound closer was observed by C.S.H.L-II followed by C.S.H.H-II, C.S.H.L-I and C.S.H.H-I. The mean percentage closure of wound area was calculated on the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and finally 18th days. The wound healing activity was found to be comparable with that of the reference standards and control bases. The percentages closure of excision wound area in animals treated with C.S.H.L-I, C.S.H.L-II, C.S.H.H-I, C.S.H.H-II were compared with that of the commercial products of Gentamycin ointment. Out of the four formulations the C.S.H.L-II was shown (99.56%) maximum wound healing activity.
|| Physicochemical evaluations and stability studies of different
formulation of ointments
||Topical application of ointments from extract of C. scarabaeoides
on wound healing activity in rats. [% of wound healing = (1-wound area at
the studied day/wound area at initial day) x 100]
|Values are expressed Mean±SEM of six readings; Significance
evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dennett<s
t-test versus control group,*p<0.05, (n = 5). Values in parentheses indicate
the percentage of wound healing
The both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ointments of methanolic extract of Cajanus
scarabaeoides prepared by fusion method, by using different percipients
and different concentration of extract. The mechanical evaluation parameters
like pH, viscosity, spreadability, homogeneity are important tests to evaluate
pharmaceutical ointment formulations. The result of all the formulations near
to pH 6.8±1 indicates better chemical compatibility of ointments with
skin. The results of viscosity gives an idea about measurement of strength and
the result of spreadability denote the extent of area to which the prepared
formulations readily spreads on application to skin or affected part and homogeneity
confirms no lumps. The results of stability study indicates the there is no
change in results of evaluation parameters of prepared ointments up to 90th
days. . The absence of erythema and edema for about a week when the ointments
are applied over the skin for skin irritation test indicates patient compliances
and fewer side effects. The results of the physical evaluation of ointment preparation
with methanolic extracts of C. scarabaeoides indicate the suitability
of method for the production of ointments (Ansel et al.,
In wound healing process cellular structures and tissue layers in damaged tissue
are restored as closely as possible to its normal state. It has three phases;
inflammatory, proliferative and maturational. In the first stage of wound, an
inflammatory response occurs, which is characterized by hemostasis and inflammation.
Epithelization, angiogenesis and collagen deposition occurs in the proliferative
phase. Then wound undergoes shrinkage and contraction resulting in a smaller
amount of apparent wound tissue. The wound healing process depends upon the
type and extent of damage, the general state of the hosts health and the
ability of the tissue to repair. The fibroblast, collagen, edema and small new
blood vessel are found in granulation tissue of the wound. The undifferentiated
mesenchymal cells of the wound margin modulate themselves into fibroblast. These
fibroblasts start migrate into the wound gap along with the fibrin strands and
closes the wound area (Singh et al., 2005; Puratchikody
and Nagalakshmi, 2007; Odimegwu et al., 2008).
The wound healing activity of the ointments containing methanol extract of
Cajanus scarabaeoides was evaluated for its wound healing potentials
in excision wound model in rats. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ointments
responded significantly in this wound models tested. The results of wound healing
were also comparable to that of the standard drugs Gentamycin ointment used
as standard drugs. The results were also comparable in terms of wound contracting
ability, epithelization period at the wound area and percentage of wound closer
(Nagori and Solanki, 2011).
In the preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological studies of methanol extract
of C. scarabaeoides revealed the presence of glycosides and flavonoids
and showed significant antimicrobial and antidiabetic activity (Pattanayak
et al., 2009b). Flavonoids reduce lipid per-oxidation by preventing
or slowing the onset of cell necrosis and by improving vascularity. So, any
drug that inhibits lipid per-oxidation may increases the viability of collagen
fibrils by increasing the strength of collagen fibers, increasing the circulation,
preventing the cell damage and by promoting the DNA synthesis (Getie
et al., 2002). It is also called that flavonoids promote the wound
healing process mainly due to their astringent and antimicrobial property, which
seems to be responsible for wound contraction (Tsuchiya et
Further phytochemical studies are needed to isolate the active compound (s) responsible for wound healing activities. Further studies with purified constituents are needed to understand the complete mechanism of wound healing activity of C. scarabaeoides.
Thus, this investigation confirms the use of the both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ointments containing C. scarabaeoides extract as a wound-healing ointment preparation.
Topical route of application has a great potential as an effective and safe
way to administer in the form of ointments. Ointments prepared from the methanolic
extract of C. scarabaeoides passes all physical evaluation parameters
and it shows significant local wound healing activity in both hydrophilic and
hydrophobic ointment bases. Preliminary tests of skin irritation in rats may
indicate negligible systemic absorption and side effects. The prepared ointments
pass other physical evaluation test parameters. Based on the results of these
tests, trails may be performed on human beings.
The authors express their gratitude to the authority of Berhampur University, Bhanja Bihar, Orissa, College of Pharmaceutical sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur and Shardchandra Pawar College of Pharmacy, Pune, Maharashtra, India for the facilities and encouragement for carrying out research work.
1: Ansel, H.C., L.V. Allen and G.N. Popovich, 2005. Ansel Pharmaceuticals Dosage form and Drug Delivery System. 8th Edn., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, London, UK., pp: 279-282.
2: Daniels, R. and U. Knie, 2007. Galenics of dermal products vehicles, properties and drug release. J. Dtsch. Dermatol. Ges., 5: 367-381.
3: Ehrlich, H.P. and T.K. Hunt, 1968. Effect of cortisone and Vitamin A on wound healing. Ann. Surg., 167: 324-328.
Direct Link |
4: Esimone, C.O., C.S. Nworu and C.L. Jackson, 2009. Cutaneous wound healing activity of a herbal ointment containing the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae). Int. J. Applied Res. Nat. Prod., 1: 1-4.
Direct Link |
5: Getie, M., G. Mariam, R. Reitz and R.H. Neubert, 2002. Evaluation of the release profiles of flavonoids from topical formulations of the crude extract of the leaves of Dodonea viscosa (Sapindaceae). Pharmazie, 57: 320-322.
6: Kim, J.Y., J.Y. Song, E.J. Lee and S.K. Park, 2003. Rheological properties and microstructure of carbopol gel network system. Colloid Polymer Sci., 281: 614-623.
7: Mankani, K.L., U. Krishna and J.S.D. Singh, 2004. Evaluation of wound healing activity of stem bark of Diospyros cordifolia. Indian Drugs, 41: 628-628.
8: Marzulli, F.N. and H.I. Maibach, 1997. Advance in Modern Toxicology. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, London, pp: 193-210.
9: Mohanta, G.P., M. Jamal and S. Umadevi, 2007. Formulation and evaluation of a poly herbal wound healing cream. Indian Drugs, 44: 281-281.
10: Mutimer, M.N., C. Riffikin, J.A. Hill, E. Marry and C.N.G. Glickman, 1956. Synthesis of methylsilyl derivates of procaine and their diffusion. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. Sci., 45: 212-212.
11: Nagori, B.P. and R. Solanki, 2011. Role of medicinal plants in wound healing. Res. J. Med. Plant, 5: 392-405.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
12: Norfarizan-Hanoon, N.A., R. Asmah, M.Y. Rokiah, O. Fauziah and H. Faridah, 2009. Effects of Strobilanthes crispus juice on wound healing and antioxidant enzymes in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Biol. Sci., 9: 662-668.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
13: Odimegwu, D.C., E.C. Ibezim, C.O. Esimone, C.S. Nworu and F.B.C., Okoye, 2008. Wound healing and antibacterial activities of the extract of Dissotis theifolia (Melastomataceae) stem formulated in a simple ointment base. J. Med. Plants Res., 2: 11-16.
Direct Link |
14: Panda, D., S.K. Dash and G.K. Dash, 2010. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and investigation of anthelmintic and wound healing potentials of various extracts of Chromolaena odorata Linn. collected from the locality of Mohuda Village, Berhampur (South Orissa). Int. J. Pharmaceut. Sci. Rev. Res., 1: 122-126.
Direct Link |
15: Panda, P., S.S. Nayak, A. Mohanty, D.P. Panda and P.K. Panda, 2009. Formulation and evaluation of topical dosage form of Pandanus fascicularis Lamk. and their wound healing activity. J. Pharm. Res., 2: 630-635.
Direct Link |
16: Panigrahi, L., T. Jhon, A. Shariff and R.S. Shobanirani, 1997. Fofmulation and evaluaton of lincomycin HCL gels. Ind. J. Pharm. Sci., 59: 330-332.
17: Patil, D.N., A.R. Kulkarni, A.A. Shahapurkar and B.C. Hatappakki, 2009. Natural cumin seeds for wound healing activity in albino rats. Int. J. Biol. Chem., 3: 148-152.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
18: Pattanayak, S., S.S. Nayak, D. Panda, A. Pansare and V. Shende, 2010. Pharmacological investigation of Cajanus scarabaeoides in different animal models of diarrhea. J. Nat. Remides, 10: 109-115.
19: Pattanayak, S., S.S. Nayak, D. Panda and V. Shende, 2009. Hypoglycemic of Cajanus scarabaeoides in glucose overloaded and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Bangladesh J. Pharmacol., 4: 131-135.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
20: Pattanayak, S., S.S. Nayak and D. Panda, 2009. Atimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform and ethaolic extracts of Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) whole plat. Pharmacology, 1: 530-536.
21: Puratchikody, A. and G. Nagalakshmi, 2007. Wound healing activity of Memecylon umbellatum burm. J. Plant Sci., 2: 179-186.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
22: Shinde, A.J., S.B. Bhise, R.J. Jarag and N.R. Jadhav, 2005. Preparation of cream containing Tridax procumbens, Curcuma longa and Azadirachta indica and its evaluation for wound healing property. Indian Pharm., 4: 107-110.
Direct Link |
23: Singh, S.D.J., V. Krishna, K.L. Mankani, B.K. Manjunatha, S.M. Vidya and Y.N. Manohara, 2005. Wound healing activity of leaf extracts and deoxyelephantopin isolated from Elephantopus scaber Linn. Indian J. Pharmacol., 37: 238-242.
24: Subramanian, S., D.S. Kumar and P. Arulselvan, 2006. Wound healing potential of Aloe vera leaf gel studied in experimental rabbits. Asian J. Biochem., 1: 178-185.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
25: Pullaiah, T., 2006. Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants. Vol. 1, Regency Publication, Melbourne, Australia, ISBN-13: 9798189233425, pp: 392-394.
26: Tsuchiya, H., M. Sato, T. Miyazaki, S. Fujiwara and S. Tanigaki et al., 1996. Comparative study on the antibacterial activity of phytochemical flavanones against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 50: 27-34.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
27: Wood, J.H., G. Catacalos and S.V. Liberman, 1963. Adaptation of commercial viscometers for special applications in pharmaceutical rheology II. Severs extrusion rheometer. J. Pharm. Sci., 52: 375-378.
CrossRef | Direct Link |