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Community Analysis of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Prevalent in Vegetable Crops in District Durg of Chhattisgarh, India



R. Sahu, P. Chandra and A.N. Poddar
 
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ABSTRACT

Community analysis of plant nematodes is an important criterion for assessment of their pathogenic potential in a particular region and identification of hotspots of nematode attack. This investigation involves a study of the community structure of phytonematodes associated with the vegetable crops in the district Durg of Chhattisgarh. Collection of soil and root samples was done during mid cropping season from the rhizosphere of vegetable crops. Extraction of the nematodes was done by Cobb’s sieving and decanting method, followed by modified Baermann’s funnel technique. Species were identified on the basis of perineal patterns of females. The estimation of nematode population was done in a multichambered counting dish under a stereoscopic binocular microscope. The predominant nematode species were Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and Meloidogyne spp. associated with Tomato, Egg plant, Cowpea and Bottle gourd. Others were Rotylenchulus reniformis, Tylenchorhynchus indicus, Pratylenchus spp. Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae. The highest absolute density was of M. incognita and Meloidogyne spp. followed by M. javanica, M. arenaria and R. reniformis while, Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae had the lowest density. T. indicus, R. reniformis and M. javanica were most frequent while, Meloidogyne spp. Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae were the least frequent. Highest prominence value was recorded for M. javanica, followed by M. incognita, Meloidogyne spp. R. reniformis and M. arenaria. Pratylenchus spp. Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae were the least prominent nematodes. This is the first record of various species of phytonematodes associated with vegetable crops in this tribal state.

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R. Sahu, P. Chandra and A.N. Poddar, 2011. Community Analysis of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Prevalent in Vegetable Crops in District Durg of Chhattisgarh, India. Research Journal of Parasitology, 6: 83-89.

DOI: 10.3923/jp.2011.83.89

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jp.2011.83.89
 
Received: July 19, 2011; Accepted: October 03, 2011; Published: December 02, 2011

INTRODUCTION

Chhattisgarh is a newly formed and developing state, partitioned from Madhya Pradesh, a large part of Central India. 2/3rd of the population happens to be tribal. One of the most populated districts of Chhattisgarh is Durg, occupying the southwestern part of Chhattisgarh plain. The 8.95% of its geographical area is covered by dense forests. Durg generally has a dry subtropical weather which is moderate but on a warmer side in the summer season. Agriculture occupies a vital place in the economy of Durg district. Around 62% population of the district is engaged in agricultural activities. The total cultivable area of this district is 8.12 lakh ha which accounts for 64 percent of the total geographical area of the district (http://durg.gov.in/DistrictProfile.html).

One of the major pests of high valued agricultural crops are the Phytonematodes which are highly diversified organisms exhibiting variations in distribution patterns. The degree of damage done, depends upon the pathogenic potential and population growth of nematodes which are greatly influenced by their initial population densities (Chandra et al., 2010; Udo and Ugwuoke, 2010). The abundance and distribution of the plant parasitic nematodes in turn are influenced by the soil texture, crop cycle and anthropogenic factors (Chirchir et al., 2008). Thus, community analysis of plant nematodes is important, not only to assess the pathogenic potential of the nematodes in a particular region ,but is also an important criteria for identification of hotspots of nematode attack.

Several works have been documented for plant parasitic nematodes associated with various crops in India and include (Senthilkumar and Rajendran, 2005) (Tamilnadu); Joymati and Mema, 2007 (Manipur) and Tiwari et al. (2000) and Singh et al. (2010) (Madhya Pradesh). Community analysis of plant parasitic nematodes have been studied by Ansari and Ahmed (2000) (Guava), Roy et al. (2007) (leguminous vegetable crops, West Bengal) Patel et al. (2007) (agricultural crops, Gujarat and Diu union territory, Devi (2007) (Pineapple ecosystem, Meghalaya), Negi et al. (2009) (Pine trees, Himachal Pradesh), Nath et al. (2009) (Litchi plantations, Tripura) and Srinivasan et al. (2011) (Banana, Thanjavoor, Tamilnadu). Nematode diseases reported in various crop plants of Chhattisgarh include-Aphelenchoides besseyii in Rice, Rotylenchulus reniformis in Pulse crops, Meloidogyne spp. and M. incognita in vegetable crops and Radopholus similis in Banana (Khan et al., 2010). However, no work has yet been reported on the community structure of the phytonematodes associated with crop plants of this tribal state. Hence, this investigation on the community structure of the phytonematodes associated with the vegetable crops in the district Durg of Chhattisgarh may be considered to be the first recorded documentation for this tribal state.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A survey of Durg district of Chhattisgarh state of India was conducted during October 2009 to March 2010 to determine the plant parasitic nematodes associated with the various vegetable crops. Diseased fields were selected on the basis of above ground symptoms of the crops, such as, wilting, slow growth, stunting and yellowing of leaves. Samples were collected from the galled roots by digging. Soil samples from the associated rhizosphere were collected from a depth of 10-15 cm at the rate of one unit sample per acre crop area. Each unit sample was a composite of 20 cores obtained from four corners and centre of the field. Root soil sub samples (prepared from the unit samples) were stored in polythene bags and kept at 4°C in a refrigerator for not more than 7 days. Altogether 13 soil and root samples were collected during mid cropping season from the rhizosphere of different vegetable crops (tomato, brinjal, beans, cowpea and bottle gourd) from different villages of Durg district and stored. Extraction of the nematodes was done by Cobb’s sieving and decanting method, followed by modified Baermann’s funnel technique and nematode suspension collected. Infected roots were stained in cotton blue- lacto phenol and observed for the presence of nematodes. The females of root-knot nematodes were dissected out from the galled roots and the perineal sections prepared for species identification. The estimation of nematode population per 10 g root sample and 200 g soil sample was done in a multichambered counting dish under a stereoscopic binocular microscope. The population densities of nematode species in the samples were calculated using the formulae (Norton, 1978):

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Occurrence and community structure of nematodes on the roots of vegetable crops: The nematode populations occurring in vegetable crops in district Durg of Chhattisgarh are shown in Table 1. An analysis of nematode communities (Table 2) revealed the presence of 9 species, spread over 6 genera of plant parasitic nematodes.Tylenchorhynchus indicus was the most frequently occurring nematode having absolute an frequency of 46.15%, followed by Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis each having 38.46% absolute frequency. These were followed by Pratylenchus spp. (30.77%), Meloidogyne spp. (23.08%) and M. incognita and M. areneria (15.38%) each. Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae were least frequently occurring species (7.69%) each.

Table 1: Occurrence of nematode populations per 200 cc soil+10 g root in vegetable crops in district Durg of Chhattisgarh, India
Abbreviations used: Meloidogyne spp. (MG), *M. incognita; **M. javanica; ***M. arenaria; Rotylenchulus reniformis (RR), Tylenchorhynchus indicus (TI); Pratylenchus spp. (PT); Helicotylenchus spp. (HT); Tylenchidae (TY); Dorylymids (DL); A. avenae (AA); Cephalobid (CB); Mononchids (MC); Rhabditids (RB)

Table 2: Community analysis of plant parasitic nematodes associated with different crops in district Durg of Chhattisgarh

M. incognita and Meloidogyne spp. (487.5% and 395.84%), respectively have the highest absolute densities, followed by M. javanica (327.5%), M. areneria (300%) and R. reniformis (279.7%). These were followed by Helicotylenchus spp. (62.5%), T. indicus (60.06%), Pratylenchus spp. (34.38%) and Tylenchidae (25%). Likewise, the highest relative density was recorded for M. incognita and Meloidogyne spp. (24.72 and 20.07%, respectively) followed by M. javanica (16.60%), M. areneria (15.21%) and R. reniformis (14.18%). These were followed by Helicotylenchus spp. (3.17%), T. indicus (3.04%), Pratylenchus spp. (1.74%) and Tylenchidae (1.27%).

Considering both frequencies and densities, the highest prominence value (203.10) was recorded for M. javanica followed by M. incognita (191.18), Meloidogyne spp. (190.17) and R. reniformis (173.46). These were followed by M. areneria (117.65), T. indicus (40.80), Pratylenchus spp. (19.07), Helicotylenchus spp. (17.33) and Tylenchidae (6.93).

Singh et al. (2010) reported Meloidogyne incognita to be the most frequently occurring phytonematode in Madhya Pradesh with the highest absolute frequency (50), followed by Rotylenchulus reniformis (40.38) and Helicotylenchus dihystera (23). The maximum absolute density was recorded for R. reniformis followed by H. dihystera and Tylenchorhynchus indicus with 205, 121 and 110 individuals per 100 g soil, respectively. The highest prominence value was recorded for M. incognita (17.12), followed by H. dihystera (13.78) and Hoplolaimus indicus (11.20). Patel et al. (2007) also recorded highest frequency of Meloidogyne species in Diu union territory. Besides, highest frequency, density and prominence value of R. reniformis , M. indica and M. javanica associated with Leguminous vegetable crops in west Bengal have also been recorded by Roy et al. (2007). Hemicriconemoides litchi, Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita have been found to be the most abundant, frequent, prominent and important nematode species in all of the four litchi plantations in North Tripura district (Nath et al., 2009). In the present case, prominence values of M. javanica (203.10) and M. incognita (191.18) were found to be highest among all nematodes present, being far greater than the values reported by the above mentioned authors and hence are a matter of grave concern.

Table 3: Predominant plant parasitic nematode species associated with vegetable crops in district Durg of Chhattisgarh

Table 4: Hot-spots of nematode infestation in various vegetable crops in district Durg of Chhattisgarh

Crop-wise distribution: The predominant plant parasitic nematodes associated with various crops are listed in Table 3. M. incognita, M. javanica, M. areneria and Meloidogyne spp. were found to be predominant on tomato, brinjal, cowpea and bottle gourd; R. reniformis on tomato, beans, brinjal, cowpea and bottle gourd and T. indicus on tomato, beans, brinjal and bottle gourd. Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae were also found to be associated with tomato; Pratylenchus spp. with beans, brinjal and bottle gourd. Khan et al. (2010) reported the presence of only Meloidogyne spp. and M. incognita in vegetable crops of Durg district of Chhattisgarh. The present work additionally reports the presence of R. reniformis, T. indicus, Helicotylenchus spp. Tylenchidae and Pratylenchus spp.

Hot-spots of nematode infestation: The hot-spots of nematode infestations were identified based on the nematode densities with populations exceeding the damage threshold (>1/100 g soil), in order to map out the possible problem areas Table 4. It was revealed that hot- spots for M. javanica were Kotni C, Jhola B, Jatagharra C and D and Kotni E on tomato and bottle gourd crops. Kotni C and Kotni D were the problem areas for M. incognita on tomato and cow pea. The hot-spot for M. areneria was at Jatagharra C and Jhola A on tomato and brinjal, respectively. Severe infestation of Meloidogyne spp. was observed on tomato in Kotni A, Birejhar and Jatagharra B. The hot-spots for R. reniformis were Kotni C and Jhola B for tomato, Paatan for beans, Kotni D for cowpea and Kotni E for bottle gourd. Severe infestation of T. indicus was observed on Kotni A, Kotni C, Jatagharra A and Jhola B for tomato, Paatan for beans and Kotni E for bottle gourd. Infestation of Pratylenchus spp. was observed on Kotni B and Paatan in beans and Jhola A and Kotni E in brinjal and bottle gourd, respectively. Furthermore, Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae may pose threat to the tomato cultivation in Jatagharra B.

The results obtained in the present case are similar to previous work done by Sao et al. (2008), showing highest average population density (2169 nematodes/10 g root and 29993 nematodes/200 cc soil) in the village Funda (Patan). Among the several genera of vegetable crop plants surveyed Lycopersicon esculentum, Dolichus lablab and Momordica charantia showed the presence of root galls with the highest average population density being in Dolichus lablab in the month of January. The hot spots of nematode infestations marked in the present case prove beyond doubt that the vegetable crops in district Durg of Chhattisgarh are severely infested with phytonematodes.

CONCLUSION

The newly formed state of Chhattisgarh has been partitioned from Madhya Pradesh. Crop-wise surveys in some areas of Madhya Pradesh have been conducted by many workers like Ali (1993), Khan et al. (1994) and Singh et al. (2010). Presence of some nematode diseases have also been reported in various crop plants of Chhattisgarh, such as-Aphelenchoides besseyii in Rice, Rotylenchulus reniformis in Pulse crops, Meloidogyne spp. and M. incognita in vegetable crops and Radopholus similis in Banana (Khan et al., 2010). However, till date no works on population dynamics or community structure of Phytonematodes have yet been documented for any region of Chhattisgarh state except work done by Sao et al. (2008). Hence, this work is the first record of phytonematodes associated with crop plants of this state. Most of the species recorded in the present study are highly pathogenic, hence, their occurrence may pose a serious threats to the affected crops and need urgent attention of farmland owners and researchers. Special emphasis must be given to the hotspots of nematode attack identified in the present case.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Sincere thanks are due to the Division of Nematology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi for guidance in the isolation and identification of nematodes.

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