Community Analysis of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Prevalent in Vegetable Crops in District Durg of Chhattisgarh, India
Community analysis of plant nematodes is an important criterion for assessment of their pathogenic potential in a particular region and identification of hotspots of nematode attack. This investigation involves a study of the community structure of phytonematodes associated with the vegetable crops in the district Durg of Chhattisgarh. Collection of soil and root samples was done during mid cropping season from the rhizosphere of vegetable crops. Extraction of the nematodes was done by Cobbs sieving and decanting method, followed by modified Baermanns funnel technique. Species were identified on the basis of perineal patterns of females. The estimation of nematode population was done in a multichambered counting dish under a stereoscopic binocular microscope. The predominant nematode species were Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and Meloidogyne spp. associated with Tomato, Egg plant, Cowpea and Bottle gourd. Others were Rotylenchulus reniformis, Tylenchorhynchus indicus, Pratylenchus spp. Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae. The highest absolute density was of M. incognita and Meloidogyne spp. followed by M. javanica, M. arenaria and R. reniformis while, Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae had the lowest density. T. indicus, R. reniformis and M. javanica were most frequent while, Meloidogyne spp. Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae were the least frequent. Highest prominence value was recorded for M. javanica, followed by M. incognita, Meloidogyne spp. R. reniformis and M. arenaria. Pratylenchus spp. Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae were the least prominent nematodes. This is the first record of various species of phytonematodes associated with vegetable crops in this tribal state.
Received: July 19, 2011;
Accepted: October 03, 2011;
Published: December 02, 2011
Chhattisgarh is a newly formed and developing state, partitioned from Madhya
Pradesh, a large part of Central India. 2/3rd of the population happens to be
tribal. One of the most populated districts of Chhattisgarh is Durg, occupying
the southwestern part of Chhattisgarh plain. The 8.95% of its geographical area
is covered by dense forests. Durg generally has a dry subtropical weather which
is moderate but on a warmer side in the summer season. Agriculture occupies
a vital place in the economy of Durg district. Around 62% population of the
district is engaged in agricultural activities. The total cultivable area of
this district is 8.12 lakh ha which accounts for 64 percent of the total geographical
area of the district (http://durg.gov.in/DistrictProfile.html).
One of the major pests of high valued agricultural crops are the Phytonematodes
which are highly diversified organisms exhibiting variations in distribution
patterns. The degree of damage done, depends upon the pathogenic potential and
population growth of nematodes which are greatly influenced by their initial
population densities (Chandra et al., 2010; Udo
and Ugwuoke, 2010). The abundance and distribution of the plant parasitic
nematodes in turn are influenced by the soil texture, crop cycle and anthropogenic
factors (Chirchir et al., 2008). Thus, community
analysis of plant nematodes is important, not only to assess the pathogenic
potential of the nematodes in a particular region ,but is also an important
criteria for identification of hotspots of nematode attack.
Several works have been documented for plant parasitic nematodes associated
with various crops in India and include (Senthilkumar and
Rajendran, 2005) (Tamilnadu); Joymati and Mema, 2007
(Manipur) and Tiwari et al. (2000) and Singh
et al. (2010) (Madhya Pradesh). Community analysis of plant parasitic
nematodes have been studied by Ansari and Ahmed (2000)
(Guava), Roy et al. (2007) (leguminous vegetable
crops, West Bengal) Patel et al. (2007) (agricultural
crops, Gujarat and Diu union territory, Devi (2007)
(Pineapple ecosystem, Meghalaya), Negi et al. (2009)
(Pine trees, Himachal Pradesh), Nath et al. (2009)
(Litchi plantations, Tripura) and Srinivasan et al.
(2011) (Banana, Thanjavoor, Tamilnadu). Nematode diseases reported in various
crop plants of Chhattisgarh include-Aphelenchoides besseyii in Rice,
Rotylenchulus reniformis in Pulse crops, Meloidogyne spp. and
M. incognita in vegetable crops and Radopholus similis in Banana
(Khan et al., 2010). However, no work has yet been
reported on the community structure of the phytonematodes associated with crop
plants of this tribal state. Hence, this investigation on the community structure
of the phytonematodes associated with the vegetable crops in the district Durg
of Chhattisgarh may be considered to be the first recorded documentation for
this tribal state.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A survey of Durg district of Chhattisgarh state of India was conducted during
October 2009 to March 2010 to determine the plant parasitic nematodes associated
with the various vegetable crops. Diseased fields were selected on the basis
of above ground symptoms of the crops, such as, wilting, slow growth, stunting
and yellowing of leaves. Samples were collected from the galled roots by digging.
Soil samples from the associated rhizosphere were collected from a depth of
10-15 cm at the rate of one unit sample per acre crop area. Each unit sample
was a composite of 20 cores obtained from four corners and centre of the field.
Root soil sub samples (prepared from the unit samples) were stored in polythene
bags and kept at 4°C in a refrigerator for not more than 7 days. Altogether
13 soil and root samples were collected during mid cropping season from the
rhizosphere of different vegetable crops (tomato, brinjal, beans, cowpea and
bottle gourd) from different villages of Durg district and stored. Extraction
of the nematodes was done by Cobbs sieving and decanting method, followed
by modified Baermanns funnel technique and nematode suspension collected.
Infected roots were stained in cotton blue- lacto phenol and observed for the
presence of nematodes. The females of root-knot nematodes were dissected out
from the galled roots and the perineal sections prepared for species identification.
The estimation of nematode population per 10 g root sample and 200 g soil sample
was done in a multichambered counting dish under a stereoscopic binocular microscope.
The population densities of nematode species in the samples were calculated
using the formulae (Norton, 1978):
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Occurrence and community structure of nematodes on the roots of vegetable
crops: The nematode populations occurring in vegetable crops in district
Durg of Chhattisgarh are shown in Table 1. An analysis of
nematode communities (Table 2) revealed the presence of 9
species, spread over 6 genera of plant parasitic nematodes.Tylenchorhynchus
indicus was the most frequently occurring nematode having absolute an frequency
of 46.15%, followed by Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis
each having 38.46% absolute frequency. These were followed by Pratylenchus
spp. (30.77%), Meloidogyne spp. (23.08%) and M. incognita and
M. areneria (15.38%) each. Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae
were least frequently occurring species (7.69%) each.
|| Occurrence of nematode populations per 200 cc soil+10 g root
in vegetable crops in district Durg of Chhattisgarh, India
|Abbreviations used: Meloidogyne spp. (MG), *M. incognita;
**M. javanica; ***M. arenaria; Rotylenchulus reniformis
(RR), Tylenchorhynchus indicus (TI); Pratylenchus spp. (PT);
Helicotylenchus spp. (HT); Tylenchidae (TY); Dorylymids (DL); A.
avenae (AA); Cephalobid (CB); Mononchids (MC); Rhabditids (RB)
|| Community analysis of plant parasitic nematodes associated
with different crops in district Durg of Chhattisgarh
M. incognita and Meloidogyne spp. (487.5% and 395.84%), respectively have the highest absolute densities, followed by M. javanica (327.5%), M. areneria (300%) and R. reniformis (279.7%). These were followed by Helicotylenchus spp. (62.5%), T. indicus (60.06%), Pratylenchus spp. (34.38%) and Tylenchidae (25%). Likewise, the highest relative density was recorded for M. incognita and Meloidogyne spp. (24.72 and 20.07%, respectively) followed by M. javanica (16.60%), M. areneria (15.21%) and R. reniformis (14.18%). These were followed by Helicotylenchus spp. (3.17%), T. indicus (3.04%), Pratylenchus spp. (1.74%) and Tylenchidae (1.27%).
Considering both frequencies and densities, the highest prominence value (203.10) was recorded for M. javanica followed by M. incognita (191.18), Meloidogyne spp. (190.17) and R. reniformis (173.46). These were followed by M. areneria (117.65), T. indicus (40.80), Pratylenchus spp. (19.07), Helicotylenchus spp. (17.33) and Tylenchidae (6.93).
Singh et al. (2010) reported Meloidogyne
incognita to be the most frequently occurring phytonematode in Madhya Pradesh
with the highest absolute frequency (50), followed by Rotylenchulus reniformis
(40.38) and Helicotylenchus dihystera (23). The maximum absolute density
was recorded for R. reniformis followed by H. dihystera and Tylenchorhynchus
indicus with 205, 121 and 110 individuals per 100 g soil, respectively.
The highest prominence value was recorded for M. incognita (17.12), followed
by H. dihystera (13.78) and Hoplolaimus indicus (11.20). Patel
et al. (2007) also recorded highest frequency of Meloidogyne species
in Diu union territory. Besides, highest frequency, density and prominence value
of R. reniformis , M. indica and M. javanica associated
with Leguminous vegetable crops in west Bengal have also been recorded by Roy
et al. (2007). Hemicriconemoides litchi, Rotylenchulus
reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita have been found to be the most
abundant, frequent, prominent and important nematode species in all of the four
litchi plantations in North Tripura district (Nath et
al., 2009). In the present case, prominence values of M. javanica
(203.10) and M. incognita (191.18) were found to be highest among
all nematodes present, being far greater than the values reported by the above
mentioned authors and hence are a matter of grave concern.
|| Predominant plant parasitic nematode species associated with
vegetable crops in district Durg of Chhattisgarh
|| Hot-spots of nematode infestation in various vegetable crops
in district Durg of Chhattisgarh
Crop-wise distribution: The predominant plant parasitic nematodes associated
with various crops are listed in Table 3. M. incognita,
M. javanica, M. areneria and Meloidogyne
spp. were found to be predominant on tomato, brinjal, cowpea and bottle gourd;
R. reniformis on tomato, beans, brinjal, cowpea and bottle gourd
and T. indicus on tomato, beans, brinjal and bottle gourd.
Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae were also found to be associated with
tomato; Pratylenchus spp. with beans, brinjal and bottle gourd. Khan
et al. (2010) reported the presence of only Meloidogyne spp.
and M. incognita in vegetable crops of Durg district of Chhattisgarh.
The present work additionally reports the presence of R. reniformis, T. indicus,
Helicotylenchus spp. Tylenchidae and Pratylenchus spp.
Hot-spots of nematode infestation: The hot-spots of nematode infestations were identified based on the nematode densities with populations exceeding the damage threshold (>1/100 g soil), in order to map out the possible problem areas Table 4. It was revealed that hot- spots for M. javanica were Kotni C, Jhola B, Jatagharra C and D and Kotni E on tomato and bottle gourd crops. Kotni C and Kotni D were the problem areas for M. incognita on tomato and cow pea. The hot-spot for M. areneria was at Jatagharra C and Jhola A on tomato and brinjal, respectively. Severe infestation of Meloidogyne spp. was observed on tomato in Kotni A, Birejhar and Jatagharra B. The hot-spots for R. reniformis were Kotni C and Jhola B for tomato, Paatan for beans, Kotni D for cowpea and Kotni E for bottle gourd. Severe infestation of T. indicus was observed on Kotni A, Kotni C, Jatagharra A and Jhola B for tomato, Paatan for beans and Kotni E for bottle gourd. Infestation of Pratylenchus spp. was observed on Kotni B and Paatan in beans and Jhola A and Kotni E in brinjal and bottle gourd, respectively. Furthermore, Helicotylenchus spp. and Tylenchidae may pose threat to the tomato cultivation in Jatagharra B.
The results obtained in the present case are similar to previous work done
by Sao et al. (2008), showing highest average
population density (2169 nematodes/10 g root and 29993 nematodes/200 cc soil)
in the village Funda (Patan). Among the several genera of vegetable crop plants
surveyed Lycopersicon esculentum, Dolichus lablab and Momordica charantia
showed the presence of root galls with the highest average population density
being in Dolichus lablab in the month of January. The hot spots of nematode
infestations marked in the present case prove beyond doubt that the vegetable
crops in district Durg of Chhattisgarh are severely infested with phytonematodes.
The newly formed state of Chhattisgarh has been partitioned from Madhya Pradesh.
Crop-wise surveys in some areas of Madhya Pradesh have been conducted by many
workers like Ali (1993), Khan et
al. (1994) and Singh et al. (2010). Presence
of some nematode diseases have also been reported in various crop plants of
Chhattisgarh, such as-Aphelenchoides besseyii in Rice, Rotylenchulus
reniformis in Pulse crops, Meloidogyne spp. and M. incognita
in vegetable crops and Radopholus similis in Banana (Khan
et al., 2010). However, till date no works on population dynamics
or community structure of Phytonematodes have yet been documented for any region
of Chhattisgarh state except work done by Sao et al.
(2008). Hence, this work is the first record of phytonematodes associated
with crop plants of this state. Most of the species recorded in the present
study are highly pathogenic, hence, their occurrence may pose a serious threats
to the affected crops and need urgent attention of farmland owners and researchers.
Special emphasis must be given to the hotspots of nematode attack identified
in the present case.
Sincere thanks are due to the Division of Nematology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi for guidance in the isolation and identification of nematodes.
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