Contrast Radiographic, Ultrasonographic and Computed Tomographic Imaging Studies on the Abdominal Organs and Fatty Liver Infiltration of Zaraibi Goat
The present study was performed to observe and examine the abdominal organs
structure and position by contrast X-ray, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography
(CT) and the function of the gastrointestinal tract to establish a basics diagnostic
aid to be for use by anatomists, radiologists, surgeons and veterinary students.
The stomach, intestine, liver, spleen, the caudal vena cava, portal vein and
gall bladder were examined by contrast X-ray, ultrasonography and CT scans in
twelve zaraibi goats aging 1-1.5 years and weighing 25-30 kg. The caudal vena
cava, portal vein and gall bladder diameters decreased from the 9th to the 12th
intercostal spaces through ultrasonographic imaging measurement. The fatty liver
infiltration determined by ultrasonography. The radiographic examined the structural
pattern of the abdominal organs by contrast X-ray, ultrasonography and computed
tomography and the function of the gastrointestinal tract to establish a basics
diagnostic aid. The obtained results cleared that contrast X-ray, ultrasonography
and CT were safe, practical and easily performed in goat. Both radiographic
and ultrasonographic procedures were complimentary in the evaluation of the
gastrointestinal tract, spleen and liver condition while CT scans was a superior
soft tissue differentiation over conventional X-ray techniques.
Received: March 29, 2013;
Accepted: May 06, 2013;
Published: June 13, 2013
The contrast X-ray is helpful in studying the structure and function of the
gastrointestinal tract as well as diagnosing the diseased condition (Abu
zaid, 1995) in goat, (Sharma et al., 1984)
in sheep and (Rubesin et al., 2008) in human.
The contrast radiology in diagnosis of reticular hernia in bovine has been stressed
(Kumar et al., 1980; Singh
et al., 1990; Athar et al., 2010; Saini
et al., 2007) compared both the intravenous and oral cholecystography
in goats. Abdominal ultrasonography is a safe procedure with no risk for the
patient and sonographer and it enables a serial examination to monitor the progression
of the condition and response to treatment (Kofler and Hittmair,
2006). It provides the best diagnosis in combination with radiology (Yamaga
and Too, 1984; Torkelson, 2002; Braun,
2003). Hepatic, gall bladder and splenic sonography were widely applied
(Abu zaid, 1995). Computed tomography has a potential
advantage over routine radiography. CT provides soft tissue differentiation,
no superimposition of overlying structure. CT cross-sectional images that used
not only to diagnose abnormalities, but also to quantify the severity of these
abnormalities (Hathcock and Stickle, 1993; Abu
zaid, 1995; Sandrasegaran et al., 2007).
CT is now perceived as central to the diagnosis and clinical management of many
cases (Goh et al., 2005).
So, the aim of the present study performed to observe and examine the radiographic
structure pattern of the abdominal organs by contrast X-ray, ultrasonography
and computed tomography and the function of the gastrointestinal tract to establish
a basics diagnostic aid to be for use by anatomists, radiologists, surgeons
and veterinary students.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Twelve native breed zaraibi goats aging 1-1.5 years and weighing 25-30 kg were
used. The study was approved by the committee of animal welfare and ethics at
the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University. This study was start
at January 2011 and expanded 1.5 year.
Topographic anatomy: Two goats were used to explain the position and
the different anatomical features of the abdominal digestive organs (Fig.
Contrast radiography: Three goats were administered barium sulfate suspension
(70% w/v) by stomach tube as a positive contrast medium at dose of 25 mL kg-1
b.wt. after 48 h of fasting and were subjected to right lateral and ventrodorsal
serial radiographs after 10, 20, 30 min, 1, 12, 24 and 48 h.
|| Topographic anatomy of the abdominal organs, (a) Right view
of the abdominal cavity and (b) Left view of the abdominal cavity, 1: Liver,
2: Lung, 3: Duodenum, 4: Abomasum, 5: Gall bladder, 6: Right kidney, 7:
Diaphragm, 8: Intestine, 9: Spleen, 10: Reticulum, 11: Dorsal ruminal sac
and 12: Ventral ruminal sac
Contrast X-ray was employed, using 25-40 kilovolt energy source along with
current of 12-20 million sec-1 for 0.2 sec diandon, a distance of
Ultrasonographic examination: Four goats were fasted for 12 h prior
to the ultrasonographic examination by 6 MHZ linear transducer. The hair of
the right and left sides of the animals was clipped from the vertebrae dorsally
to the linea Alba ventrally and from the 5th rib cranially to the pelvic inlet
caudally. Acousting coupling gel was applied to the skin. Each goat was examined
at ventral thorax, lateral abdominal wall and from the 5th to the last intercostal
spaces on the right and left sides on standing position with the animal head
was directed either dorsally or craniodorsally (El-Kammar
et al., 2012).
Computed tomographic scans: Three goats were used for the CT scans after
physical examination and fasting for 24 h. The goats were sedated with 2% xylazine
HCl (0.1 mg kg-1 b.wt.) and positioned in sternal recumbancy during
scanning time. A slice thickness 1 cm a part interval on the abdomen at 120
K.V., 200 mps, F3 HF/S and W 200+64 was used for all CT images (Abuzaid
and Imam 2000; Alsafy, 2008).
Statistical analysis: All values of the diameter and depth of the caudal
vena cava as well as the length and width of the gall bladder were expressed
as Mean±SE. The data were analyzed using general linear model of SAS
(1996), while the difference between means was detected by ANOVA and Duncans
Multiple Range Test.
Rumen: The Rumen appeared completely in lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal
radiograph (Fig. 2, 3). It extended from
the 8th rib cranially to the pelvic inlet caudally and from the vertebral column
dorsally to the abdominal floor ventrally.
Reticulum: the reticulum appeared piriform structure just behind diaphragm
from the left 6th to the left 8th intercostal spaces in contact with the abdominal
floor in the xiphoid region. It was demonstrated immediately just after barium
administration until 48 h (Fig. 2, 3).
Omasum: The omasum appeared bean shape after 10 min of barium administration
then appeared circular shaped from the 8th to the 12th interchondral space in
the right side of abdominal cavity (Fig. 2, 3)
and it was seen clearly in the ventrodorsal radiograph than the lateral one.
Abomasum: The abomasum appeared after 20 min from barium administration
in the ventral part of the cranial abdominal region between the reticulum cranially
and ventral ruminal sac caudally (Fig. 2, 3).
The fundic region was clear in lateral radiograph due to superimposition of
the rumen (Fig. 2c). In ventrodorsal radiographs, the abomasum
located completely in the right side of the abdominal cavity, it extended from
the 8th intercostal space to the 12th intercostal spaces (Fig.
|| Lateral abdominal radiograph of the gastrointestinal tract,
(a) After 20 min of barium administration, (b) After 1 h of barium administration,
(c) After 4 h of barium administration, (d) After 24 h of barium administration,
1: Reticulum, 2: Abomasum, 3: Ruminoreticular groove, 4: Ventral ruminal
sac, 5: Dorsal ruminal sac, 6: Diaphragm, 7: 5th lumbar vertebrae, 8: Caudal
transverse pillar or groove, 9: Duodenum, 10: Spleen, 11: 1st lumbar vertebrae,
12: Fundus abomasum, 13: Ileum, 14: Cecum, 15: Ascending colon, 16: 6th
lumbar vertebrae, 17: Omasum, 18: Spiral colon, 19: Transverse colon, 20:
Sigmoid flexure of descending colon and 21: Rectum, VI,VIII, XIII, XIII
indicates the number of ribs
|| Ventrodorsal abdominal radiograph of the gastrointestinal
tract, (a) After 1 h of barium administration and (b) After 24 h of barium
administration, 1: Reticulum, 2: Omasum, 3: Reticuloomasal opening, 4: Abomasum,
5: Omasoabomasal opening, 6: Dorsal ruminal sac, 7: Ventral ruminal sac,
8: Duodenum, 9: Cecum, 10: Sigmoid flexure of the descending colon, 11:
Rectum and 12: Ascending colon, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XIII indicates the
number of costal cartilages
The pylorus was noticed to be directed cranial to reached 11th intercostal
space after one hour, it was filled with contrast media and appeared until 48
Intestine: The duodenum, jejunum and ileum demonstrated convoluted radiolucent
bands which appeared 1-3 h after barium administration in lateral radiographs
(Fig. 2c, d). In ventrodorsal radiographs,
the duodenum indicated in the right side of the abdominal cavity between the
rumen and the right abdominal wall (Fig. 2b). The cecum, colon
and rectum occupied the right middle and upper thirds of abdominal cavity. The
cecum demonstrated after 3 to 4 h after barium administration. In lateral radiograph,
the cecum appeared as cylindrical or u-shape structure under the 4th lumbar
vertebrae until the pelvic inlet (Fig. 2c-d).
In ventrodorsal radiograph, it located at the right side of the abdominal cavity.
The shape and position of the cecum influenced by its content, it floated high
when filled with gases and sinked when filled by ingesta. The proximal part
of the ascending colon demonstrated 4 h after barium administration (Fig.
2c), whatever the complete filling of the ascending colon was after 6 h;
it appeared u-shape in lateral radiograph. The contrast medium observed in the
spiral colon after 8 h from barium administration (Fig. 2d).
The spiral loops were not clearly demonstrated where the coils obscured by the
rumen, cecum and the overlapping of the loops over each other. In lateral radiographs,
the descending colon identified by its contents of the fecal pellet that covered
by barium after 9 h at the roof of the abdomen, the sigmoid colon demonstrated
under the 6th lumbar vertebrae (Fig. 2d).
Rumen: The rumen appeared a thick smooth echogenic line (Fig.
4a) adjacent to the left abdominal wall. The craniodorsal blind sac was
seen as echogenic lines caudal to the reticulum (Fig. 4e)
while the ruminal contents could not be visualized because of their gaseous
Reticulum: The reticulum visualized a half moon-shaped structure with
a smooth contour (Fig. 4b, e). The different
layers of the reticular wall could not be imaged and honeycomb like structure
of the mucosa was not often seen clearly. The reticular motility characterized
by contracted and relaxed reticulum (Fig. 4b, c).
Omasum: The omasal wall was seen a circular echogenic line medial to
the duodenum and its wall was appeared thick than that of the reticulum (Fig.
4d). The omasum contents were not imaged, whatever the omasal lamina was
seen clearly (Fig. 4f).
Abomasum: The abomasum was visualized from the ventral midline caudal
to the xiphoid process. It was seen immediately caudal to the reticulum between
the rumen and ventral abdominal wall (Fig. 4e). The wall of
the abomasum appeared a thin echogenic line and it was easily differentiated
from neighboring organs because of its contents which appeared a moderate heterogeneous
echogenic structure with echogenic stippling.
Spleen: The spleen indicated between the rumen and left abdominal wall
from the 9th to the 12th intercostal spaces. The parenchyma of the spleen appeared
consisted of numerous weak echoes homogenously distributed over the entire area
of the organ (Fig. 5a).
|| Sonogram of the stomach parts (rumen, reticulum, omasum and
abomasum), (a) Sonogram of rumen (at the left paralumbar fossa), (b) Sonogram
of contracted reticulum (at the ventral part of the right 6th intercostal
space), (c) Sonogram of relaxed reticulum (at the ventral part of the right
6th intercostal space), (d) Sonogram of omasum and liver (at the right 8th
intercostal space), (e) Sonogram of abomasum and related structures (at
the ventral part of the right 7th intercostal space) and (f) Sonogram of
abomasal folds (at the ventral part of left flank), 1: Rumen, 2: Left abdominal
wall, 3: Dorsal side, 4: Ventral side, 5: Medial side, 6: Reticulum, 7:
Liver, 8: Omasum, 9: Right abdominal wall, 10: Abomasum and 11: Omasal folds
The spleen capsule demonstrated by a fine echogenic line. The splenic vessels
appeared an echoic oval or elongated structures (Fig. 5a).
Liver: The liver was examined from the 9th to the 11th right intercostal
spaces. The liver appeared high echogenic than the cortex of the kidney and
low echogenic than the spleen (Fig. 5b, d).
Caudal vena cava: The caudal vena cava appeared as anechoic triangular
area dorsomedial to the portal vein from the 9th to the 12th right intercostal
spaces and its wall was not visible (Fig. 5d, e).
The caudal vena cava diameter was 1.28±0.26, 1.22±0.11, 1.04±0.11
and 1.13±0.15 cm at the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th right intercostal spaces,
respectively. Whatever, the depth of the caudal vena cava was 3.40±0.30,
3.27±0.35, 2.2±0.42 and 2.58±0.52 cm at the 9th, 10th,
11th and 12th right intercostal spaces, respectively (Table 1).
Portal vein: The portal vein appeared as anechoic circular area surrounded
by an echogenic wall and star shaped ramifications into the liver tissue. It
was examined from the 9th to the 12th right intercostal spaces (Fig.
5d-e/13, 13`). The portal vein diameter was 0.91±0.15,
0.98±0.23, 1.04±0.11 and 1.12±0.20 cm at the 9th, 10th,
11th and 12th right intercostal spaces, respectively. Whatever the depth of
the portal vein was 2.5±0.24, 2.42±0.26, 2.2±0.42 and 2.38±0.35
cm at the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th right intercostal spaces, respectively (Table
Gall bladder: The gall bladder was scanned between the liver dorsally
and the small intestine ventromedial at the right side of the abdominal cavity
at ventral part of the 9th to the 10th intercostal spaces deep to the costal
arch. It appeared as anechoic oval or pear shaped structure with a bright margin
adjacent to the abdominal wall (Fig. 5f). The liver parenchyma
appeared more echogenic deep to the gall bladder due to presence of an area
of enhancement (Fig. 5f). The size of the gall bladder varied
greatly; its average dimensions were 3.82±1.11 cm length and 1.53±0.51
cm width. The average thickness of the gall bladder wall was 0.11±0.02
cm (Table 2).
Computed tomographic scans
Rumen: The dorsal ruminal sac appeared medium density in its ventral part
due to the presence of ingesta and low density in its upper part due to the
presence of the gases (Fig. 6b). With scanning sequences;
the dorsal ruminal sac appeared between the spleen to the left and omasum and
liver to the right.
|| Sonogram of the spleen, liver, portal vein, caudal vena cava
and gall bladder, (a) Sonogram of normal spleen texture, splenic vessels
and the rumen (at the left 11th intercostal space), (b) Sonogram of normal
liver, lung and reticulum (at the right 7th intercostal space), (c) Sonogram
of normal liver and the right kidney (at the right 12th intercostal space),
(d) Sonogram of the portal vein and caudal vena cava (at the right 12th
intercostal space), (e) Sonogram showing the diameter and depth of the portal
vein and caudal vena cava (at the right 12th intercostal space), (f) Sonogram
showing the length and width of the gall bladder (at the ventral half of
right 10th intercostal space), 1: Spleen, 2: Splenic vessels, 3: Rumen,
4: Left abdominal wall, 5: Dorsal side, 6: Ventral side, 7: Medial side,
8: Liver, 9: Right lung, 10: Reticulum, 11: Right kidney, 12: Right abdominal
wall, 13: Portal vein with its branches, 13: Portal vein branches, 14: Caudal
vena cava, 15: Omasum, 16: Gall bladder and 17: Small intestine
||Ultrasonographic measurements of the caudal vena cava and
portal vein at 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th intercostal spaces (ICS)
|Values expressed in Means±SD
|| Ultrasonographic measurements of the gall bladder
|Values expressed in Means±SD
Whatever the ventral ruminal sac was medium density filled with ingesta (Fig.
6b-i). The right and left longitudinal pillars were detected
(Fig. 6e) and the caudal transverse pillars clearly demonstrated
(Fig. 6f). The caudodorsal blind sac detected at the level
of 5th lumbar vertebrae, while the caudoventral blind sac demonstrated in the
left side of abdomen at the level of pelvic inlet (Fig. 6f).
Reticulum: The reticulum appeared an oval medium density structure (Fig.
Omasum: The omasum detected low density circular or bean shape structure
dorsomedial to the abomasum between the dorsal ruminal sac and liver (Fig.
6). The omasal lamina demonstrated obviously in lung window (Fig.
Abomasum: The abomasum appeared a hypo density mass ventromedial to
the dorsal ruminal sac on the right side of ventral abdominal wall (Fig.
|| CT images of the goat abdomen showing the stomach parts,
liver, spleen, intestine and pancreas, 1: 8th thoracic vertebra, 2: Left
caudal lobe of the lung, 3: Right caudal lobe of the lung, 4: Left vena
azygos, 5: Aorta, 6: Diaphragm, 7: Esophagus, 8: Liver, 9: Reticulum, 9':
Reticulum filled with gases, 10: Caudal vena cava, 11: Right costal arch,
12: Reticular groove, 13: 10th thoracic vertebrae, 14: Dorsal ruminal sac,
15: Ventral ruminal sac, 16: Abomasum, 17: Omasum, 18: Spleen, 19: Pyloric
part, 20: 13th thoracic vertebra, 21: Cranial transverse pillar, 22: Gall
bladder, 23: Pancreas, 24: Portal vein, 24`: Hepatic vein, 25: 1st lumbar
vertebrae, 26: Duodenum, 27: Right kidney, 28: Jejunum, 29: Distal loop
of the ascending colon, 30: Descending colon, 31: 2nd lumbar vertebra, 32:
Left kidney, 33: Proximal loop of the ascending colon, 34: Spiral colon,
35: Left longitudinal pillar, 36: Right longitudinal pillar, 37: 4th lumbar
vertebra, 38: Cecum, 39: Caudal transverse pillar, 40: Lumbosacral space,
41: Rectum, 42: Ovary, 43: Uterine horn, 44: 9th thoracic vertebra, 45:
Caudodorsal blind sac and 46: Caudoventral blind sac
Spleen: The spleen observed a homogenous soft tissue on the dorsal ruminal
sac (Fig. 6b).
Liver: The liver appeared a triangular homogenous soft tissue in the
right side of the abdominal cavity between the right abdominal wall and reticulum,
with the caudal scans it identified between the dorsal ruminal sac, omasum and
abomasum in left and the right lateral abdominal wall in right (Fig.
Gall bladder: The gall bladder appeared elongated pear shaped structure
on the ventral part of the visceral surface of the liver. It had a homogenous
lower density than the liver tissue (Fig. 6c).
Intestine: The small intestine appeared homogeneously hypo dense highly
convoluted band adjacent to the ventral ruminal sac (Fig. 6d).
The proximal loop of the ascending colon represented by u-shape structure and
had not mucosa folds at the middle and upper thirds of the right side (Fig.
6e-f). The distal loop of the ascending colon appeared
hypo dense and characterized by presence of consecutive constrictions representing
the fecal pellets inside (Fig. 6d-e). The
spiral loop of the ascending colon demonstrated by scattered small circles and
some of them had folded mucosa (Fig. 6e-g).
The descending colon located dorsolateral to the left kidney and with the caudal
scans; it was detected near the medial plane and has characteristic folded mucosa
Ultrasonography of fatty liver infiltration revealed hyperechoic hepatic parenchyma
near the abdominal wall (bright pattern), round margins of liver, poor visualization
of blood vessels and hepatic edge (vascular and edge blurring) in hyperechoic
area in addition to echo weakness as the distance from the abdominal wall increased
(deep attenuation or dark pattern) (Fig. 7a-d).
Contrast radiographic X-ray technique appeared helpful in demonstrating the
various parts of the gastrointestinal tract depending on the degree of the barium
sulfate contrast material utility (Abu zaid, 1995). Whatever
the ultrasonographic imaging considered the most valuable modern imaging techniques
was used for evaluation of the abdominal cavity and its organs including; liver,
biliary system, pancreas, stomach, small intestine and kidney (Cruz-Arambulo
and Wrigley, 2003).
|| Sonogram of the liver showing fatty infiltration (a-d) represented
by hyperechoic area (b), (a) Sonogram of the liver at the ventral part of
right 10th intercostal space, Note the margin of liver is rounded (L), (b)
Sonogram of the liver at the ventral part of right 10th intercostal space,
Note blurring of hepatic vessels and edge and (c-d) Sonogram of the liver
at the ventral part of right 11th intercostal space, 1: Dorsal side, 2:
Ventral side, 3: Medial side, 4: Omasum, 5: Caudal vena cava, 6: Portal
vein with its branches and 7: Right abdominal wall
While the CT scans is a cross sectional image modality that provided unique
and diagnostic information in which radiography or diagnostic ultrasonography
unrewarded without contrast materials (Hathcock and Stickle,
The rumen appeared completely in the lateral and ventrolateral X-ray radiograph
with contrast media after 1 h from administration of barium sulphate, it extended
from the 8th rib cranially to the junction between the 6th lumbar vertebra and
sacrum caudally and from the vertebral column dorsally to the abdominal floor
ventrally. These result on line with Cegarra and Lewis (1977)
and Sharma et al. (1984) in goat. The reticulum
appeared in lateral abdominal radiographs with contrast media as piriform radiographic
structure and located just behind the diaphragm from the 6th to the 8th intercostal
space and ventrally it touched the abdominal floor in the xiphoid region, these
results similar to obtained by (Abu zaid, 1995) in goat.
In the lateral radiograph with contrast media, the omasum identified after 10
min from barium administration as bean structure extended from the 8th to the
10th rib while in the ventrodorsal view, it appeared as oval shape organ was
extended between the 8th or the 9th to the 12th interchondral space similar
result obtained by Abu zaid (1995) in goat. In the lateral
radiograph the abomasum fundus appeared after 20 min, while in the ventrodorsal
radiograph the abomasum appeared in the right side of abdominal cavity, similar
results observed by Cegarra and Lewis (1977) in goat.
The small intestine had a contrast material after one to three hrs after barium
administration. In the lateral radiographs, it was not appeared in the area
covered by the rumen but only detected just behind it as convoluted radiolucent
bands, similar results observed by Cegarra and Lewis (1977)
and Abu zaid (1995) in goat. The cecum appeared after
3.5 to 4 h from barium administration, after 6 h in the lateral radiograph,
the cecum appeared as cylindrical radiographic structure under the 4th lumbar
vertebrae until the pelvic inlet, while in the ventrolateral view it appeared
in the right side of the abdominal cavity, these results detected in line with
Abu zaid (1995) in goat. The barium appeared in the proximal
part of ascending colon after 4 h. However, the complete filling appeared after
6.5 h. The contrast media observed in the spiral colon after 8h, the spiral
loop was not clearly demonstrated to the superimposition of cecum and rumen
and overlapping of its loops over each other, while the descending colon identified
by its contents of the fecal pellet that covered by barium after 9 h, similar
results obtained by Abu zaid (1995) in goat.
Ultrasonography examined the rumen, reticulum and omasum, whatever the contents
of these parts could not be visualized because of their gaseous nature, four
biphasic contractions of reticulum were observed during a 4 min period, these
results agreed with that reported in cattle by Kaske et
al. (1994); Braun and Marmier (1995); Braun
et al. (1997) and Braun (2003). The abomasum
examined at the ventral midline caudal to xiphoid process right and left to
the thorax. The abomasum wall appeared thin echogenic line and its contents
appeared a heterogenous moderately echogenic structure with echogenic stippling,
these results agreed with that observed in cattle by Braun
et al. (1997) and Braun (2003). The spleen
was seen ultrasonographically between the rumen and left abdominal wall, its
parenchyma appeared numerous weak echoes homogenously distributed, its capsule
appeared as a fine echogenic line. The spleen vessels appeared as anechoic round
to oval structures, these results agreed with that observed in cattle by Braun
(2003) and Braun and Sicher (2006). The liver was
imaged effectively at the 9th to the 11th right intercostal spaces. Only a small
portion of the liver was seen in the 8th intercostal spaces because of the position
of the lung, these results agreed with that seen in sheep by Braun
and Hausammann (1992). The normal hepatic ultrasonography showed numerous
weak echoes homogenously distributed over the entire area of the liver that
appeared more echogenic than the cortex of the kidney and a comparatively less
echogenic than the spleen, this result agreed with that reported by Braun
(1990), Braun and Hausammann (1992) and Abu
zaid (1995). The caudal vena cava appeared anechoic triangular area, its
wall appeared while the main portal vein appeared as anechoic circular lumen
surrounded by echogenic wall and characterized by star shaped-ramifications
into the liver tissue, this result agreed with that reported in goat by Yamaga
and Too (1984) and Abu zaid (1995) and in cattle
by Braun et al. (1996) and in sheep by Braun
and Hausammann (1992). The diameter and depth of the caudal vena cava noticed
greater than that of the portal vein and they decreased from the 9th to the
12th intercostal spaces, these results were similar to that recorded in sheep
by Braun and Hausammann (1992) and disagreed with that
recorded in cattle by Braun (1990) whose recorded that
the diameter of the portal vein detected bigger than that of the caudal vena
cava. The gall bladder scanned ultrasonographically between the hepatic parenchyma
dorsally and the small intestine wall ventrally in the right side of the abdominal
cavity deep to the costal arch, these results agreed with that reported in sheep
by Braun and Hausammann (1992) and in goat by Yamaga
and Too (1984) and Abu zaid (1995).
CT imaging identified clearly the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract
including the four compartments of the stomach, small and large intestine and
rectum without using contrast materials, where the position and grooves of the
ruminal sacs identified with the sequential CT scanning, the ruminal papilla
was not demonstrated, the shape and configuration of the stomach was extremely
variable according to the scanning sequences where the dorsal ruminal sac scanned
first after reticulum and the ventral ruminal sac scanned lastly near the pelvic
inlet as that confirmed by radiographic imaging by Dyce et
al. (1987) and Abu zaid (1995). The omasum was
clearly identified between the liver and rumen by its characteristic omasal
lamina as the result of alternative hypodense lamina and dense free gas lines.
The walls of rumen and omasum were clearly demonstrated with fine irregularity
as a result of ruminal papillae and omasal lamina, whatever the abomasum identified
with its spiral mucosal folds, these observations appeared in a line with the
anatomic and radiographic findings of Abu zaid (1995),
El-Gendy and Derbalah (2010).
The small intestine CT scans was differentiated by its homogenous density from
ascending colon, cecum and spiral colon constriction representing fecal pellets.
On CT scans the liver and spleen were demonstrated as homogenous soft tissue
density, the large portal vein, hepatic vein, caudal vena cava and gall bladder
were demonstrated as hypodense than hepatic tissue, these results appeared similar
with that recorded by Dyce et al. (1987), Abu
zaid (1995) and Sandrasegaran et al. (2007).
Goats of fatty liver suffered from decrease in body weight as was previously
observed in cattle by Mohamed et al. (2004)
in similar conditions. Regarding to ultrasonographic appearance; Ultrasonogram
of liver revealed hyperechoic area near the abdominal wall, poor visualization
of hepatic vessels, round margin and lower deep attenuation. This result agrees
with the image described in cattle by Acorda et al.
(1994), Braun et al. (1996) and Ibrahim
(2004) and attributed to deposition of fat in hepatocytes which characterized
by high echogenicity due to its lower acoustic impedance in contrast to that
of normal liver tissue (Sanders and Everette, 1980; Ibrahim,
The present study demonstrated the ruminal details as well as small and large
intestine by CT scans that indicate the CT could be effectively used to evaluate
the gastrointestinal tract and soft tissues changes. The obtained results cleared
that contrast X-ray images, ultrasonography and CT scans were safe, practical
and easily performed in goat. Both radiographic and ultrasonographic procedures
were complimentary in the evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen and
liver condition while CT scans was a superior for soft tissue differentiation
over conventional X-ray techniques.
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