Immunohistochemical Localization of Neuron Specific Enolase and CD3 Lymphocyte Activation
Immunohistochemical localization of CD3 and Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE) to
demonstrate neuronal metabolism in proliferation and cell recovery was carried
out in this study to evaluate morphological and cellular changes in cyanide
treated perfused cortical tissues of adult wistar rats in vitro. Four
separately perfused tissues were stained with antibodies specific for neuron
specific enolase using antigen retrieval method and colour reaction involving
aminobenzidine tetrachloride (DAB) in peroxidase anti peroxidase method. Treated
cells showed increased in enolase activity implying increase proliferation activity
for repair purposes in the assaulted neuron (cyanide treated neurons). Presence
of CD3 activity also indicates the presence of undifferentiated T-lymphocytes
around the cells undergoing apoptosis in the cortex following treatment with
Received: May 25, 2012;
Accepted: August 11, 2012;
Published: October 04, 2012
Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE) is present in high concentrations in neuronal
cell clusters both in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and neuroendocrine system.
The immunohistochemical technique is specific as anti-NSE antibodies stain cells
localized only in the nervous system (Kaiser et al.,
1989; Abdel-Wahab and Metwally, 2011). The NSE is
an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway that catalyzes the conversion of phosphopglyceric
acid into phosphopyruvic acid (Asa et al., 1984).
During cyanide toxicity, the neurons of the different regions of the brain will
respond to the assault differently based on the different cytotoxic pathways
found in these regions. However, in order to account for the roles of neuronal
connection in the concept of neuronal vulnerability, we used cortical tissue
slices sub-cultured in Accessory Cerebrospinal Fluid (ACSF) treated with potassium
cyanide (KCN) in vitro at 37°C.
A major process during cyanide toxicity is disruption of glucose metabolism,
NSE being an acid soluble enzyme for the pathway that metabolizes glucose is
a potent indicator of the change in metabolic activity in these cells both in
vivo and in vitro (Silverman, 1991). Neuron
undergoes certain sequence for morphological changes following cyanide assault.
It is believed that neurons under assault shift the activity levels of NSE such
that it assumes the growth levels as if differentiation was occurring thus increasing
the level of this enzyme above the regular adult level under this condition
(Zhou et al., 2011). It is also possible that
this will occur during DNA fragmentation to increase synthesis leading to repair
of the genetic material as a definitive response of the cell to aid survival
by producing enough ATP for housekeeping jobs of the neurons (Ersahin
et al., 2011). The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes
in NSE levels corresponds with the survival of the cell and to describe a correlation
pattern between elevated NSE levels and the activity of non specific lymphocytes
in the brain (CD3) indicating regions of active apoptotic cells in cyanide treated
MATERIALS AND METHODS
All reagents were procured from Sigma Aldrich, Na+/K+ pump
blockers were procured from Standard Pharma, Nigeria).
Preparation of ACSF: The ACSF was prepared so that it contains 18 mM
glucose; 119 mM NaCl, 2.5 mM KCl, 1.3 mM MgSO4, 2.5 mM CaCl2,
26.2 mM NaHCO3, 1 mM NaH2PO4. The solution
was prepared in distilled water to make up to 100 mL (Khakhalin
and Aizenman, 2012). Oxygen was not included in the perfusion set up as
we seek to study the activity of the pump blockers in cyanogenic-oxygen deprived
Na+/K+ pump blockers for excitotoxicity: Digoxin
and Promethazine were procured from Standard Biochem Co, Nigeria. Two hundred
and fifty micrograms of powdered digoxin was dissolved in 50 mL dextrose saline
solution (Kanno et al., 2011). Two milliliter
ampoule of promethazine contains 50 mg promethazine in dextrose saline; the
solution was diluted by making up to 50 mL in a clean glass measuring cylinder
such that the new concentration is 1 mg mL-1 (Adolph
et al., 2012).
Preparation of tissue for perfusion: Adult male wistar rat weighing
250 g was dissected to expose the brain using the method of Svendsen
and Hau (1994). Cortical tissue blocks of 0.5 g were obtained and washed
in dextrose saline and was immediately transferred into a test tubes. Six tubes
labeled A, B, C, D and E such that A contains ACSF only control), B (ACSF+KCN),
C1 (ACSF+KCN+digoxin), D (ACSF+promethazine), E (ACSF+digoxin). KCN
was added to the perfusion fluid at a concentration of 25 mg kg-1
of tissue, digoxin concentration in ACSF was 0.3571 μg kg-1
while Promethazine concentration was 0.714 mg kg-1. Test tube C was
re-perfused with the blockers every 30 min while the overall process lasted
for 180 min such that the total volume of blocker perfused is between 150-250
Perfusion: The test tubes A, B, C1, C2, D and
E were connected to a perfusion set up to run the respective ACSF (as described
above for each tube) through the tube for 180 min, the set up was rocked gently
at intervals to aid circulation and exchange in the tissue block. 10 μL
metronidazole was added to each tube as an antibiotic to prevent bacteria action.
The set up was incubated at 37°C.
Immunohistochemistry (antigen retrieval method): The tissues obtained
were prefixed in formolcalcium to arrest all protein activities, after 48 h
the tissues were then processed with embedding done at 50°C to obtain paraffin
wax sections. The sections were mounted on a slide and dewaxed to expose the
tissues. The exposed tissues were placed in the humidity chamber to rehydrate
the tissue. It was then placed in a microwave using the method of Petersen
et al. (2012).
DAB immunohistochemistry was carried out using the IgG peroxidase anti-peroxidase
method (PAP). The sections were washed in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), incubated
in normal goat serum for 30 min and then incubated for 6 h at 37°C in a
solution containing a monoclonal antibody against rat Bax, Cathepsin D and p53
proteins. Separate slides were incubated with at a dilution of 1:100 in PBS
in separate reaction chambers. The sections were then treated with trypsin (0.1%
in 0.1% calcium chloride) at 37°C for 15 min before blocking the non-specific
reactions with hydrogen peroxide (0.3%). The antibodies were used at a dilution
of 1:100 in PBS containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin and 0.005% sodium azide.
The peroxidase in all the reactions was developed with 0.025% di aminobenzidine
tetrachloride in phosphate buffer saline, pH 7.2, containing 0.03% hydrogen
Transformation: Methenamine silver intensification was used on the immunoperoxidase
preparation after the peroxidase/H2O2/DAB reaction has
been carried out to give a brown deposit. The sections were then counterstained
in hematoxylin. The counterstained sections were washed in running tap water,
thoroughly rinsed in distilled water and placed in preheated methenamine silver
solution at 60°C for 5 min. Although it could be occasionally longer if
the intensification had been carried out at room temperature. In this study,
to further increase the clarity, hematoxylin was removed from counterstained
nuclei with acid alcohol before the silver intensification was carried out.
The composition of the stock solution was 0.125% silver nitrate in 1.5% hexamine.
The solution was stored at 4°C. Prior to use, 2 mL of 5% tetraborate was
added to 50 mL of the stock silver solution giving a pH of 8.0 which was then
filtered into a coupling jar and protected from sunlight.
Both CD3 and NSE were expressed in the tissue rather than in the cells of the
control group (Fig. 1a and b ACSF). This
shows that metabolism and constant repair is a regular process in the neuronal
cells. On comparison with the tissue treated with KCN, the CD3 activity occurred
over a wider area as shown by arrow heads in (Fig. 2a, b:
ACSF+KCN) and NSE was localized in the cells specifically in the centre of the
cell (labeled*) thus indicating increased activity in the cells under cyanide
toxicity. The CD3+ distribution also shows apoptotic activity occurring in a
wide region in the tissue compared to specific point location in the control.
CD3+ activities were localized around neurons with vacuolar spaces.
|| Immunohistochemistry of tissues perfussed with ASCF only
(control). Arrow heads show the space around neurons as a form of response
to stress induced by oxygen deprivation, (*) indicates the sites of (a)
CD3+ and (b) NSE activity, Magnification X400
This also support the idea that NSE activity will increase in response to
repair or proliferation. The highest CD3 activity was observed in tissues treated
with ACSF+KCN+Methyldigoxin (Na/K ATPase pump blocker) showing rapidly processing
degenerative cells (Fig. 3a, b). Although
in this tissue the NSE level was greatly reduced showing that the pump blockers
compliment the toxicity of cyanide by reducing basal metabolic response in the
cell and the ability of the neuron to produce ATP for recovery.
||Immunohistochemical demonstration of (a) CD3+ and (b) NSE
activity in tissues perfused with ACSF+KCN, (**) indicates centre of neuron,
Arrow heads indicate the vacuolar spaces, Magnification X400
Higher NSE activity was seen in the neurons of ACSF+promethazine (another
form of Na/K ATPase pump blocker) treated tissue sections. NSE activity was
highest in this group due to excitotoxic effects of promethazine and the extent
of the activity was observed to extends along the axonal length (arrow head
in Fig. 4a and b: ACSF+promethazine). In
this tissue CD3+ activity was restricted to regions around degenerating cells.
This shows that the distinct effect of the pump blocker is to create excitation
in the cell leading to cell enlargement and increased NSE due to increased metabolism
as a result of over excitation demanding energy rather than as a result of DNA
cleavage causing increased NSE activity for repair.
|| Immunohistochemical demonstration of (a) CD3+, Arrow heads
indicate rapidly progressing degenerative cells and (b) NSE (arrow heads)
activity in tissue treated with ACSF+KCN+methyldigoxin, magnification X400
While CD3+ activity was higher in ACSF+mehtyldigoxin treated tissue than promethazine
treated one (Fig. 5a). However, NSE activity (Fig.
5b) in ACSF+mehtyldigoxin treated tissue was greatly reduced and present
in small degenerating neurons only.
Immunohistochemical demonstration of NSE showed proliferation of neurons and
axons in assaulted cells (Einstein et al., 2006).
The disease related roles of NSE has been attributed more to its ability to
bind to genetic materials rather than functioning as an enzyme.
|| Immunohistochemical demonstration of (a) CD3+ and (b) NSE
activity in tissue treated with ACSF+promethazine, arrow heads indicate
CD3+ and NSE activity as the NSE activity extends long the length of the
axon and cell body of neurons (arrow head in Fig. 4b).
The CD3+ activity were restricted to regions around degenerating cells (arrow
head in Fig. 4a), Magnification X400
|| Comparative immunohistochemisty of (a) CD3+ and (b) NSE activity
in cortical tissues treated with ACSF+methyldigoxin, arrow heads indicate
CD3+ and NSE activities, Magnification X400
This might account for the location of this enzyme in the nucleus of treated
neurons as shown in Fig. 1 (ACSF+KCN). This ability of the
enzyme to bind genetic materials will always affect its three dimensional surface
structure (Mukaratirwa et al., 2012).
The isozymes of NSE identified in the nervous system are the γ-sub-unit
localized in the cell body and axons. NSE levels have also been used to determine
tumorgenensis in the body (serum level). The origin of the NSE or rather the
cause of the rise in NSE level is of great concern. Recently studies on blood
parameters shows that rise in NSE levels may be as a result of activation of
macrophages and lymphocytes (Sanchez-Ruiz et al.,
2008). Activation of the T-lymphocytes (CD3) a form of macrophage can occur
in the nervous system. In this study, the significance of the association between
NSE and CD3 supports the fact that macrophage activity promotes activity of
NSE (Forooghian et al., 2007). In nerve tissues,
the NSE is used as an indicator to reflect the extent of damage to the neurons
(Sanchez-Ruiz et al., 2008). NSE can also be
assayed in the blood using radio immunoassay, this is because the platelets
also contains level of this enzyme similar to those seen in the brain and 10-folds
those seen in the erythrocyte (Jang et al., 2012).
Negative correlations observed between NSE activity and platelet count may,
partly, reflect platelet destruction due to pronounced coagulopathy (Zhang
et al., 2011).
Reactive lymphocytes stain strongly for CD3 and was found to increase in neuronal
cells tissues having cells with features of apoptosis. Comparing the activity
of CD3+ and NSE for Fig. 4 and 5 (ACSF+promethazine
and ACSF+methyldigoxin suggests that methyldigoxin blockade of the receptor
gave more neurotoxic effect by completely reducing NSE activity while T-lymphocytes
were activated around the degenerating cells (Fig. 4a, b).
In the ACSF+promethazine treated tissues, excitotoxicity is a possible effect
of this blocker as NSE activity was distributed along the length of the axon
and CD3+ restricted to near surroundings of the cells.
To answer the primary question as to the role and source of NSE in cyanide
toxicity; NSE in this study is believed to be of 2 sources, firstly the NSE
activity observed in the intercellular spaces and sites of CD3 activity are
as a result of activation of the T-lymphocytes specifically undifferentiated
lymphocytes found in the brain and indicated by CD3 staining. Secondly, the
NSE localized in the cells is an indication of increased proliferative metabolism
in the neurons. This can be described as a form of neuron defense mechanism
to counter the toxicity of cyanide. Further research can be conducted to analyze
and compare the activity of NSE in peripheral nervous system to compare between
the behavior of the neuron types in the CNS and the peripheral nervous system
under oxygen deprivation and its role in cell survival in toxicity.
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