Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Length-weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Three Dominant Species from the Lake Tasik Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia

I.S. Kamaruddin, A.S. Mustafa- Kamal, A. Christianus, S.K. Daud, S.M.N. Amin and L. Yu- Abit
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

The Length-weight Relationship (LWR) and condition factor (K) of three most dominant species from the Tasik Kenyir was evaluated from February 2008 to January 2009. The data were analyzed by the equation of W = aLb and were transferred to Log10W = Log10 a + b Log10 L, for the length-weight relationship and K = W x 100 L-3 for the condition factor. The relative growth coefficient (b) values for Barbodes schwanenfeldii was 2.784, Notopterus sp. was 1.905 and Hampala macrolepidota was at 3.043. The condition factor values varied seasonally for each species that range from 2.48±0.39 to 2.68±0.28 for B. schwanenfeldii, 0.95±0.10 to 1.03±0.20 for Notopterus sp. and from 2.17±0.19 to 2.35±0.39 for H. macrolepidota.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

I.S. Kamaruddin, A.S. Mustafa- Kamal, A. Christianus, S.K. Daud, S.M.N. Amin and L. Yu- Abit, 2011. Length-weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Three Dominant Species from the Lake Tasik Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 6: 852-856.

DOI: 10.3923/jfas.2011.852.856

Received: August 30, 2011; Accepted: November 21, 2011; Published: December 30, 2011


Barbodes schwanenfeldii, Notopterus sp. and Hampala macrolepidota are known locally as lampam sungai, belida and sebarau respectively and these species are the most abundant species found in Tasik Kenyir as reported by Kamaruddin et al. (2011). However, information on the biological features of these species is very limited.

Recently, the freshwater fish catch in Malaysia including that in Tasik Kenyir has showed a steep decline over the past few years. Habitat degradation and over-exploitation have depleted the fish stocks and reducing the replacement rate in fish population (Khan et al., 1996). Sustainable management and suitable conservation programmes are needed in order to maintain the fish stock in Tasik Kenyir. One of the key factors to successfully maintaining the fish population in the lake is the understanding of some biological fundamental processes of individual fish species.

The Length-weight Relationship (LWR) studies are important in fisheries biology due to that they are useful in estimation of the average weight of fish, based on a given length group which come from the mathematical standard set-up between the two (Beyer, 1987). The length-weight relationships provide information on the growth patterns and condition of one fish (Bagenal and Tesch, 1978). According to Lawson (2011) the investigations on the length-weight relationship studies are important in managing and conserving fish species in one habitat. Meanwhile, the condition factor (K) of fish are actually considering the general well being and health of a fish in relation to its environment, thus it represents how robust or fairly deep bodied of the fish are (Reynold, 1968). Seasonal variations of K were also observed by previous researchers and according to Gallardo-Cabello et al. (2007) the K of fish diminished when the food availability in one area decreased.

As such, the objective of this research is to provide baseline data on the LWR and K of dominant species in Pengkalan Gawi-Pulau Dula section of Tasik Kenyir. This research is believed to be the first that was reported in the lake section and it is hopes to benefits the management of Tasik Kenyir to manage the lake in sustainable ways.


Tasik Kenyir is the biggest man-made lake in Malaysia with an area about 36,000 ha. The lake lies at 102°32’E to 102°55’E and 4°47’N to 5°15’N in Terengganu. The lake is 145 m above the sea level and the average depth of the lake is about 37 m. It has more than 300 islands and it is paradise for anglers and a pleasant retreat for urban tourists.

Sampling was conducted in one part of the lake comprising an area of about 30 km2. This section extended from Pengkalan Gawi (the jetty) to the south at Pulau Dula. At this section, fish were sampled at three sampling stations and these stations were designated as stations A (Pulau Dula), station B (Sungai Ikan) and station C (Pulau Pupi). This study was conducted for one year based on monthly intervals from February 2008 to January 2009. Fish sampling was conducted using gillnets with different mesh sizes (2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 inches). All fish caught were preserved with ice (Arshad et al., 2008) and were counted and identified for species using standard taxonomic keys following to Mohsin and Ambak (1983).

The standard length (cm) of each individual fish was measured using a measuring board and the body weight (g) was taken using digital balance. The Length Weight-relationship (LWR) was determined by using the equation applied by Ricker (1975):

W = aLb


W = The total weight (g)
L = The total standard length (cm)
a = Constant
b = Growth exponent

A least square linear regression was estimated to make the relationship become linear:

Log10W = Log10 a + b Log10 L

The index to quantify the state of condition of a fish followed methods by Tesch (1971) and Weatherley (1972). Condition factor (K) of fish was categorized into four seasonal groups which were February/April, May/July, August/October and November/January. The K value was calculated in percentage as follows:

K= W 100/L3


A total of 98 individual of B. schwanenfeldii, 75 individual of Notopterus sp. and 44 individuals of H. macrolepidota were captured and computed their LWR and K in this study (Table 1).

Table 1: Length range and length-weight relationship parameters (a, b and R2) of three species in the lake Tasik Kenyir, Terengganu
Image for - Length-weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Three Dominant Species from the Lake Tasik Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia

Table 2: The condition factor (K) (mean±SD) for three species in the lake Tasik Kenyir
Image for - Length-weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Three Dominant Species from the Lake Tasik Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia

The b values (slope) for the LWR of two species were under the expected range from 2.784 for B. schwanenfeldii to 3.043 for H. macrolepidota, where all of these were determined by coefficients (R2)>0.879. The length-weight equations were calculated as for B. schwanenfeldii, Log10W = Log10-1.322 + 2.784 Log10L (R2 = 0.879); Notopterus sp., Log10W = Log10-0.562 + 1.905 Log10L (R2 = 0.592); and H. macrolepidota, Log10W = Log10-1.704 + 3.043 Log10L (R2 = 0.936).

The mean value of K in different season ranged from 2.48±0.39 to 2.82±0.53 for B. schwanenfeldii, 0.95±0.10 to 1.03±0.20 for Notopterus sp. and 2.17±0.19 to 2.35±0.39 for H. macrolepidota. The highest mean K values for all species were recorded during season February/April (Table 2).


Results of the LWR in this study show that the b value (exponent) of H. macrolepidota was the highest thus indicates that the environment of the lake section of Tasik Kenyir is more suitable for this species. The finding also shows that the b values of H. macrolepidota was higher than 3 (b>3) indicates a positive allometric growths while B. schwanenfeldii and Notopterus sp. are lower than 3 (b<3) show a signs of negative allometric growths. When b is equal to 3, this indicates that the fish grows isometrically (Amin et al., 2008; Rahim et al., 2009) and the positive or negative allometric growth occurred when the b value was different from 3 (Arslan et al., 2004).

Although, the small number of samples was recorded in this study, the b values remain within the estimated range for B. schwanenfeldii and H. macrolepidota. Earlier studied done by Tesch (1971) revealed that most fishes in aquatic ecosystems have b values ranged from 2 to 4. The LWR of fishes may be differs among species and affected by factors that were not taken into consideration in this study. Factors that may affect the differences in LWR of fish are the quality and quantity of food available in one area (Sparre and Venema, 1992) and due to the male-female ratio (Amin et al., 2005). On the other hand, Schneider et al. (2000) described that the exact relationship between length and weight depending to their body shape and condition (robustness) of individual fish.

Results for the K of fish species in this study indicates that the weight of B. schwanenfeldii was heavy for its length, greater when compared to Notopterus sp.. According to Wootton (1998), fish species with high values of K are heavy for their length while low values of K are light for their length. The high value of K for all species during February/April indicates that fishes on that season were in a robust condition. According to Gupta et al. (2010), this could be due to the availability of food organisms available on that season and due to the differences of gonad development. The weights of fishes increase when they utilize the food items available for growth and energy (Oniye et al., 2006). This could be a sign that food organisms were available in abundance during season February/April. The differences of LWR and K of all species in this study could be due to the factors listed above or the combinations of the factors.


LWR and K of fish population have not previously been recorded from the lake Tasik Kenyir. The b value (exponent) of H. macrolepidota and the K values of B. schwanenfeldii were the highest indicating that the lake environment is the most suitable to live for both species.


1:  Amin, S.M.N., A. Arshad, G.C. Haldar, S. Shohaimi and R. Ara, 2005. Estimation of size frequency distribution, sex ratio and length-weight relationship of Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) in Bangladesh water. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 1: 61-66.

2:  Amin, S.M.N., M. Zafar and A. Halim, 2008. Age, growth, mortality and population structure of the oyster, Crassostrea madrasensis, in the Moheskhali Channel (Southeastern coast of Bangladesh). J. Applied Ichthyol., 24: 18-25.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

3:  Arshad, A., A. Jimmy, S.M. Nurul Amin, B.J. Sidik and Z.M. Harah, 2008. Length-weight and length-length relationships of five fish species collected from seagrass beds of the Sungai Pulai estuary, Peninsular Malaysia. J. Applied Ichthyol., 24: 328-329.
CrossRef  |  

4:  Arslan, M., A. Yildirim and S. Bektas, 2004. Length-weight relationship of brown trout, Salmo trutta, inhabiting kan stream coruh basin North-Eastren Turkey. Turk. J. Fish. Aquacult. Sci., 4: 45-47.

5:  Bagenal, T.B. and A.T. Tesch, 1978. Conditions and Growth Patterns in Fresh Water Habitats. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford

6:  Beyer, J.E., 1987. On length-weight relationships. Part I: Computing the mean weights of the fish in a given length class. Fishbyte, 5: 11-13.
Direct Link  |  

7:  Gallardo-Cabello, M., E. Espino-Barr, A. Garcia-Boa, E.G. Cabral-Solis and M. Puente-Gomez, 2007. Study of the growth of the green jack Caranx caballus Günther 1868, in the Coast of Colima, Mexico. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2: 131-139.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Gupta, B.K., U.K. Sarkar, S.K. Bhardwaj and A. Pal, 2011. Condition factor, length-weight and length-length relationships of an endangered fish Ompok pabda (Hamilton 1822) (Siluriformes: Siluridae) from the River Gomti, a tributary of the River Ganga, India. J. Applied Ichthyol., 27: 962-964.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Khan, M.S., P.K.Y. Lee, J. Cramphorn and M. Zakaria-Ismail, 1996. Freshwater Fishes of the Pahang River Basin, Malaysia. Wetland Internasional Asia Pacific Publication, Kuala Lumpur

10:  Lawson, E.O., 2011. Length-weight relationships and fecundity estimates in mudskipper, Periophthalmus papilio (Bloch and Schneider 1801) caught from the mangrove swamps of Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 6: 264-271.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Mohsin, A.K.M. and M.A. Ambak, 1983. Freshwater fishes of Peninsular Malaysia. Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Selangor, ISBN: 9789679952131, Pages: 284

12:  Kamaruddin, I.S., A.S. Mustafa-Kamal, A. Christianus, S.K. Daud and L. Yu-Abit, 2011. Fish community in pengkalan gawi-pulau dula section of kenyir lake, Terengganu, Malaysia. J. Sustainability Sci. Manage., 6: 89-97.
Direct Link  |  

13:  Oniye, S.J., D.A. Adebote, S.K. Usman and J.K. Makpo, 2006. Some aspects of the biology of Protopterus annectens (Owen) in Jachi dam near Katsina, Katsina state, Nigeria. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci., 1: 136-141.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Rahim, M.H.A., A. Rozila and A.M. Mat Jais, 2009. The physical-chemical and morphological study of haruan Channa striatus in Peninsular Malaysia. Res. Biol. Sci., 4: 994-1009.
Direct Link  |  

15:  Reynold, T.D., 1968. The Biology of Clupeids in the New Volta Lake. In: Man-Made Lakes, Obengi, L.E. (Ed.). Ghana University Press, Ghana

16:  Ricker, W.E., 1975. Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can., 191: 1-382.
Direct Link  |  

17:  Schneider, J.C., P.W. Laarman and H. Gowing, 2000. Length-Weight Relationships. In: Manual of Fisheries Survey Methods II: With Periodic Updates (Fisheries Special Report 25), Schneider, J.C. (Ed.). Chapter 17, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Ann Arbor, MI., USA., pp: 1-18

18:  Sparre, P. and S.C. Venema, 1992. Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment- Part I- Manual. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. 306/1. Rome.

19:  Tesch, F.W., 1971. Age and Growth in Fish Production in Fresh Waters. Blackwell Publisher, Oxford, pp: 98-130

20:  Weatherley, A.H., 1972. Growth and Ecology of Fish Populations. Academic Press, California, USA., ISBN: 9780127390505, Pages: 293

21:  Wootton, R.J., 1998. Ecology of Teleost Fishes. 2nd Edn. Vol. 24, Springer Verlag, New York, USA., ISBN-10: 041264200X, Pages: 386

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved