Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Growth Response, Survival, Feed Conversion and Protein Utilization in Fingerlings of Rohu, Labeo Rohita (Hamilton) to Diets of Different Protein Levels



P.K. Singh , S.R. Gaur and S.P. Tiwari
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

A growth experiment was conducted to determine the optimum protein level for fingerlings of Labeo rohita (initial average weight 1.82±0.02 g). Four practical diets were formulated contain four protein levels (25, 30, 35 and 40%). Each diet was randomly assigned to four replicate groups of 10 fish per aquarium (60 x 30 x 30 cm). Fish were fed twice daily (08.30-09.00 h and 16.00-16.30) to apparent satiation for 7 weeks. The results showed that the growth was significantly influenced by protein levels (p<0.01). Fish fed the diet with 30 % protein had the higher specific growth rate (2.48±0.01) and protein efficiency ratio (1.75±0.07) than those with 25, 35 and 40% protein. While survival rate is best with 30-35% protein level. Carcass composition also revealed higher accumulation of protein and lipid in fish fed on diet containing 30% protein. These findings suggest that about 30% protein in diet appears to be sufficient for obtaining optimum growth in Labeo rohita.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

P.K. Singh , S.R. Gaur and S.P. Tiwari , 2006. Growth Response, Survival, Feed Conversion and Protein Utilization in Fingerlings of Rohu, Labeo Rohita (Hamilton) to Diets of Different Protein Levels. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 1: 97-101.

DOI: 10.3923/jfas.2006.97.101

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jfas.2006.97.101

Introduction

The Indian Major Carps are highly nutritious and most prestigious of all fishes in India. Moreover, the carp constitute nearly 90% of India's total production. Among the Indian Major Carps, rohu (Labeo rohita) is most preferred species and constitute about 35% of the Indian Major Carps production (FAO, 2000). Feed cost plays a vital role in dictating the economic feasibility of fish culture practice. The cost of feed is largely influenced by the level and sources of protein which is the most expensive component of a fish diet. The dietary protein contributes to over 60% of the diet cost and is the major dietary components which influence growth of fish. Insufficient as well as excess level of protein in feed is not desirable, the former results in poor growth, while the latter would be wasted by diverting for energy. Hence, dietary protein level in fish feed needs to be optimized accurately. However, studies on the dietary protein requirements of carps feeding on dry formulated feeds are few (Mohanty et al., 1990; Seenappa and Devaraj, 1995; Chakraborty et al., 1999; Rangacharyulu et al., 2000). The present study deals with the optimization of dietary protein levels of the feed for Labeo rohita fingerlings.

Materials and Methods

The present experiment was conducted at Aquaculture Lab, Department of Fisheries, Raipur and feed analysis part was done at Department of Animal Nutrition, Anjora, Durg of Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India during period of December to February, 2003-04.

Fingerlings of Labeo rohita, procured from the Nursery pondo, Department of Fisheries, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University were given a prophylactic dip in dilute KMnO4 solution before stocking in glass aquaria (60x30x30 cm). After 15 days of acclimation to the formulated diet consisting of rice bran and mustard oil cake, the fingerlings were sorted out to almost identical size (Ave. wt. 1.83±0.02 g) group.

Four experimental diets with 25, 30, 35 and 40% protein level respectively were prepared and named as D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. The ingredients selected were slaughter house waste, mustard oil cake, rice bran, soybean oil, vitamin-mineral mixture and carboxy methyl cellulose (Table 1). For feed preparation, the ingredients were grounded separately in an electric grinder and sieved to remove large particles. The required quantity of feed ingredients boiled with water in a pressure cooker for 30 min. The boiled mixture was allowed to cool and then vitamin-mineral mixture was added and mixed well. These mixtures are processed through a hand pelletizer for preparing pellets, which were then dried in room temperature for two days. Prior to the formulation of the feeds, the ingredients were analyzed for proximate composition following the standard methods (AOAC, 1990).

The acclimatised Labeo rohita fingerlings (mean body weight 1.83±0.02 g) were randomly distributed at the rate of 10 fish per aquarium with four replicates of each dietary treatment. All fish were fed daily twice a day at 08.30-09.00 h and 16.00-16.30 h, the feeding being at 4% body weight day-1. The aquaria water was partially renewed daily. The fish were weighed at weekly intervals and feeding rate adjusted accordingly. Fish were exposed to the respective diet for 3 h during each ration and the uneaten feed was siphoned out, stored and dried separately for calculating the Food Conversion Ratio (FCR).

Feeding ingredients, experimental diets, faecal matter sample and the fish muscle were analysed for proximate composition following AOAC (1989) procedures.

Water quality was monitored at weekly interval for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, free carbon di-oxide and total alkalinity (APHA, 1990)

Table 1: Ingredients (%) and proximate composition of the experimental diets (% on dry matter basis)
Image for - Growth Response, Survival, Feed Conversion and Protein Utilization in Fingerlings of Rohu, Labeo Rohita (Hamilton) to Diets of Different Protein Levels
*Vitaminate forte, Roche India Ltd., **On dry matter basis

Data were tested for significance employing one-way analysis of variance (Snedecor and Cochran, 1968) and Duncan’s (1955) Multiple Range Test.

Data Collection

Image for - Growth Response, Survival, Feed Conversion and Protein Utilization in Fingerlings of Rohu, Labeo Rohita (Hamilton) to Diets of Different Protein Levels

Where, BWi and BWf were initial and final body weights of the fish, respectively.

Image for - Growth Response, Survival, Feed Conversion and Protein Utilization in Fingerlings of Rohu, Labeo Rohita (Hamilton) to Diets of Different Protein Levels

Results

The water quality parameters were within the normal range (Table 2). The reason for the narrow range of fluctuation in the water quality parameters may be attributed to the periodical removal of waste feeds, excreta and exchange of water besides continuous aeration.

Growth in terms of net weight gain (g) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were significantly (p<0.01) higher in fish fed on D2 containing 30% crude protein compared to all the other diets (Fig. 1). With further increase in dietary protein levels a decrease in net weight gain and SGR was found (Table 3).

Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) remained significantly low (1.89) in fish fed on D2 containing 30% crude protein in comparison with the fish fed on low (25%) or high protein (35 and 40%) diets indicating the best conversion rate among all the diets. On the other hand, Protein Efficiency Ratiob (PER) was significantly (p<0.01) high in fish fed on D2. Survival rates recorded highest (100%) in the fish reared with the 30 and 35% protein diet. There was no significant difference in survival rate of fishes between all the treatments (p<0.01).

Table 2: Water quality parameters observed during the experimental period
Image for - Growth Response, Survival, Feed Conversion and Protein Utilization in Fingerlings of Rohu, Labeo Rohita (Hamilton) to Diets of Different Protein Levels

Table 3: Weight gain, Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and survival of rohu fingerlings fed with diets containing various levels of protein for 49 days
Image for - Growth Response, Survival, Feed Conversion and Protein Utilization in Fingerlings of Rohu, Labeo Rohita (Hamilton) to Diets of Different Protein Levels
±SEM, Values in the same rows with different superscripts differ significantly (p<0.01)

Table 4: Carcass composition of fish before and after the feeding experiment
Image for - Growth Response, Survival, Feed Conversion and Protein Utilization in Fingerlings of Rohu, Labeo Rohita (Hamilton) to Diets of Different Protein Levels
±SEM, Values in the same rows with different superscripts differ significantly (p<0.01)

Image for - Growth Response, Survival, Feed Conversion and Protein Utilization in Fingerlings of Rohu, Labeo Rohita (Hamilton) to Diets of Different Protein Levels
Fig. 1: Growth of fish during experimental period

The carcass compositions were significantly different in terms of moisture, lipid, protein and ash content of the fish fed with different diets. Protein and lipid deposition in the muscle of the experimental fish increased over the initial in all the dietary treatments (Table 4). The fish fed with 30% protein diet resulted higher amount of protein and lipid deposition in the muscle compared to all the other diets. All these values are significantly higher (p<0.01) in D2 than those with the other diets.

Discussion

The present study shows that specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and protein utilization in Labeo rohita are influenced by the dietary protein content. Studies on effect of protein level on growth performance of fishes clearly indicate that while feeding with slaughter house waste based diets gives optimum growth occurs between 30-35% dietary protein levels. The present results recorded the maximum growth performance by Labeo rohita, feeding on 30% dietary protein and hence lie within the range reported by other workers for rohu and other fishes (Gangadhara et al.,1997; Rangacharyulu et al., 2000; Paul and Mohanty, 2002). Results on optimum protein levels for Labeo rohita are broad agreement with those of Gangadhara et al. (1997), Chakraborty et al. (1999), Rangacharyulu et al. (2000) and Paul and Mohanty (2002) on L. rohita. These authors obtained high growth and feed efficiency in fish when fed on a diet containing 30-35% crude protein. Further, growth depressing effect of high protein levels has been reported for rohu (Khan and Jafri, 1992; Chakraborthy et al., 1999; Saha and Ray, 1998; Nandeesha et al. 2002).

Results of the present study revealed lower moisture content in fish body tissue feeding different protein levels. The fat content and protein levels increased in all dietary groups as compared to initial body tissue level and significantly higher in D2. Similar trends were reported by Jayaram and Shetty (1995) and Brinda and Arvindum (1995) for rohu fingerlings. Decrease in ash content may be due to dilution effect of carcass fat and not because of the influence of protein levels.

From the present study it is concluded that growth of rohu was best at 30 percent protein level. So, there is no need to go with higher level of dietary protein and slaughter house waste is an efficient animal protein source for rohu as a feed ingredient.

REFERENCES

1:  AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington VA, Pages: 684

2:  APHA, 1989. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. 17th Edn., Amercian Public Health Assocation, New York, pp: 1527

3:  Brinda, M.K. and C.M. Arvindun, 1995. Effect of dietary protein level on growth and biochemical composition of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus). J. Inland Fisheries Soc. Ind., 27: 74-78.

4:  Chakraborty, S.C., S.A. Chowdhury and S. Chakraborty, 1999. Energy budget of Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita fingerlings fed on diets with different protein levels. Asian Fisheries Sci., 12: 297-308.

5:  Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

6:  FAO, 2000. Fishery statistics (Aquaculture production). Food Agri. Organ. Unit. Nat. Rome, 90: 22-26.

7:  Gangadhara, B., M.C. Nandeesha, J.J. Varghese and P. Keshavanath, 1997. Effect of varying protein and lipid levels on the growth of rohu, Labeo rohita. Asian Fish. Sci., 10: 139-147.

8:  Jayaram, M.G. and H.P.C. Shetty, 1980. Digestibility of two pelleted diets by Cyprinus carpio and Labeo rohita. Mysore J. Agric. Sci., 14: 578-584.

9:  Jobling and Wandsvik, 1983. Quantitative protein requirements of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.). J. Fishery Biol., 22: 705-712.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Khan, M.A. and A.K. Jafri, 1992. Replacement of fish meal with offal meal in formulated diets for the carp fingerlings Labeo rohita (Ham.). J. Aquaculture, 2: 56-62.

11:  Mohanty, S.N., D.N. Swamy and S.D. Tripathy, 1990. Protein utilization in inland major carp fry, Catla catla (Ham.) and Labeo rohita (Ham.) fed four protein diets. J. Aquaculture in Trop., 5: 173-179.

12:  Nandeesha, M.C., B. Gangadhara, T.J. Varghese and P. Keshavanath, 2002. Growth response and flesh quality of common carp, Cyprinus carpio fed with high levels of non defatted silkworm pupae. Asian Fisheries Sci., 13: 235-242.

13:  Paul, B.N. and S.N. Mohanty, 2002. Recent Advances in Carp Feeding in India. Proceedings of the 4th Biennial Conference and Exhibition, 2002, Kolkata, pp: 42-48

14:  Rangacharyulu, P.V., B.N. Paul, S. Nandi, S. Sarkar and P.K. Mukhopadhyay, 2000. Effect of different protein and energy levels on growth, nitrogen metabolism and body composition of rohu (Labeo rohita). J. Aquacul., 8: 17-24.

15:  Saha, A.K. and A.K. Ray, 1998. Incorporation of Animal by products in carp diets: Evaluation of poultry litter and goat blood meal as dietary protein source for rohu (Labeo rohita), fingerlings. J. Aquacul. Trop., 13: 277-284.
Direct Link  |  

16:  Seenappa, D. and K.V. Devaraj, 1995. Effect of different levels of protein, fat and carbohydrate on growth, feed utilization and body carcass composition of fingerlings in Catla catla (Ham.). Aquaculture, 129: 243-249.

17:  Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran, 1968. Statistical Methods. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi, India, pp: 593

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved