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Efficacy of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, Neorautanenia mitis and Gnidia kraussiana against Larger Grain Borer (Prostephanus truncatus Horn) and Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamays Motschulsky) on Maize (Zea mays L.) Grain Seeds



L.S. Mulungu, B. Ndilahomba, C.J. Nyange, M.W. Mwatawala, J.K. Mwalilino, C.C. Joseph and C.A. Mgina
 
ABSTRACT

Studies to evaluate the effectiveness of natural protectants in controlling Prostephanus truncatus and Sitophilus zeamays in stored maize were conducted in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. The treatments consisted of natural protectants viz., pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium), Neorautanenia mitis, N. mitis with talc as carrier, Gnidia kraussiana powder and untreated control. Actellic Super Dust was included as a standard insecticide control. The data collected included the number of dead and live insects, number of damaged and undamaged maize seeds, number of holes per seed, percentage damage and weight loss. Seeds treated with Actellic super dust, pyrethrum and G. kraussiana powder had significantly lower number of live insects and damaged seeds as compared to untreated control. Among the natural protectants, pyrethrum and G. kraussiana powder showed good potential in protecting maize grain against P. truncatus and S. zeamays. Positive and significant correlations between the numbers of live insects with number of damaged seeds, percentage damaged seeds, average number of holes per seed and weight loss were observed.

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L.S. Mulungu, B. Ndilahomba, C.J. Nyange, M.W. Mwatawala, J.K. Mwalilino, C.C. Joseph and C.A. Mgina, 2011. Efficacy of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, Neorautanenia mitis and Gnidia kraussiana against Larger Grain Borer (Prostephanus truncatus Horn) and Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamays Motschulsky) on Maize (Zea mays L.) Grain Seeds. Journal of Entomology, 8: 81-87.

DOI: 10.3923/je.2011.81.87

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=je.2011.81.87
 
Received: March 13, 2010; Accepted: June 08, 2010; Published: July 17, 2010

INTRODUCTION

Maize is one of the most important cereals grown in the world. It is an important food and cash crop in Tanzania and regarded as the major staple food accounting for up to 60% of dietary calories of the majorities of the Tanzanian rural population (Rwamugira, 1996). The crop can be grown over a wide range of environments and soil conditions. The Regions in the Southern highlands of Tanzania viz., Iringa, Mbeya, Rukwa and Ruvuma are the major producers of maize. The current production per unit area by small scale farmers is low, about 1,200 kg ha-1, as opposed to potential average yield of 4,000-8,000 kg ha-1 (Skonhoft et al., 2006). The low production of this crop is attributed to several factors including diseases and insect pests. It is estimated that about 70% of the harvested grains stored in rural areas is lost to rodents and insects (Makundi, 2006). Post harvest losses due to insects are undoubtedly high, resulting to about 35% losses in some grains (Makundi, 2006).

Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) and Sitophilus zeamays (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are the major storage pests of maize causing heavy qualitative and quantitative losses of the crop (Rees et al., 1990). The effect of feeding activity of insects on maize grain include loss in weight, nutrients conversion to inferior food materials, reduction of germination, reduced vigor of seedlings and lowering of market values (Rees et al., 1990). The insects can destroy a large quantity of harvested maize within few months after harvest.

Currently, the control of P. truncatus and S. zeamays is largely dependent on the use of synthetic insecticides. Although, much success has been realized, there has been many problems associated with synthetic stored product protectants (Isman, 2006) leading to search for cheap, easily biodegradable natural products (Akob and Ewete, 2007). Control programs should rely on the use of relatively safe, low cost and locally available alternative tactics that prevent maize grain losses. Pesticides of botanical origin are seen as promising alternatives to the synthetics and are receiving attention (Golob et al., 1999; Mohan and Fields, 2002; Facknath, 2006; Akob and Ewete, 2007).

Plant and plant products are useful and desirable tools in pest management programs because they are effective and often complement the actions of natural enemies (Schmutterer, 1990; Ascher, 1993). In a number of investigations, chemical compounds that are potential pesticides have been isolated and identified from leaves and seeds of various plant species. For example, the potential pesticides activities of neem, pyrethrum and tephrosia products have been reported (Akhtar and Isman, 2004; Greenberg et al., 2005; Mbaiguinam et al., 2006; Iloba and Ekrakene, 2006). Therefore, identification and evaluation of locally available effective botanicals will provide a sustainable alternative to control storage pests, thus increasing food security. The objective of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the efficacy of locally available botanical products as grain protectants on survival of P. truncatus and S. zeamays in stored maize grains.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study location: The experiment was conducted at the Pest Management Centre laboratory, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania (06°50’S, 37°38’E, 525 m a.s.l) from December, 2006 to May, 2007.

Rearing of experimental insets: Cultures stocks of P. truncatus and S. zeamays were collected from infested shelled maize grains from the Morogoro Municipality central market. Maize grains weighing 1 kg were introduced into two separate large jars, covered with perforated lids. The jars were kept in a room maintained at a temperature of 28-29°C and 65-70% relative humidity. The aim was to produce a steady and sufficient supply of beetles of known age for experimental purpose.

Experimental layout: Treatments were arranged in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) and replicated three times. Clean and well-sieved maize grain of the Staha variety was bought from smallholder farmers. They were adequately dried to 15% moisture content. The maize grains were disinfested by keeping them in a deep freezer at a temperature of -1°C for 48 h. This harvested maize had no history of insecticide treatment.

Treatments were Actellic Super Dust (0.3% permethrin and 1.6% pirimiphos methyl) applied at a rate of 1 g per 200 g of maize grains (control); Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Vis. (Asteraceae), Neorautanenia mitis (A. Ritch) Verdcourt (Papilionaceae), N. mitis with talc as carrier, Gnidia kraussiana Meisn. (Thymelaeaceae) powders, all applied at the rate of 2 g per 200 g. The maize grains and pesticides were mixed and tumbled thoroughly for 5 min. Ten pairs of newly emerged adults of either P. truncatus or S. zeamays were introduced into each bottle that was then covered with perforated lids.

Data collection: Data collected included number of dead and live insects, number of damaged and undamaged maize grains and average number of holes per maize seed. In addition, percentage damaged maize seeds and weight losses were calculated.

Data analysis: All data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) procedure (SAS, 1990). Tukey test was used to detect mean differences between treatments. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to calculate partial correlation coefficients for investigated variables.

RESULTS

Table 1 shows the ANOVA table for investigated variables for P. truncatus. Results show that treatments differed significantly (p≤0.05) for all investigated variables except number of dead insects. A similar trend was observed on the effect of treatments on S. zeamays (Table 2).

The effects of Actellic Super Dust and pyrethrum were higher than all other treatments for all variables investigated except number of dead insects (Table 3, 4).

The remaining protectants did not significantly (p≥0.05) differ on any number of the variables studied. However, the effects of G. kraussiana were superior to the other protectants. The mean effects of G. kraussiana were significantly (p≤0.05) different from the control for all the variables studied except number of dead insects. The effects of N. mitis in most cases were similar to the untreated control.


Table 1: ANOVA table for the investigated variables for P. truncatus
***p≤0.001

Table 2: ANOVA table for investigated variables for S. zeamays
***p≤0.001

Table 3: Mean separation for effect of treatments on P. truncatus insect pest
Means with the same letter(s) in each column are not significantly different (p≤0.05)

Table 4: Mean separation for effect of treatments on S. zeamays insect pest
Means with the same letter(s) in each column are not significantly different (p≤0.05)

Table 5: Partial correlation coefficients for investigated variables for P. truncatus insect pest
***p≤0.001

Table 6: Partial correlation coefficients for investigated variables for S. zeamays insect pest
***p≤0.001

However, N. mitis powder and untreated control did not differ significantly (p≥0.05) in their effects on number of damaged seeds, percentage damaged seeds and weight loss. Similarly, the effect of N. mitis with talc as a carrier on number of live insects, number of damaged seeds and percentage damaged seeds was not statistically (p≥0.05) different from untreated control. No significant (p≥0.05) difference was observed among the G. kraussiana, N. mitis with talc as a carrier and N. mitis powder for all the studied variables (Table 3). In general, pyrethrum performed better than all the natural protectants, i.e., in all cases the effects were not significantly (p≤0.05) different from standard control. Among the remaining treatments, G. kraussiana performed relatively better i.e., in most cases the effects were significantly (p<0.05) different from untreated control.

Similar trends were observed on the treatment effects on S. zeamays (Table 4). The effects of pyrethrum were not significantly (p≥0.05) different from the effects of standard control, i.e., Actellic super dust for all the variables studied. On the other hand, the effects of the remaining protectants were not significantly (p≥0.05) different. However, the effects of G. kraussiana were significantly (p≤0.05) different from the untreated control, except on weight loss.

There were positive and significant (p≤0.001) correlations among the investigated variables between number of live insects with number of damaged seeds, percentage damaged seeds, average number of holes per seed and weight loss (Table 5, 6).

DISCUSSION

This study has revealed that Actellic super dust and pyrethrum performed better than other treatments for the all tested variables and insect pests. This is a good indication because there is much information on the use of pyrethrum in controlling pests. The chemistry, toxicology, extraction, refining and environmental fate of pyrethrum extracts have been reviewed by Casida and Quistad (1995). Products from pyrethrum have low mammalian toxicity, are easily degraded making them relatively safer to the environment and consumers. Control of insect pests in stores and other consumer products have also been given by Casida and Quistad (1995).

The powder of G. kraussiana performed better than untreated control for all tested variables for both species, except on reducing weight loss due to S. zeamays. The mixture of N. mitis and talc out-performed untreated control in reducing number of holes per seed and weight loss due to P. truncatus. However, for S. zeamays, this pesticide performed better than untreated control for all variables investigated except the number of dead insects and reduction of weight loss. Neorautanenia mitis performed better than no pesticide application by having less number of holes per seed and live insects for P. truncatus. The effects of N. mitis against storage pests S. oryzae and P. truncatus in wheat and maize were reported by Chimbe and Galley (1999). Many Neorautanenia species are used as insecticides by people in Central and South Africa (Van Puyvelde et al., 1987). Joseph et al. (2004) reported the larvicidal and mosquitocidal effects of crude extracts of N. mitis in Tanzania. In their study, the crude extracts of N. mitis had mosquitocidal effects comparable to those of standard mosquitocides like deltamethrin and alphacypermethrin. Decoctions of the roots of N. mitis have also been reported to have pharmacological effects in rats and mice (Vongtau et al., 2005). Van Puyvelde et al. (1987) isolated various compounds from the roots of N. mitis include hydroxyrotenone, a compound known to have insecticidal and acaricidal properties.

Although, there was no significant (p≥0.05) difference among the three botanicals G. kraussiana seemed to be more effective than either N. mitis or N. mitis with talc as a carrier as indicated by the low number of damaged seeds for both pests. Similarly, this treatment performed better than untreated control for all investigated variables in all storage pests. The results therefore, indicate that G. kraussiana has potential for use as a post harvest grains protectant. The extracts of G. kraussiana are used in different way in Tropical Africa, Central and Southern Africa where it occurs. The plant is used as fish poison (Neuwinger, 2004) and as a cure for various injuries and ailments. The extracts of G. kraussiana have also shown to have some activity against lypmhocrytic leukaemia (Boris and Cordell, 1984).

The results of this study show that botanical products could be useful and desirable tools in pest management programs (Schumutterer, 1990; Ascher, 1993). The present findings showed that pyrethrum and G. kraussiana powders could be used in protecting stored maize grains against maize storage pests through suppressing number of emerged adult insects, number of holes, damaged seeds, percentage damaged seeds and weight loss.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Authors thank the UDSM-Rockefeller Cooperation Programme and Sida SAREC project under the Faculty of Science are highly appreciated for financial support. Mr. Frank Mbago of the Department of Botany, University of Dar Es Salaam is thanked for identifying plant species under this study.

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