World Distribution of Heterobostrychus aequalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae)
Mohd Shahman Md Azmi,
Norhisham Ahmad Razi
Heterobostrychus aequalis is a major pest of seasoned hardwood. It attacks many timber and wood from other plant species and caused damage to a broad range of wood products. Their attacks are confined to starch-rich sapwood and often unsuspected until the emergence hole and frass is produced. The repeated introduction of this pest into new areas indicates that it is poorly inspected and ignored. In some cases, this species succeed in establishing its population in the wild. Hence, by providing the world wide distribution of this pest could be the pioneer step in developing better prevention, monitoring, quarantine and control programmes. From the review, it was found that H. aequalis distribute dominantly in tropical and sub-tropical areas. It is widely distributed in Asia, particularly Southeast Asia to Oceania, some parts of Africa, Central America and Caribbean region. The distribution map derived indicates the limits of distribution for H. aequalis to be 40° north and south of the equator. The recent reports and records showed that this pest is potentially becoming a high-risk pest and can establish its population whenever the condition is favourable.
Received: February 25, 2011;
Accepted: July 22, 2011;
Published: August 12, 2011
Beetles belonging to the family Bostrychidae are amongst the most destructive
pest of timber and timber products worldwide. There are about 550 bostrychids
species in 99 genera known from all inhabited regions of the world (Ivie,
2002). Bostrychids generally known as powderpost beetles because their larvae
reduce the wood into fine flour-like dust known as frass (Ho
and Hashim, 1993, 1997; Abood
et al., 1994; Liu et al., 2008; Abood,
2008). Powderpost beetles owe their ubiquity largely to their insidious
development inside wood in which the medium acts as a buffer to extrinsic fluctuations.
Their presence in imported timbers has often been undetected and they are quick
to establish populations under suitable conditions (Abood
and Murphy, 2006; Abood et al., 2010).
With imminent timber shortages and concerns over depleting forest resources
in many countries, intense efforts have been made to maximize utilization of
forest resources including lesser known or underutilized species, lower grade
timbers and also to encourage a more widespread use of sapwood in timber products
(Abood and Murphy, 2006). This includes the using of
rubberwood which was known to have high starch content. For example, in Malaysia,
rubberwood has emerged as the most important wood raw materials for particle
board, medium density fibreboard, parquet flooring, joinery and furniture production
(Zaidon et al., 2007; Loh
et al., 2010; Ratnasingam and Ma, 2010; Farrokhpayam
et al., 2010). Utilization of such materials which are often has
led to greater prominence of powderpost beetle as a pest of seasoned timber
and their products.
One of the most common and widespread powderpost beetles in tropical region
is Heterobostrychus aequalis (Fig. 1a, b).
Besides being commonly called powderpost beetles, this species also recognized
as Oriental wood borer (Woodruff, 1967; Woodruff
and Fasulo, 2006), False powderpost beetle (Jones,
2008) Lesser auger beetle (Anonymous, 2004;
Walker, 2008a), Trank borer (Rahman
et al., 1995), Black borer (Golob
et al., 2002) and Kapok borer (Aguilera,
Heterobostrychus aequalis breeds in a wide variety of commercial timbers
and attack is usually confined to the starch-rich sapwood (Zhenhua
and Shuqing, 1992; Ho and Hashim, 1993; Woodruff
and Fasulo, 2006). It is a major pest of rubberwood in Malaysia (Hussien,
1981; Ho and Hashim, 1997; Ani
et al., 2005; Abood, 2008; Singh
et al., 2011) and caused damage to a broad range of wood products
such as furniture, plywood, dry poles, toys, tea chests, wooden clogs, carved
wood and many samples from wood species collections (Abood,
2008). Some species from Heterobostrychus genus even recorded found
on cassava, potatoes, coffee beans, oilseeds and pulses (Hill,
2002). This species has a high dispersal potential, wide range of hosts
and can contribute to substantial economic losses (Aguilera,
2006; Meissner et al., 2009).
Despite the status as important pest of timber and its products, the information
regarding the distribution of this species globally is still scarce and not
properly compiled. Therefore, this review was conducted to assemble the distribution
check list of this pest and to map the distribution. Various journal articles,
reports, online sources, monographs, records etc. globally as early as the year
1914 up to 2010 were reviewed. Several locality of the pest been recorded or
intercepted were also included in the list. The presence and occurrence of Heterobostrychus
aequalis species were assigned as native (N), present (P), intercepted (I),
established (E), fail to established (F) and unknown (U).
|| (a) Male H. aequalis and (b) Female H. aequalis
HETEROBOSTRYCHUS AEQUALIS WORLDWIDE DISTRIBUTION
For any particular pest, when arrived into new destination, they encounter
a new environment. Favourable climate, suitable host plant, absence of severe
competition and other physical needs such as shelter are needed in order to
establish their population (Sutherst, 1991). According
to Robinet and Roques (2010) warming can results in
removing or relocating the barriers that limit present species ranges and it
also likely to facilitate the establishment and spread of invasive alien species.
Furthermore, the mobility of good products from one place into another place
and human activity may enhance the chances of pest to enter any particular areas.
The ability of Bostrychidae family to attack lumber, wood products and grain
has facilitated dissemination of many species through the world (Beiriger
and Sites, 1996). According to Ivie (2002), species
from this family that attack timber and wood products are now subject to wide
distribution over the world. In general, many species of bostrychids are of
important in warm temperate and tropical countries (Findlay,
1967; Ebeling, 1975; DeAngelis,
1995; Eaton and Hale, 1993; Jones,
Heterobostrychus spp. frequently introduced and intercepted in various
places all around the world such as in Italy (Ratti, 2002),
German (Weidner, 1967; Benker, 2008)
France (Henri-Pierre, 2008), USA (Ivie,
2002; Haack and Cavey, 2000; Haack,
2006; Beiriger, 2010), Spain (Anonymous,
2007), New Zealand (Pearson et al., 2006),
Belgium (EPPO, 2005) and Canada (Gill
et al., 2008) from imported wood and its products. Some species of
this genus have already established in new area such as H. brunneus in
Florida (Ivie, 2002) and California (Peck
and Thomas, 1998) while another species which is H. hamatipennis
became established in Florida (Beiriger, 2010) and Japan
(Mito and Uesugi, 2004).
The map derived showed that Heterobostrychus aequalis distributed dominantly
in tropical and sub-tropical regions within the 40° north and south of the
equatorial (Fig. 2). This beetle has been recorded in 6 continents
which are Asia, Oceania, Africa, South and North America and Europe. Heterobostrychus
aequalis were common in Southeast Asian, Indo-China, Indian region, Central
America and Caribbean. It has limited distribution in Africa continent and only
certain country reported its presence such as Madagascar, Comoros Island, Seychelles
Island, Mauritius Island, South Africa and Nigeria while another closely related
species to H. aequalis which is H. brunneus was found to be more
dominant and common in Africa (Hickin, 1968; Eaton
and Hale, 1993; Robinson, 2005; Walker,
Records from literature also showed that H. aequalis are able to establish
into new regions. For example in Florida (Woodruff, 1967;
Halbert et al., 2001; Aguilera,
2006; Woodruff and Fasulo, 2006; Haack,
2006), Venezuela (Aguilera, 2006) and Australia (Heather,
1966). The establishment of H. aequalis into new regions indicate
that it is a highly potential pest. It shows that this beetle have a great ability
to adapt itself into new area. The shipping, trading, export and import activities
provide a free transportation for the insect. In addition, the poorly
inspected, quarantine and treatment of related wood products contributed directly
to the successful of entering and establishment of this species.
In Australia, H. aequalis regularly brought through infested timber
and wood products mainly from Indo-Malaysian regions (Browne,
1948; Menon, 1957; Heather,
1966; Wylie and Yule, 1977; Creffield
and Howick, 1979; Anonymous, 2001; Hadlington
and Ion-Staounton, 2008) and established its population in some part of
the country which is Queensland, Cape York, Thursday Island and Cairns (Heather,
1966). The post-boarder interceptions of Heterobostrychus genus increase
in number with increasing volume of Asian furniture and wood related product
brought into New Zealand (Pearson et al., 2006).
||Distribution map of Heterobostrychus aequalis (Coleoptera:
Bostrychidae), Occurrence records of Heterobostrychus aequalis
: Oceania and Australasian: Australia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Island,
Guam, Cairns, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Mariana Island, French Polynesia;
Southeast Asia: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar,
Indonesia, East Timor, Philippines South Asia: Pakistan, India, Bangladesh,
Sri Langka; East Asia: Nepal, Bhutan, China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan;
West Asia: Israel; Africa: Comoros Island, Madagascar, Seychelles,
Nigeria, South Africa, Mauritius Island; North America: Canada, Florida,
Hawaii, Central America and Caribbean: Cuba, Mexico, Nicaragua, Jamaica,
Bahamas, Barbados Island, Trinidad and Tobago; South America: Venezuela,
Ecuador, Suriname, Colombia, Chile; Europe: United Kingdom, Spain,
Germany, Sweden, Holland, Italy
Although H. aequalis regularly intercept in New Zealand (Archibald
and Chalmers, 1983; Anonymous, 2003a) the populations
somehow failed to establish probably due to unsuitable climatic conditions.
In North America, particularly USA, H. aequalis frequently intercepted
in New York, San Francisco, Calif, Dallas, Texas, Allentown, Philadelphia, New
Orleans and Los Angeles (Fisher, 1950). The first establishment
of this species in Florida were recorded by Woodruff (1967).
This species always introduced accidentally to North America particularly Florida
in wood products, pellets and containers shipped from the Orient (Tvedten,
1999; Halbert et al., 2001). Majka
(2007) reported the interception of H. aequalis at Nova Scotia (Canada)
but there is no further evidence of the species establishes its population.
Meanwhile, in Central America, this beetle occurs in Mexico, Nicaragua and the
small country Island surrounding the Caribbean region viz. Cuba, Jamaica,
Bahamas, Trinidad and Tobago. In South America, the occurrence of H. aequalis
was recorded in Venezuela, Suriname, Colombia, Ecuador and Chile.
In Europe H. aequalis frequently intercepted in Germany (Weidner,
1967; Cymorek, 1970; Benker,
2008) but it is failed to established because of the species is not cold
resistance. Temperature at 17°C and below is said to be unsuitable for the
species to breed (Cymorek, 1970). Meanwhile in Italy,
H. aequalis was intercepted from wood and its products imported from
Asian (Gambetta, 1983; Ratti, 2004).
H. aequalis also reported in Holand, United Kingdom and Sweden. Although
this beetle reported in European region, it is doubted that this species could
establish in this region as the climate unsuitable for this species. Temperature
is undeniably influence the development and fertility of insect (Ahmad
et al., 2008). The detail distribution of H. aequalis distribution
was listed in Table 1.
|| Distribution checklist of H. aequalis
|E: Established, I: Intercepted, N: Native, P: Present, U:
Heterobostrychus aequalis distributes dominantly in tropical and sub-tropical area and restricted to 40° north and south of the equatorial. Evidence showed that this species always introduced to new area via export and import of infested wooden material from their origin country, mainly from the orient. The establishment of this species to new areas suggests that it could become a highly potential pest.
The authors wish to acknowledge University Putra Malaysia for allowing Mr. Mohd Shahman to take this research as part of his master studies and for the financial support to publish this article.
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