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Evaluation Population Density of Tetranychus urticae Koch on Cotton Fields Planted Nearby Dirt and Asphalt Roads



N. Demirel and F. Cabuk
 
ABSTRACT

The two spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important pests on the cotton crop in Hatay region of Turkey. A two-year study was conducted between 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the population density of TSSM on cotton fields planted by dirt and asphalt roads. In 2006, the cotton plants nearby dirt roads had 1.72, 1.75, 4.04 and 2.65 times higher TSSM population than the cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in the four sampling dates, respectively. In 2007, the cotton plants nearby dirt roads had 5.54 and 10.64 times higher TSSM population than cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in two sampling dates, respectively. Consequently, the population densities of the TSSM were 1.79 and 13.86 times higher on the cotton plants nearby dirt roads than cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in 2006 and 2007, respectively. It is thought, the dusty conditions may bring about increasing population of TSSM on cotton plants.

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  How to cite this article:

N. Demirel and F. Cabuk, 2008. Evaluation Population Density of Tetranychus urticae Koch on Cotton Fields Planted Nearby Dirt and Asphalt Roads. Journal of Entomology, 5: 284-289.

DOI: 10.3923/je.2008.284.289

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=je.2008.284.289

INTRODUCTION

Cotton, Gossypium hirtsutum L., is one of the most significant industrial crops, approximately planted 1,280,090 hectares and yielded 3,390,999 tons in Turkey (Anonymous, 2004). The two spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, is about 0.5 mm long with an oval shaped body which varies in color from greenish-yellow to brown and red-orange (Osborne et al., 1999; Wilkerson et al., 2005). There are generally two large black spots one on either side of the body (Wilkerson et al., 2005).

Two spotted spider mite causes significant injuries on cultivated plants (Wilkerson et al., 2005). Plants are affected in several ways from TSSM attack. The direct effects results in stippling, webbing, defoliation, leaf burring and plants death during severe TSSM outbreaks. The indirect effects of mite feeding may include decreased photosynthesis and transpiration.

Population density of TSSM can be affected by different environmental conditions (Guerena and Sullivan, 2003). Temperature (Thomas, 2001), dry weather (Helle and Sabelis, 1985), dusty conditions (Guerena and Sullivan, 2003) and humidity (Sabelis, 1981) are some of the environmental conditions that influence the survival, development time and reproduction of TSSM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the population density of TSSM on cotton crops planted by dirt and asphalt roads in Hatay region of Turkey.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A two-year study was conducted between 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the population density of TSSM on cotton fields planted by dirt and asphalt roads in Hatay region of Turkey. A hundred and four cotton fields were sampled during the study. In 2006, fifty-two cotton fields were sampled; twenty-five of them were located by dirt roads and twenty-seven of them were located by asphalt roads. In 2007, fifty-two cotton fields also were sampled. Sixteen of them were located nearby dirt roads and thirty-six of them were located nearby asphalt roads. In 2006, samples were taken on 9th, 19th, 31st of August, 2nd, 14th of September. In 2007, samples were taken 1st and 11th of September. Twenty-five leaves were randomly taken from each of the sampling fields. The leaves were replaced in paper bags and then refrigerated in laboratory to keep them fresh. A total of 2600 cotton leaves were sampled in both years. Each of the leaves was examined under stereo microscope and all stages of two spotted spider mite (except their eggs) were counted. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the SAS software and means were separated using the Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) Tests (p<0.05) (SAS, 1998).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results of the two-year study showed that in 2006, the population densities of TSSM were significantly higher on cotton plants nearby dirt roads than cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in four sampling dates (F = 4.99, df = 7, 192, p = 0.0001; F = 10.90, df = 7, 192, p = 0.0001; F = 5.31, df = 23, 576, p = 0.0001; F = 2.92, df = 7, 192, p = 0.006, respectively) (Table 1-4). Therefore, the cotton plants nearby dirt roads had 1.72, 1.75, 4.04 and 2.65 times higher the TSSM population than the cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in the four sampling dates. However, the population density of TSSM were not significantly different at the last sampling date (F = 0.28, df = 3, 96, p = 0.84) (Table 5).

Similarly, in 2007, the population densities of TSSM were significantly higher on cotton plants nearby dirt roads than cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in two sampling dates (F = 19.41, df = 21,

Table 1: Evaluation population density of Tetranychus urticae on cotton crops in Hatay in 2006
yMeans followed by the same letter(s) in a column do not differ significantly (p<0.05, SNK). wNDR (nearby dirt road) and NAR (nearby asphalt road)

Table 2: Evaluation population density of Tetranychus urticae on cotton crops in Hatay in 2006
yMeans followed by the same letter(s) in a column do not differ significantly (p<0.05, SNK). wNDR (nearby dirt road) and NAR (nearby asphalt road)

Table 3: Evaluation population density of Tetranychus urticae on cotton crops in Hatay in 2006
yMeans followed by the same letter(s) in a column do not differ significantly (p<0.05, SNK). wNDR (nearby dirt road) and NAR (nearby asphalt road)

Table 4: Evaluation population density of Tetranychus urticae on cotton crops in Hatay in 2006
yMeans followed by the same letter(s) in a column do not differ significantly (p<0.05, SNK). wNDR (nearby dirt road) and NAR (nearby asphalt road)

Table 5: Evaluation population density of Tetranychus urticae on cotton crops in Hatay in 2006
yMeans followed by the same letter(s) in a column do not differ significantly (p<0.05, SNK). wNDR (nearby dirt road) and NAR (nearby asphalt road)

528, p = 0.0001; F = 4.16, df = 29, 720, p = 0.0001, respectively) (Table 6, 7). The cotton plants nearby dirt roads had 5.54 and 10.64 times higher the TSSM population than the cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in the two sampling dates.

Overall, the population densities of TSSM were significantly higher on cotton plants nearby dirt roads than cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in 2006 and 2007 (F = 32.534, df = 1, 1298, p = 0.0001;

Table 6: Evaluation population density of Tetranychus urticae on cotton crops in Hatay in 2007
yMeans followed by the same letter(s) in a column do not differ significantly (p<0.05, SNK). wNDR (nearby dirt road) and NAR (nearby asphalt road)

Table 7: Evaluation population density of Tetranychus urticae on cotton crops in Hatay in 2007
yMeans followed by the same letter(s) in a column do not differ significantly (p<0.05, SNK). wNDR (nearby dirt road) and NAR (nearby asphalt road).

Table 8: Evaluation of population densities of T. urticae on cotton crops in Hatay region in 2006-07
yMeans followed by the same letter(S) in a column do not differ significantly (p<0.05, SNK). wNDR (nearby dirt road) and NAR (nearby asphalt road). z2006 (sampling dates; 9, 19, 31-August and 2, 14-September) z2007 (sampling dates; 1, 11-September)

F = 126.662, df = 1, 1298, p = 0.0001, respectively) (Table 8). Consequently, the cotton plants nearby dirt roads had 1.79 and 13.86 times higher the TSSM population than the cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in both years.

The development of TSSM population density might vary with different conditions; temperature (Van de Vrie et al., 1972; Mitchell, 1973; Sabelis, 1981; Helle and Sabelis, 1985; Thomas, 2001), humidity (Sabelis, 1981), host plant, leaf age (Karban and Carey, 1984), hot and dry weather (Helle and Sabelis, 1985), dusty conditions (Flint, 1998; Guerena and Sullivan, 2003) and high level of nitrogen (Mattson, 1980). The current study also indicated that the dusty conditions resulted in higher TSSM population on the cotton plants. The reason might be due to natural enemies of TSSM populations in dusty conditions as has been previously reported by Flint (1998) and Guerena and Sullivan (2003) observed that keeping down dust along road sides decreased population densities of TSSM on cotton fields. In conclusion, the cotton plants nearby dirt roads had significantly higher TSSM population than the cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in Hatay region of Turkey.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We would like to thank Hatice Yildirim for her valuable assistance in this study.

REFERENCES
Anonymous, 2004. Devlet 'statistik Enstitüsü verileri. www.die.gov.tr.

Flint, M.L., 1998. Pests of the Garden and Small Farm. A Grower's Guide to Using Less Pesticide. 2nd Edn., UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources and University of California Press Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, Pages: 276.

Guerena, M. and P. Sullivan, 2003. Organic Cotton Production. ATTRA-National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. P.O. Box 3657. Fayetteville, AR 72702, pp: 24. http://www. attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/cotton.html.

Helle, W. and M.W. Sabelis, 1985. Spider Mites: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. 1st Edn., Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp: 458.

Karban, R. and J.R. Carey, 1984. Induced resistance of cotton seedlings to mites. Science, 225: 53-54.
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Mattson, Jr. W.J., 1980. Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 11: 119-161.
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Mitchell, R., 1973. Growth and population dynamics of a spider mite (Tetranychus urticae K., Acarina: Tetranychidae). Ecology, 54: 1349-1355.
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Osborne, L.S., L.E. Ehler and J.R. Nechols, 1999. Biological Control of the Two spotted Spider Mite in Greenhouses. Bulletin 853. University of Florida Central Florida Research and Education Center. 2807 Binion Road. Apopka, FL.

SAS, 1998. SAS/STAT User's Guide. 6th Edn., SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.

Sabelis, M.W., 1981. Biological control of two spotted spider mites using phytoseiid predators. I. Agric. Res. Report 910. Pudoc, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Thomas, C., 2001. Biological control of twospotted spider mite. Integrated Pest Management Program, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. http://paipm.cas.psu.edu/agipm.html.

Van de Vrie, M., J.A. McMurtry and C.B. Huffaker, 1972. Ecology of tetranychid mites and their natural enemies: A review. III. Biology, ecology and pest status and host-plant relations of tetranychids. Hilgardia, 41: 343-432.

Wilkerson, J.L., S.E. Webb and J.L. Capinera, 2005. Vegetable Pests II: Acari-Hemiptera-Orthoptera - Thysanoptera. UF/IFAS CD-ROM. SW 181.

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