Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Minireview on Sand Fly Fever

A Mehrabi Tavana
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Little is known about sand fly fever with manifestations such as severe fever, headache and photophobia. The diseases is endemic in many Middle East countries and it supposed many patients are referred to Medical center, without correct diagnosis and perhaps treatment. This mini-review article describes the situation of diseases at the present time which may be useful for interested scientists.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

A Mehrabi Tavana , 2007. Minireview on Sand Fly Fever. Journal of Entomology, 4: 401-403.

DOI: 10.3923/je.2007.401.403



Sand fly fever that is also called three day fever, papatasi fever and phobetomous fever (Mehrabi Tavana et al., 1999).

It is one of the arbovirus diseases which can be transmitted via sand fly bite (Cross and Hyams, 1996; Cross et al., 1996; Tesh and Chaniotis, 1975) and transovarial transmission of virus within phlebotomus species. Sand fly fever virus can be classified as a bunyaviridae family viruses (Mehrabi Tavana, 2001). Many serotypes of virus as sand fly fever have been reported so far, but, Sicilian and Naples are the most prevalent cases in many infected countries amongst the other serotypes (Mehrabi Tavana, 2001 , Crance et al., 1997). Naple virus was found by Sabin and Paul in 1924 during an outbreak of the disease in Naples county, Italy. Sicilian virus was isolated from Italian soldiers during World War II (Mehrabi Tavana, 2001). It has to be said that, many rodents could be acted as a reservoir of the disease (Mehrabi Tavana, 2001). Based on many documents, it’s believes that, the disease caused many problem in Persian Gulf regions during World War II (Mehrabi Tavana, 2001). Iran the disease well described by Javadian (1977), Saidi et al. (1977) Tesh et al. (1976 and 1977). Mehrabi Tavana (1999 ) and Mehrabi Tavana (2001). Possibly the life cycle of disease is circulated among rodents, domestic animal and human and it may be P. papatasi is the main Vector of Sand fly fever. Perhaps other species may be involved. The Fig. 1 shows the life cycle of arboviruses including sand fey fever. Serological test has been used for identification of virus So far (Mehrabi Tavana et al., 1999). No molecular test has been applied for investigation of virus so far.


Still little is known regarding sand fly fever in particular it's epidemiological clinical diagnosis and control aspects of infection. It has to be said the disease causes problem in World War I and II. Since that the disease was seen in different area in particular in Meddle East, Persian Gulf and part of Europe (Mehrabi Tavana et al., 1999; Mehrabi Tavana, 2001; Bryan et al., 1996; Sánchez-Seco and Navarro, 2005; Verani et al., 1995). Different serotypes of viruses has been described in the last decades. However in spite of present of Vector P. papatasi in different continents no report has been published yet from different part of world. It supposed the disease may be present in other continent too. Non immune person such as travelers highly susptible to get the infection (Mehrabi Tavana, 2001).

Image for - Minireview on Sand Fly Fever
Fig. 1: Life cycle of arboviruses (Sánchez-Secoand Navarro, 2005)

Because of no vaccine available to prevent the infection. Therefore, precaution measures must be taken for people who are traveling to tropical or semi tropical countries (Mehrabi Tavana et al., 1999; Mehrabi Tavana, 2001; Bryan et al., 1996; Sánchez-Seco and Navarro, 2005).


  1. Bryan, J.P., M. Iqbal, T.G. Ksiazek, A. Ahmed and J.F. Duncan et al., 1996. Prevalence of sand fly fever, West Nile, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and leptospirosis antibodies in Pakistani military personnel. Mil. Med., 161: 149-153.

  2. Crance, J.M., D. Gratier and A. Jouan, 1997. Inhibition of sandfly fever Sicilian virus (Phlebovirus) replication in vitro by antiviral compounds. Res. Virol., 148: 353-365.
    Direct Link  |  

  3. Cross, E.R. and K.C. Hyams, 1996. The potential effect of global warming on the geographic and seasonal distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in Southwest Asia. Environ. Health Perspect., 104: 724-727.
    Direct Link  |  

  4. Cross, E.R., W.W. Newcomb and C.J. Tucker, 1996. Use of weather data and remote sensing to predict the geographic and seasonal distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in Southwest Asia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 54: 530-536.
    Direct Link  |  

  5. Javadian, E. and R. Tesh, 1977. Studies on the epidemiology of sandfly fever in Iran. III. Host-feeding patterns of Phlebotomus papatasi in an endemic area of disease. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 54: 530-536.

  6. Tavana, A.M. and E. Javadian, 1999. The seroepidemiological studies of sand fly fever during the imposed war, 1980-88. Hakim Res. J., 1: 14-17.

  7. Tavana, A.M., 2001. The seroepidemiological studies of sand fly fever in Iran during imposed war. Iran. J. Publ. Health, 30: 145-146.
    Direct Link  |  

  8. Saidi, S. and R. Tesh, 1997. Studies on the epidemiology of sand fly fever in Iran. II: The Prevalence of human and animal infection with five phlebotomus fever virus serotypes in Isfahan province. Am. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 26: 288-293.

  9. Sanchez-Seco, M.P. and J.M. Navarro, 2005. Infections due to Toscana virus, West Nile virus and other arboviruses of interest in Europe. Martes, 23: 560-568.
    Direct Link  |  

  10. Tesh, R.B. and B.N. Chaniotis, 1975. Transovarial transmission of viruses by Phlebotomine sandflies. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 266: 125-134.

  11. Tesh, R., S. Saidi, E. Javadian and A. Nadim, 1977. Studies on the epidemiology of sandfly fever in Iran. I. Virus isolates obtained from Phlebotomus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 26: 282-287.

  12. Tesh, R. and S. Saidi, 1976. The distribution and prevalence of human infection with phlebotomus fever group viruses in Iran. Iran. J. Publ. Hlth., 5: 1-1.

  13. Verani, P., M.G. Ciufolini and L. Nicoletti, 1995. Arbovirus surveillance in Italy. Parassitologia, 37: 105-108.
    Direct Link  |  

©  2022 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved