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Biological Control of the Pomegranate Whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae:Aleyrodinae) by Using the Bioagent, Clitostethus arcuatus (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)



S. Abd-Rabou
 
ABSTRACT

This research was canied out to study the biological control of this pest by mass rearing, releasing and evaluation of the most important predator Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi) (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae). About 480 000 were released in different locations in Egypt on apple (Pyrus malus L.) olive (Olea europaea), Pear (Pyrus communis), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and infested by S. phillyreae. The results indicated that the population of whitefly species was decreased after releasing C. arcuatus in all locations in Egypt. Also, the population of C. arcuatus was increased in all experiments after releasing. During the present research C. arcuatus was established on olive in Fayum and on pomegranate in Assuit for the first time.

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  How to cite this article:

S. Abd-Rabou , 2006. Biological Control of the Pomegranate Whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae:Aleyrodinae) by Using the Bioagent, Clitostethus arcuatus (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae). Journal of Entomology, 3: 331-335.

DOI: 10.3923/je.2006.331.335

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=je.2006.331.335

Introduction

The pomegranate whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae: Aleyrodinae) attacking 60 host economic plant species, including, apple, pear, citrus, olive and pomegranate. It distributed in Palaearctic region. It causes severe damage to pear and apple in Europe. Heavy infestations caused leaf wilt, early leaf drop and smaller fruit (Bellows et al., 1990). In Egypt, the host plants, distribution, natural enemies and biological control studied by Abd-Rabou (1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) and Abd-Rabou and Abousetta (1998). The role of the biological control of Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi) (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) in controlling S. phillyreae studied by Bellows et al. (1992). This species recorded for the first time in Egypt as a predator of Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.) by Mesbah et al. (1999) and its role in controlling D. citri studied by Metwally et al. (1999). The aim of this work is to study the biological control of this pest by mass rearing, releasing and evaluation of the most important predator C. arcuatus.

Materials and Methods

C. arcuatus was successfully mass reared on S. phillyreae, which reared on Punica granatum. In 2004 and 2005 about 480 000 were released in Assuit, Fayum, Minufiya and Sharqia on apple (Pyrus malus L.) olive (Olea europaea), Pear (Pyrus communis) and pomegranate (Punica granatum) infested by S. phillyreae. Predators were released as adults by fixing the tubes containing these adults to the tree.

During 2004-2005, biweekly releases were made of 50 adults per tree of apple (100 trees), pomegranate (100 trees, olive (100 trees) and pear (100 trees), 240 000 adults for each year. Releases were begun from June to October. The evaluation of releases was assessed monthly during 2004 and 2005 by counting the stages of whiteflies present and larvae and pupa adult of S. phillyreae present on a total of 100 leaves from each plant in each site.

Statistical analysis of the obtained data was followed using ANOVA procedures in SAS. Mean separation was conducted using Duncan Multiple range test in SAS.

Results

On Apple
The highest population of S. phillyreae on apple in Sharqia was 87, 290 individuals/100 leaf while the predator C. arcuatus was 140, 354 individuals/100 leaf in October during 2004 and 2005, respectively after releases while in comparison to 1601, 1900 individuals/100 leaf and the predator was 120, 145 individuals/100 leaves (Table 1 and 2).

On Olive
The highest population of S. phillyreae on olive in Fayum was 804, 680 individuals/100 leaves while the predator C. arcuatus was 23, 70 individuals/100 leaves in October during 2004, 2005, respectively after releases while in comparison to 1109, 945 individuals/100 leaf during 2004, 2005, respectively and the predator C. arcuatus was not found in the control experiment during 2004 while in 2005 the predator C. arcuatus was 22 (Table 3 and 4). This coccinellid established on S. phillyreae in this area for the first time.

On Pear
The population of S. phillyreae on pear in Minufiya was 198, 243 individuals/100 leaf while the predator C. arcuatus was 102, 170 individuals/100 leaves during October after releases while in comparison to 1126, 1148 individuals/100 leaf and the predator C. arcuatus was 75, 102 individuals/ 100 leaves in the control experiment during 2004, 2005, respectively (Table 5 and 6).

On Pomegranate
The population of S. phillyreae on pomegranate in Assuit was 756, 541 individuals/100 leaf while the predator C. arcuatus was 78, 75 individuals/100 leaves during October after releases while in comparison to 5964, 6280 individuals/100 leaves during 2004, 2005, respectively and the predator C. arcuatus not found in the control experiment during 2004 while in 2005 the predator C. arcuatus was 55. This coccinellid established on S. phillyreae in this area for the first time (Table 7 and 8).

Table 1: Number of populations of Siphoninus phillyreae and its predator, Clitostethus arcuatus on apple during 2004 in treatment and control experiment

Table 2: Number of populations of Siphoninus phillyreae and its predator, Clitostethus arcuatus on apple during 2005 in treatment and control experiment

Table 3: Number of populations of Siphoninus phillyreae and its predator, Clitostethus arcuatus on olive during 2004 in treatment and control experiment

Table 4: Number of populations of Siphoninus phillyreae and its predator, Clitostethus arcuatus on olive during 2005 in treatment and control experiment

Table 5: Number of populations of Siphoninus phillyreae and its predator, Clitostethus arcuatus on pear during 2004 in treatment and control experiment

Table 6: Number of populations of Siphoninus phillyreae and its predator, Clitostethus arcuatus on pear during 2005 in treatment and control experiment

Table 7: Number of populations of Siphoninus phillyreae and its predator, Clitostethus arcuatus on pomegranate during 2004 in treatment and control experiment

Table 8: Number of populations of Siphoninus phillyreae and its predator, Clitostethus arcuatus on pomegranate during 2005 in treatment and control experiment

This result indicated that the population of whitefly species on different host plants in different locations in Egypt was decreased significantly in all experiments after releasing of C. arcuatus (p<0.01) and (p<0.05). The population of C. arcuatus on different host plants in different locations increased significantly during all experiments (p<0.01 and p<0.05).

Discussion

Coccinellids have been widely used in biological control for over a century and the methods for using these predators have remained virtually unchanged. The causes for the relatively low rates of establishment of coccinellids in importation biological control have not been examined for most species. Augmentative releases of several coccinellid species are well documented and effective (Obrycki and Kring, 1998).

Several small lady beetles including Clitostethus arcuatus (on ash whitefly) and scale predators such as Scymnus or Chilocorus species and the Asian multicolored lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, feed on whiteflies.

In the Mediterranean, C. arcuatus plays an important role as predators of the whiteflies, Aleyrodes proletella (L.), Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), S. phillyreae in France, Italy, USA (California: introduced) and of Trialeurodes ricini (Misra). This coccinellid beetle for the control of ash whitefly in California (Bellows et al., 1990).

The results indicated that the highest population of S. phillyreae on apple in Sharqia, on olive in Fayum, on pear in Minufiya and on pomegranate in Assuit was decreased after releasing the predator C. arcuatus. Also, the population of C. arcuatus was increased in all experiments after releasing. During the present work C. arcuatus was established on olive in Fayum and on pomegranate in Assuit for the first time. Evaluations of augmentative releases of coccinellids have focused on immediate reductions of target pest densities (Hagen and Van den Bosch, 1968; Abd-Rabou, 2000). The effective role of C. arcuatus on different species of whiteflies including S. phillyreae was observed by Bellows et al. (1992) Ageryan (1977) Bathon and Pietrzik (1986) Liotta (1981) and Loi (1978). The present research agrees with the findings of the aforementioned authors and confirmed the effective role of C. arcuatus after rearing and releasing in different locations in Egypt.

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