Anthelminthic Activity of Cansjera rheedii J. Gmelin (Opiliaceae)
S. Darlin Quine
The ethanol, water and chloroform extracts of the aerial
parts of Cansjera rheedii J. Gmelin (Opiliaceae) were investigated
for activity against Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma. Various
concentrations (5-40 mg mL-1) of each extract were tested,
which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of
the worms. All three extracts exhibited considerable anthelminthic activity.
All the extracts (i.e., aqueous, chloroform and ethanol) at the tested
dose (5-40 mg mL-1) level produced significant activity (p
< 0.001) when compared with piperazine citrate (15 mg mL-1)
and albendazole (20 mg mL-1) which were included as standard
reference and normal saline as control. The present study indicates the
potential usefulness of Cansjera rheedii aerial parts as anthelminthic
Cansjera rheedii (Family:Opiliaceae) is a climbing shrub, sometimes
armed, commonly known as Kalimanakeerai in Tamil is generally found in
India through Malaya to Hong Kong and North Australia. (Gamble, 1981;
Matthew, 1991). The whole plant of C. rheedii was used for the
treatment of post-natal pain (Ravikumar and Vijaya Sankar, 2003). The
tribes of Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu, India using the plant extract for the
treatment of intermittent fever (Hosagoudar and Henry, 1996). The extracts
of Cansjera rheedii has been reported to have hepatoprotective
effect (Mounnissamy et al., 2008) and cytotoxic effect (Mounnissamy
et al., 2007).
Traditional medicines are still commonly used in India for anthelminthic
purposes. In our way to investigate the local medicinal plants for their
potential therapeutic uses, the present study was undertaken to investigate
the anthelminthic activity of ethanol, water and chloroform extracts of
the plant Cansjera rheedii (Family:Opiliaceae).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material: The aerial parts of the plant Cansjera rheedii
(Opiliaceae) were collected in and around Auroville, Puducherry, India
in the month of June 2006 and it was identified and authenticated by Auro-Herbarium
Sakthi Botanical Survey Department, Auroville. A voucher specimen has
been kept in our laboratory for future reference (VS-12). The whole plant
of Cansjera rheedii were cut into small pieces, shade dried, powdered
by a mechanical grinder and was passed through No. 40 mesh sieves and
stored in an airtight container for further use.
Preparation of extract: The powdered plant material was extracted
successively with chloroform, ethanol (95% v/v) and water using soxhlet
apparatus. The solvents were then removed under reduced pressure, which
obtained sticky residues (Harbone, 1973). Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous
extracts were referred as CECR, EECR and AECR, respectively. The dried
extracts were dissolved in normal saline (vehicle) and used for anthelminthic
Drugs and chemicals used: Piperazine citrate (Noel, Mumbai) and
Albendazole (Pfizer, Mumbai) were used as reference standards. Chemicals:
Ethanol (95% v/v) and Chloroform AR (SD Fine Chemicals, Mumbai).
Anthelminthic activity: The anthelminthic activity was evaluated
in adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) due to its anatomical
and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites
of human beings (Vidyarthi, 1977; Thorn et al., 1977; Vigar, 1984).
The anthelminthic screening (Nirmal et al., 2007; Ravindra et
al., 2007) was followed.
||Anthelminthic activity of chloroform, ethanol and aqueous
extracts of Cansjera rheedii
|Results are expressed as Mean ± SEM from six
observations, -: worms alive up to 24 h of observation, *p < 0.001
when compared to albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard references
The 15 groups of approximately equal sized Indian earthworms consisting
of six earthworms in each group were released into 50 mL of desired formulation.
Each group was treated with one of the following: Vehicle (Normal saline),
Piperazine citrate (15 mg mL-1), Albendazole (20 mg mL-1),
CECR (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg mL-1), EECR (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg
mL-1) and AECR (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg mL-1). Observations
were made for the time taken to paralyse and/or death of individual worms.
Paralysis was said to occur when the worms do not revive even in normal
saline. Death was concluded when the worms lose their motility followed
with fading away of their body colour (Table 1).
Statistical analysis: The values were expressed as mean ±
SEM. Statistical analyses were performed by one way Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA) followed by student`s t-test.
p < 0.001 was considered significant when compared with standard references
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Anthelminthic activity was observed that the all three extracts were
potent, even though all the three extracts were endowed with anthelminthic
property the order of activity was AECR > EECR > CECR (p < 0.001
when compared with reference standard). The activity revealed concentration
dependence nature of the different extracts. Potency of the extracts was
found to be inversely proportional to the time taken for paralysis/death
of the worms (Table 1). The present study revealed that
the anthelminthic activity increases with increasing polarity. Results
of preliminary phytochemical screening show the presence of saponins,
carbohydrates, tannin, gums and mucilage, flavonoids, phytosterols and
glycosides in both ethanol and aqueous extracts. Triterpenoids, Saponins and Alkaloids are
present in chloroform extract. The above findings may suggest the anthelminthic
activity due to the presence of bitter principles like condensed tannins
in the plant since maximum activity was observed in bitter principle enriched
ethanol and aqueous extracts (Hoste et al., 2006). The immobilizing
and lethal action of these extracts might be by blocking glucose uptake
in the parasite and depletion of its glycogen synthesis (Tripathi, 2006).
Present results from the present study indicate the potential usefulness
of aerial part of the plant Cansjera rheedii in the treatment of
helminthiasis. Attempts for the isolation and characterization of the
active constituents responsible for such activities are currently under
progress. Further studies are necessary to understand the exact mechanism
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