Ethanol extract of Capparis aphylla (Roth.) whole plant (EECA) was evaluated for possible testicular antisteroidogenic activity in mature male rat. The ethanol extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg kgG1 body weight (i.p) arrested the testicular steroidogenisis. The cholesterol and ascorbic acid content in testis were significantly elevated in treated rat. The extract also significantly inhibited the activity of Î”5-3Î²-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (Î”5-3β-HSD) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), the two key enzymes involved in testicular steroidogenesis. Results of this study suggested that the ethanol extract of whole plant of Capparis aphylla (Roth.) acts as an testicular antisteroidogenic agent.
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Moth bean is most important crop of arid and semi arid regions of Indian Thar desert. In spite of wide area coverage the productivity of these legumes are very low compared to national average. This legume crop also fixes the atmospheric nitrogen and improves the soil fertility. Phosphorus fertilization in legumes assumes great importance as it affects the nodulation, growth and yield (Srivastava and Ahlawat, 1995). Improved productivity of moth bean plant by AM fungi due increased P uptake has been reported (Mathur et al., 2004). Rhizobium inoculation to the legumes increases not only the yields but also shows many beneficial effects. Role of cycocel on the vegetative parts of moth bean causes the inhibition of cell division and cell enlargement in meristmatic zone of the stem. Keeping this in view, the present study was carried out to study the effect of Rhizobium, cycocel and phosphorus on growth, yield, quality of moth bean and soil health.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
An on-farm trial was conducted during the summer (Kharif) seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 on farmer's field of Alam Khan, Ganagana village of district Jodhpur. The area of experiments was 350 sq. m. The experiment was laid out in split plot design replicated thrice with 5 levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1) as main plots with Rhizobium inoculations (with and without) as in sub plot and levels of cycocel (0, 500 and 1000 ppm) in sub subplots. Seed of IPCMO-471 moth bean was sown at the 100 kg ha-1 at a spacing of 30x10 cm. The soil of experimental field was sandy loamy with pH 7.7, available N (0.08%), P2O5 15.9 kg ha-1 . The phosphorus was applied basal as per treatment at the time of sowing. Seed of IPCMO-471 was inoculated with Rhizobium strain before sowing. The crop was sprayed at 30 DAS with the solution of cycocel and control plot was sprayed with distilled water only during both the years. Other operations were done as per crop recommendations. The growth and yield attributes, yield, economics, nutrients uptake, nutrients available in soil were recorded during both crop years.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Growth and yield attributes: Phosphorus application upto 120 kg ha-1 significantly (p<0.05) increased the plant height, branches/plant, leaves/plant, nodules/root, pods/plant, grains/pod and test weight. The increase in growth attributes like plant height, branches/plant, leaves/plant and nodules/root was 26.47, 36.45, 44.09 and 24.51%, respectively and yield attributes like pods/plant, grains/pod and test weight was 33.37, 19.54 and 26.71% over the control, respectively (Table 1). This significant increase in above attributes may be due to improved nutritional condition of the plant. It may be because of the facts that all metabolic processes like photosynthesis, glycolysis and respiration are depending upon the action of coenzyme like NAD, NADP which are phosphorus dependent.
|Table 1:|| |
Growth and yield attributing characters in moth bean as influenced by phosphorus and cycocel with and without Rhizobium inoculation (Pooled data of two years)
Nutrient uptake by dry seed and nutrients available in soil after harvest of crop as influenced by phosphorus and cycocel with and without Rhizobium inoculation (pooled data of two years)
Seed inoculation with biofertilizer significantly (p<0.05) increased growth and yield attributes (Table 1). The treated seed with Rhizobium inoculation increased the plant height, branches/plant, leaves/plant, nodules/root, pods/plant, grains/pod and test weight over the control. The increase in growth and yield components through biofertilizer inoculation might be due to better root development, nodulation, nutrient availability resulting in, vigour plant growth which resulted in better towering and increase in sink capacity both in size and numbers. The results also support the findings of Srivastava and Ahlawat (1995).
The foliar spray of different concentration of cycocel viz., 0, 500, and 1000 ppm had a significant effect on branches/plant, leaves/plant, nodules/root, pods/plant, grains/pod and test weight. Earlier parameters were increased by 5.30, 8.99, 2.70, 3.39, 5.58 and 4.78% over control, respectively but reduced plant height of 15.32% over control (Table 1). The retardation in plant height may be due to the foliar spray of cycocel on the vegetative parts of the plants may cause the inhibition of cell division and cell enlargement in meristmatic zone of the stem because of reduction in cell size and its number, the height of plant reduced.
Yield: Application of 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 increased pod yield by 8.06, 17.81, 30.57 and 35.32% over control, respectively (Table 2). Plant height, branches/plant, leaves/ plant, nodules/root, pods/plant, grains/pod and test weight increased with phosphorus upto 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 leading to more pod yield. Phosphorus increased the rate of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which stimulates the growth of plants resulting higher yield of pods. These results are in close conformity with the findings of Rathi et al. (1995).
Seed treated with Rhizobium culture increased the pod yield by 1.63% over un-inoculated seed (Table 2). Rhizobium culture increased the nodulation by increasing the nitrogen supply to the plant through atmospheric nitrogen fixation. Verma et al. (2000) reported that pea yield increased by 17.60% by Rhizobium inoculation over the control.
Foliar spray application of cycocel increased pod yield of pea significantly (p<0.05). The spray of cycocel of 500 and 1000 ppm increased the pod yield by 4.86 and 7.12% over the control, respectively. This might be due to the fact that the foliar spray of cycocel enhance the vegetative growth, proper root development and nodulation resulting in better nitrogen fixation and translocation of these biochemical products to the pods (Singh and Rajput, 1985).
Nutrient uptake: Significantly (p<0.05) higher production of dry seed and as NP uptake by pea were recorded (Table 2) with increasing dose of phosphorus from 0-120 kg ha-1. The maximum phosphorus content was found at a maximum level of phosphorus (120 kg ha-1). This is because of the higher levels of phosphorus fertilization increase the absorption of available phosphorus may be more for synthesizing in several biochemical compounds such as phospholipids, nucleotides, phosphoprotein which is the integral part of these compounds. The synthesis of these biochemical compounds containing phosphorus ions will be obviously getting in the plants, which is ultimately transferred in the seeds. Kasturi et al. (1999) reported that increasing levels of phosphorus upto 26.2 kg ha-1 increased nutrients uptake. The foliar spray of various concentrations of cycocel viz., 0, 500 and 1000 ppm improved the phosphorus content of seed. It may be due to the fact that in cycocel treated plant, better root development and nodulations were observed which enhances the phosphorus uptake and the soil leads to the accumulation of excess phosphorus in grains.
Soil status: In general, there was a positive improvement in fertility status of soil due to residual incorporation. The positive effect on soil fertility status was recorded with higher dose of phosphorus (120 kg ha-1) cycocel (1000 ppm) and seed treated with Rhizobium strains and then pea residue incorporation at the end of two years experimentation. No doubt, with the regular incorporation of crop residues for consecutive two years improved soil health considerately (Table 2). Similar results were obtained by Rajput and Singh (1996).
It is concluded that the application of 120 kg P2O5 with Rhizobium inoculation and foliar spray of cycocel increased the growth attributes and soil health resulting higher pod production.
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