Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Chemical Constituents, Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oil from Strobilanthes crispus and Lawsonia inermis

Asmah Rahmat , Susi Edrini , Patimah Ismail , Taufiq Yap Yun Hin and Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

The aimed of this study is to extract the essential oil from Strobilanthes crispus (Acanthaceae) and Lawsonia inermis Linn (Lythraceae) and to investigate the chemical constituents, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity effects of these oils on several cancer cell lines and normal cell lines. From GC-MS analysis revealed that the presence of at least 28 components for Strobilanthes crispus and 23 components in Lawsonia inermis. The total antioxidant activity from (FTC) and (TBA) methods showed that the essential oils of both plants have higher antioxidant activity compared to α-tocopherol. The essential oil from Lawsonia inermis displayed the strongest cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cell lines (HepG2) with IC50 (concentration that inhibit 50% of cell proliferation) value of 24 μg mL-1. However, the essential oil from Strobilanthes crispus did not give any cytotoxic value against all the cell lines tested. No cytotoxic effects of both oils in normal cell lines. The essential oils from both plants can be used as nutraceutical supplement to increase antioxidant needed in body to enhance defence systems, especially towards the incidence of degenerative diseases. The essential oil from Lawsonia inermis can be used as supplement in cancer patients especially in liver cancer patients.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Asmah Rahmat , Susi Edrini , Patimah Ismail , Taufiq Yap Yun Hin and Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar , 2006. Chemical Constituents, Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oil from Strobilanthes crispus and Lawsonia inermis. Journal of Biological Sciences, 6: 1005-1010.

DOI: 10.3923/jbs.2006.1005.1010



1:  Ames, B.N., 1983. Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens. Oxygen radicals and degenerative diseases. Science, 221: 1256-1264.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Aoyama, M., T. Muruyama, H. Kanematsu, I. Niiya, M. Tsukamoto, S. Tokairin and T. Matsumoto, 1988. Studies on the improvement of antioxidant effect of tocopherols. Food Res. Int., 37: 356-359.

3:  Dufresne, C.J. and E.R. Farnworth, 2001. A review of latest research findings on the health promotion properties of tea. J. Nutr. Biochem., 12: 404-421.
Direct Link  |  

4:  Rostkowska, H., M.J. Nowak, L. Lapinski and L. Adamowicz, 1998. Molecular structure and infrared spectra of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone; Experimental matrix isolation and theoretical Hartree-Fock and post Hartree-Fock study. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 54: 1091-1103.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Hernandez-Ceruelos, A., E. Madrigal-Bujaidar and C. de la Cruz, 2002. Inhibitory effect of chamomile essential oil on the sister chromatid exchanges induced by daunorubicin and methyl methanesulfonate in mouse bone marrow. Toxicol. Lett., 135: 103-110.
CrossRef  |  

6:  Ismail, M., E. Manickam, M.A. Danial, A. Rahmat and A. Yahaya, 2000. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Strobilanthes crispus leaf extract. J. Nut. Biochem., 11: 536-542.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Kikuzaki, H. and N. Nakatani, 1993. Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents. J. Food Sci., 58: 1407-1410.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Kusumoto, I.T., I. Shimada, N. Kakiuchi, M. Hattori, T. Namba and S. Supriyatna, 1992. Inhibitory effects of Indonesian plant extracts on reverse transcriptase of an RNA tumour virus (I). Phytother. Res., 6: 241-244.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Muhammad, Z. and A.M. Mustafa, 1994. Traditional Malay Medicinal Plants. Kuala Lumpur: Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 79: 335-335.

10:  Rates, S.M.K., 2001. Plants as source of drugs. Toxicon, 39: 603-613.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Rosnah, M., R. Asmah, I. Maznah, Y. Asmah, J. Zanariah and W.N. Wam Zurinah, 1998. Effects of Lawsonia inermis (henna) on tumour marker enzyme actitivites during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Mal. J. Chem. Biol., 3: 25-29.

12:  Schwartsmann, G., M.J. Ratain, G.M. Cragg, J.E. Wong and N. Saijo et al., 2002. Anticancer drug discovery and development throughout the world. J. Clin. Oncol., 20: 47-59.
Direct Link  |  

13:  Sharma, K., 1990. Tuberculostatic activity of henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn). Tubercle, 71: 293-295.

14:  Shihata, I.M., A.G. Hassan and G.Y. Mayah, 1978. Pharmacological effects of Lawsonia inermis leaves (el-henna). Egypt J. Vet. Sci., 15: 31-31.

15:  Smit, H.F., H.J. Woerdenbag, R.H. Singh, G.J. Meulenbeld, R.P. Labadie and J.H. Zwaving, 1995. Ayurvedic herbal drugs with possible cytostatic activity. J. Ethnopharmcol., 47: 75-84.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Terao, J., 1989. Antioxidant activity of beta-carotene related carotenoids in solution. Lipids, 24: 659-662.

17:  Vaidyaratnam, P.S., 1995. Indian medicinal plants. A Compendium of 500 Species, 3: 303-304.

18:  Wang, H.F., P.T. Ko, C.C. Chyau, J. Man and M.D. Ko, 2000. Composition and antioxidative activity of essential oils of Terminalia catappa L. leaves. J. Agric. Chem. Food Sci., 38: 27-35.

19:  Weisburger, J.H. and F.L. Chung, 2002. Mechanisms of chronic disease causation by nutritional factors and tobacco products and their prevention by tea polyphenols. Food Chem. Toxicol., 40: 1145-1154.
PubMed  |  

20:  Backer, C.A.D. and R.C.V. Bakhuizen, 1965. Flora of Java (Spermatophytes only). Vol II, Noordhoff Press, Groningen, pp: 561-562

21:  Brummit, R.K. and C.E. Powell, 1992. Authors of Plant Names. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Britain, England

22:  Burkhill, I.H., 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsular. 2nd Edn., Vol. 1, Ministry of Agriculture and Co., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

23:  Jackson, B.D., 1960. Index Kewensis: An Enumeration of the Genera and Species of Flowering Plants. 3rd Edn., Vol. II, Clarendon Press, London, England

24:  Hartwell, J.L., 1971. Plants used against cancer. A Survey, Lloydia, pp: 30.

25:  Kritikar, K.R. and B.O. Basu, 1981. Lythraceae. In: Indian Medicinal Plants, Kirtikar, K.R. and B.D. Basu (Eds.). Vol. 1, International Book Distributors, Dehradun, India

26:  Leung, A.Y., 1980. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs and cosmetics. New York.

27:  Perry, L.M., 1980. Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia: Attributed Properties and Uses. 1st Edn., The MIT Press, Cambridge, UK., ISBN-13: 978-0262160766, Pages: 632

28:  Perry, L.M. and J. Metzger, 1980. Medicinal Plants of East and South East Asia: Attributed Properties and Uses. 1st Edn., MIT Press, Cambridge, UK., ISBN-13: 978-0262160766

29:  Plowden, C.C., 1968. A Manual of Plant Names. George Ailen and Unwin Ltd., London, England

30:  Uphof, J.C., 1968. Dictionary of Economic Plants. 2nd Edn., Cramer Publishers, Lehre

31:  Sunarto, P.A., 1977. Materia Medika Indonesia. Penerbit Direktorat Jenderal Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan, Jakarta, Indonesia

©  2022 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved