Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Survival and Over-seasoning of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides F. sp. Manihotis, on Post-harvest Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Plant Materials and Soils

C.N. Fokunang , A.G.O. Dixon and T. Ikotun
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

The aim of this study was to establish the importance of post-harvest survival and over-seasoning of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis on planting materials and in soil. Infected stem cuttings from twelve cassava clones, harvested from two plot sites ES 24 and BSI, then incubated at 25 ± 2 ° for 8 months showed a significant decrease (P=0.05) in fungal survival amongst cassava clones. The lowest fungal recovery of 15% after 8 months incubation was recorded for cassava clones 88/0002336 and 30572. Cassava stakes, stored under shade and high relative humid conditions for 16 months showed a gradual monthly decrease in fungal survival, up to the 10th month. A gradual increase in fungal recovery was recorded from the 11th month up to the 16th month when maximum recovery was attained, due to re-infectivity of newly developed twigs by CAD pathogens from parent plants. Survival of fungus on soil gradually reduced with time and at the 6th month of sampling, there was no recovery recorded for 80% of the field plot sites. Burial of infected materials for 150 days below 30 cm depth significantly reduced the survival of C. gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis on infected materials. These studies have shown that C. gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis could survive on infected cuttings for more than 8 months, but less likely to survive in soil for more than 4 months.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

C.N. Fokunang , A.G.O. Dixon and T. Ikotun , 2004. Survival and Over-seasoning of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides F. sp. Manihotis, on Post-harvest Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Plant Materials and Soils. Journal of Biological Sciences, 4: 423-430.

DOI: 10.3923/jbs.2004.423.430


1:  Lozano, J.C. and R.H. Booth, 1974. Diseases of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). PANS Pest Articles News Summaries, 20: 30-54.
Direct Link  |  

2:  Chadrasekharan-Nair, M., M.R. Menon, N. Suharban and A.S. Verma, 1979. Anthracnose of Cassava: A new record in India. Curr. Sci., 48: 443-443.

3:  IITA., 1990. Cassava in Tropical Africa: A Reference Manual. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, ISBN-13: 9789781310416, Pages: 176.

4:  FAO., 1993. Food and Agriculture Organisation. FAO Food Production Statistics FAO, Rome, Italy, pp: 31.

5:  CIAT., 1977. Centro International de Agricultura Tropicale. Annual Report. CIAT, Cali Colombia, pp: 68..

6:  Fokunang, C.N., C.N. Akem, T. Ikotun, A.G.O. Dixon and E.A. Tembe, 1999. Seed survival and transmission of cassava anthracnose disease and seed treatment effect on seedling growth. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2: 849-854.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Muimba, K.A., L. Simba, T.P. Singh and G. Muyolo, 1989. Outbreaks of an unusual stem tip dieback of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) in Western Zaire. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 25: 151-164.

8:  Moses, E., C. Nash, R.N. Strange and J.A. Bailey, 1996. Colletorichum gloeosporioides as the cause of stem tip dieback of cassava. Plant Pathol., 45: 864-871.

9:  Theberge, R.L., 1985. Common African Pests and Diseases of Cassava, Yam, Sweet Potato and Cocoyam. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp: 107.

10:  Fokunang, C.N., A.G.O. Dixon, T. Ikotun, C.N. Akem and E.A. Tembe, 2002. Rapid screening method of cassava cultivars for resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioidse f. sp. manihotis. J. Phytopathol., 150: 6-12.

11:  Boher, B., J.F. Danielle, G. Fabres and G. Bani, 1983. Action de Pseudotheraptus devastans (Dist) (Het. Coreidae) et de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, dans le development des chancres et la chute de feuilles chez le manioc. Agronomie, 3: 989-994.

12:  Fokunang, C.N., C.N. Akem, T. Ikotun and A.G.O. Dixon, 2000. Role of insect vector, Pseudotheraptus devastans, in cassava anthracnose disease development. Eur. J. Plant Pathol., 106: 319-327.

13:  Fokunang, C.N., C.N. Akem, T. Ikotun and A.G.O. Dixon, 1999. Effect of planting season on cassava anthracnose disease development. Crop Prot., 18: 407-413.

14:  Irwin, J.A.G., P.R. Trevorrow and D.F. Cameron, 1984. Histopathology of compatible interactions involving biotypes of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that causes anthracnose of Stylosanthes spp. Australian J. Bot., 32: 631-640.

15:  Barnett, H.I. and B.B. Hunter, 1972. Illustrated Genera of lmperfect Fungi. 3rd Edn., Burgess Publishing Company, Minneapolis, pp: 209.

16:  Statistical Analysis Systems, 1989. SAS for Linear Models: A Guide to the ANOVA and GLM Procedures. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA., pp: 231.

17:  Onwueme, I.C., 1978. The Tropical Tuber Crops: Yam, Cassava, Sweet Potato and Cocoyam. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK., pp: 234.

18:  Prusky, D., R.A. Plumbley and I. Kobiler, 1991. The relationship between the antifungal diene levels and fungal inhibition during quiescent infections of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in unripe avocado fruits. Plant Pathol., 40: 45-52.

19:  Bailey, J.A., R.J. O'Connel, R.J. Pring and C. Nash, 1992. Infection Strategies of Colletotrichum: Biology, Pathology and Control. CAD International, Wallingford, UK., pp: 88-120.

20:  Makambila, C. and A. Bakala-Koumouno, 1982. Inoculation articielle de tiges de manioc avec Colletotrichum manihotis Henn. Agron. Trop., 37: 172-175.

21:  Onyeagba, R.A., R.P. Unamma and A. Enyinnia, 1988. Effects of duration of weed interference and intercropping on incidence and severity of cassava anthracnose disease in cassava, Yam, Maize intercrops. J. Plant. Pro Trop., 5: 51-54.

22:  Agrios, C.N., 1988. Plant Pathology. 3rd Edn., Academic Press, New York, USA., Pages: 803.

23:  Ikotun, T. and S.K. Hahn, 1991. Screening cassava cultivars for resistance to anthracnose disease. Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of International Society of Tropical Root Crops, October 20-26, 1991, Accra, Ghana, pp: 178-183.

24:  IITA, 1987. Intergrated pest management for tropical root and tuber crops. Proceedings of the Workshop on the Global Status and Prospects for Intergrated Pest Management of Root and Tuber Crops in the Tropics, Oct. 25-30, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp: 235-235.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved