The term personality has been derived from Latin word “Persona” a mask worn by actors in classical dramas. Many psychologists tried to define personality in many ways as behavior that if a person has some kind of impact, makes a certain impression on others, it must be because of his actions. The simplest possible way to explain the meaning of personality, therefore, is “The pattern of responses” which characterizes the individual1.
Personalities are shaped by the experiences and exposure one gets in life. Whatever be a person’s personality is today is the resultant of years of interactions with its environment2. When a child born it’s just flash and bone but, with the passing years socialization takes place which enables an individual to become an effective member of society. Human personality is affected by its surroundings so social structure plays a vital role in the development of personality3.
Hostels play an important role in the development of child’s mind and personality, in hostel children gets a healthy competitive environment with same age mates and classmates which motivate them to improve their performance4. Hostellers live far away from their parents and enjoy studies and sports properly, they learn to adjust in new surroundings with people and inculcate a habit of living independently. As they need to do all there task themselves they develop confidence, maturity and a sense of independence. On the other hand many studies reported hostellers went through homesickness, they are less emotionally expressive and have many adjustment and personality related problems5. Day scholar’s lives with their parents and family enjoy good food and pampering of parents, but have issues related with systematic and disciplined studies and transportation if university is far away from home.
The purpose of this article is to assess the personality differences among the university students who live in two different kind of environmental conditions. Hostellers who live in university campus, far away from home with classmates and friends who are completely different from their home and family members in the strict supervision of university personals as warden and sisters abide by strict rules and regulations. They eat in mess with all other students, rules and regulations are same for all, no special preference or privilege is given to any one of them. On the other hand, a day scholar who lives at their home with parents and family, come to university to study for a particular time, attends classes and go back to home. So, this article aims to study the personality differences among both the groups of students hostellers and day scholars in five different personality dimensions as extroversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness and neuroticism using NEO-FFI (S form).
NEO-FFI personality inventory is based on the Five-Factor Model (FFM)/OCEAN Model and it’s also known as Big-Five personality traits. These traits are openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. Paul Costa and McCrae designed NEO-FFI to examine a person’s big five personality traits6.
The objective of the study was (1) To know the personality profile of university students, (2) To know the difference in personality profile among hostlers and day scholars and (3) To know the environmental impact on personality.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study area: The study was carried out in Psychology Department from July, 2017-June, 2018 in a Private University as a pre-dissertation MA assignment.
Hypothesis: The study follows the following hypothesis:
|| There is no significance difference between hostlers and day scholars on neuroticism personality dynamics subscale
||There is no significance difference between hostlers and day scholars on extraversion personality dynamics subscale
|| There is no significance difference between hostlers and day scholars on openness personality dynamics subscale
|| There is no significance difference between hostlers and day scholars on agreeableness personality dynamics subscale
||There is no significance difference between hostlers and day scholars on extraversion personality dynamics subscale
Sampling: A cross sectional and quantitative research design were used in present study. This study was conducted on a sample of 56 female students (28 hostlers and 28 day borders) selected through simple random sampling technique studying in a private women’s university of Sikar district in the State of Rajasthan, India. After selecting the sample NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Form S) prepared by Paul T. Costa test was administered for data collection.
Procedure: After selecting the sample, the data collection process was initiated as per the convenience of the subjects. Respondents were personally approached by the researcher and questionnaires were distributed individually in face to face fashion. Clear instructions were prepared for the respondents. They were requested to go through the general instructions first and then to respond. The respondents were asked to decide about agreement with the statements and mark the relevant response category honestly. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to the subjects with request to complete and return it. A written consent was taken from the participants. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory was administered on both the group of students hostlers and on day borders. Before starting theconduction of test, rapport was built with all subjects. The test was conducted in controlled conditions with proper lighting arrangements and in noise free environment. When subject completed self-report inventory, researcher collected the sheet and showed gratitude towards them. Researchers also assure them about confidentiality of their test results.
NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Form S): The test name is NEO-FFI (Form S) was designed by Paul T. Costa, Robert R McCrae to assess the five factors/dimensions of the personality in 1978. There are 60 items in total, 12 for measuring each dimension. The five dimensions are openness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism and conscientiousness. Scoring was done with 5 point likert scale on strongly disagree to strongly agree. Positive items were scored as Strongly agree = 5, Agree = 4, Undecided = 3, Disagree = 2 and Strongly disagree = 1. Whereas, Negative valence items were scored as Strongly agree = 1, Agree = 2, Undecided = 3, Disagree = 4 and Strongly disagree = 5, respectively.
Statistical analysis: Mean, standard deviation, percentage, frequency and difference between two means(t-test) was calculated.
Results of mean, SD and ‘t’ statistics pertaining to 5 dimensions of personality are presented in Table 1.
Neuroticism personality dimension: The mean score is 23.89 and 24.07 in hostlers and day scholars, respectively. A non-significant difference was observed in mean scores of hostlers and day scholars. About 50% students obtained average scores which indicate that generally students of both groups remain calm. They are able to deal with stressful situations, but sometimes they experience feelings of guilt, anger and sadness.
Extraversion personality dimension: The mean score is 29.61 and 25.39 in hostlers and day scholars, respectively. A non-significant difference was found between the mean scores of hostlers and day scholars. About 39% hostlers and 57% day scholars obtained average scores which indicate that they are moderately active, enthusiastic, enjoy the company of others but too value their privacy.
Openness personality dimension: Hostlers and day scholars obtained similar mean scores. A non-significant difference was observed in between the mean scores of hostlers and day scholars for this personality dimension, 46% of hostlers and 57% of day scholars got average scores which shows that students of both groups are seeking a balance between the old and the new, they are practical, but willing to consider new ways of doing things too.
Agreeableness personality dimension: A negligible difference was seen in mean scores which was statistically insignificant. More than 90% students of both groups obtained below average scores for this dimension of personality which shows that students are hardheaded, skeptical, proud and competitive, tend to express anger directly.
Mean, SD and t-test values of hostlers and day scholars on five personality dimensions
Conscientiousness personality dimension: Hostlers and day scholars have mean score of 29.43 and 26.32, respectively which is a low score in this dimension. Difference was statistically significant mostly hostlers (n = 19) and day scholars (n = 25) got below average scores for this dimension which shows that students are easygoing, not very well organized, sometimes careless and prefer not to make plans.
The present study was intended to compare personality dynamics between hostlers and day scholars of private university of Sikar, Rajasthan (India) as well as to measure the relationship between impacts of place of residence on personality dynamics of students. Earlier researches indicated that children sent to boarding school causes lack of emotional expression, feel distraught full that leads to adaptation of phony personality7. Personality of hostlers and non-hostlers were found to be significantly different on major dimensions of the personality8. Environmental aspect of a boarding house has an effect on the adjustment skills and ability9. Similar views about the aversive effect of boarding house on personality dynamics was presented stating that the aspect of being alone, emotional instability and academic performance are significantly related with boarding house environment10. Results of present study was opposite from above stated researches. They supported the hypothesis as the results were non-significant in all dimensions of personality except conscientiousness; it was proved in this study that place of residence does not affect personality dimensions of any individual.
Neuroticism is a negative trait of personality deals with anxiety, hostility, anger, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, fear, helplessness and stress. The research findings supported the hypothesis as results indicated that about 90% subjects of both hostlers and day scholars obtained either average or above average mean scores suggested that they had tendency to experience a lot of stress, to get upset easily, feel anxious, dramatic and mood swings. Living with family or without family did not affect their neuroticism personality dimension. It might be affected due to their lifestyle and environment. Previous studies indicated that boarding school causes the problem of emotional expression which turns in to counterfeit personality (lack of concentration, depression and dysfunctional behavior). Results of present study are contrary with the above stated studies9,11. Extraversion is a trait of personality which depicted the extrovert or introvert nature of the person. Study results supported the hypothesis. Students of both groups were moderately extraverted to extroverted. It is a positive trait of personality, it means they easily start the conversation, like to socialize with other people and were more active. Openness dimension of personality included imagination, aesthetic sense, artistic interest, feelings, actions, adventurousness, exploration, ideas, intellectual interest, curiosity and values etc. Results supported the null hypothesis which showed that students of both groups are more creative and open to try new things, focused on tackling new challenges. Agreeableness dimension of personality includes trust in others, straight forwardness, morality, modesty, tender mindedness and sympathy. Results supported the null hypothesis. Both hostlers and day scholars had low scores for this personality trait indicated that they are more straight forward, had little interest in others as well as don’t care about the feelings of others. Contrary findings were found in study of Bronfenbrenner12 which stated that children of boarding school were different from day scholars in showing conformity to social values. Facets, i.e., competence, self-efficacy, orderliness, dutifulness, obligation, self-discipline, willpower, deliberation and cautiousness come under the conscientiousness dimension of personality. Hypothesis on conscientiousness personality dynamics subscale was rejected in present study which proved that hostlers are more careful and vigilant and had the sense of right and wrong in performing the order of others. Similar findings were reported by Wickstrom and Fleck13 was suggested that hostels provides an environment of healthy competition which motivates the children to improve their performance and exceed over other. These results were consistent with earlier study it was proved that hostels develop the team spirit and the feeling of kinship which proved to be beneficial for their practical life13,14. Personality of an individual is an identity that is molded by many factors i.e., socialization, training, life experiences, social perception and education. Similar personality traits were seen among hostlers and day scholars in four dimensions of personality. The reasons behind this might be as follows: (i) It is a cross sectional study, data was taken only single time, (ii) Hostlers were the students of first year it means they recently came into hostels, (iii) Data was very small and (iv) One private university was selected for investigation so the sample is not the representation of all Indian university students. Over the time, changes in personality can be seen in hostlers. If the study was longitudinal, one can get the better idea about the personality change in individuals. This study established the positive side of hostel life on student’s personality development. Hostel life helps students to develop many positive values as dutifulness, self- efficacy, discipline and feeling of healthy competitiveness.
On personality dimensions of neuroticism, extraversion, openness and agreeableness has no significantly difference in personality was found among university hostlers and day scholars. A significant difference was found on conscientiousness dimension among hostellers and day borders.
This study discovers how hostel accommodation affects personality of a student positively. This study will help the researcher to uncover the positive aspects of hostel life. Thus, a new theory on positive effects of hostel life may be arrived at.