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Dried Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) For Feeding Pigs: Nutrient Compositions, Growth Performance and Small Intestinal Morphology



Tanachot Pengsawad, Chaiyapoom Bunchasak, Choawit Rakangthong and Theerawit Poeikhampha
 
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ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Banana can be used as a dietary energy due to carbohydrate and high contents of sugars. In addition, the fructo-oligosaccharide in banana may be useful as a prebiotic. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of banana (Musaparadisiaca.) in diet, on growth performance and intestinal morphology of nursery pigs. Materials and Methods: The whole sliced dried and ground bananas were used in this study and the study was divided into 2 experiments. Experiment 1, study the energy and nutrient composition of whole dried banana. Experiment 2, study the effect of dried banana at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% in diet on growth performance and intestinal morphology of nursery pigs. Sixty male crossbreed pigs (body weight 8.00±0.27 kg) were randomly divided into four groups with five replications of three pigs each. The pigs fed a control diet without dried banana or experimental diets using dried banana at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% for 6 weeks. The experimental design was completely randomized design. All data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance. The differences between the means of groups were separated by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Trend analysis from the orthogonal polynomial to test the relationship. Using the Orthogonal Polynomial Coefficient of 4 groups and two levels of linear and quadratic correlation were tested. Results: The results showed that the average daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio did not influence by dried banana (p>0.05). In addition, white blood cells count Neutrophils:Lymphocytes and intestinal pH were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Moreover, the dietary treatments did not influence villous height and crypt depth in the small intestine of pigs (p>0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that dried banana can be substitution in feed and be useful as a feedstuff. The incorporation of dried banana up to 7.5% in feed contributed without negative effect on growth performance and small intestinal morphology of nursery pigs.

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Tanachot Pengsawad, Chaiyapoom Bunchasak, Choawit Rakangthong and Theerawit Poeikhampha, 2018. Dried Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) For Feeding Pigs: Nutrient Compositions, Growth Performance and Small Intestinal Morphology. Journal of Applied Sciences, 18: 1-8.

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2018.1.8

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jas.2018.1.8
 
Copyright: © 2018. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

The main cost of pig production industry is related to the provision of a sustainable energy source. Feed cost account for 60-80% of livestock production costs and the energy component of feed accounts for 40-60%1, the high cost of imported feed is a major constraint to the development of the local pig production especially when local meat competes with cheap import meat. Within tropical countries, if properly utilized, several local feed resources could greatly contribute to reduce the amount of imported raw material for livestock and the energy source such as corn that are at risk of contaminated by aflatoxin2,3. Banana is an important agricultural commodity for many tropical and subtropical countries. In Thailand, banana (Musaparadisiaca.) production 747,802 t per year. Banana is an alternative feedstuff can be used as energy source for animal feed because bananas are rich source of carbohydrate and high contents of sugars, mainly sucrose, glucose and fructose4,5. Moreover, Renaudeau et al.6 reported that grower pigs that were fed up to 60% banana in place of corn had no effect on final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio.

In addition, banana also contains certain amounts of fructooligosaccharide (FOS). FOS are oligosaccharide which are not hydrolysed by digestive enzyme and may act as growth substrate for the intestinal microflora5,7,8. They are considered as prebiotics. They have been shown to have beneficial effects on the intestinal microflora by stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and inhibit pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella9,10. For example, Xu et al.11 reported that supplementation with FOS improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) and increasing the villi height in jejunum to cecum in piglets. Therefore, this study focused on the effect of banana in diet on growth performance and intestinal morphology of nursery pigs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Two trials were designed to study the effect of composition analysis of whole dried bananas to use the nutrient composition to calculate the feed (experiment 1) and to evaluate the effect of banana in diet on growth performance and intestinal morphology of nursery pigs (experiment 2, in vitro study). The experiments were conducted at Animal Research Farm, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand in August, 2016-January, 2017. The experimental animals were kept, maintained and treated in adherence to accepted standards for the humane treatment of animals.

Experiment 1: Bananas were analyzed for nutrient composition by means of proximate analysis, including moisture, crude protein, crude fiber and ash. Calcium and phosphorus of banana using a spectrophotometer (Spectrophotometer, UNICO 2100, UNICO, NJ, USA). The gross energy analysis of banana was carried out by bomb calorimeter12. The Reducing sugar composition was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography13 and analyze the fructooligosaccharide (Inulin type fructan) with the Megazyme Fructan HK Assay Kit using the machine spectrophotometer14. The results of the nutrient composition analysis of whole dried banana will be used to calculate the experimental diet.

Experiment 2
Animals and management:
Sixty male commercial crossbred pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace; 8.00±0.27 kg body weight) were used in this trial. The pigs were randomly divided into four treatments and each treatment consisted of five replications (three pigs/pens). The average body weight of each replication were homogenized and balanced. For six weeks experimental period, an evaporative cooling system was used to control air ventilation and temperature. Feed were offered as ad libitum and water were provided by water nipples. During the feeding trial, the house was cleaned weekly, while the feces of piglets were removed every day.

Experimental diets: The experimental diets were divided into 2 phases including Pre-Starter Pig (1-14 days) and Starter Pig (15-42 days). Four experimental diets were used as control diet with and without banana diets containing 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% of dried banana (Musa sapientum L. in Thailand), respectively. The feed ingredients composition of experimental diets in the pre-starter and starter diets were shown in the Table 1 and 2; respectively. The experimental diets were formulated to provide the same amount of nutrients and met the requirement as Nutrient requirements of swine from National Research Council (NRC)15 without an antimicrobial agent. The nutrient composition of experimental diets in the pre-starter and starter diets were shown in the Table 3 and 4, respectively.

Measurements
Growth performances:
The body weight of each pig was recorded and at the end of feeding trial (6 weeks) the body weight, body weight gain and feed intake were measured weekly. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated from body weight gain and feed intake data.

Table 1:Feed ingredients composition of experimental diets (Pre-starter)
Image for - Dried Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) For Feeding Pigs: Nutrient Compositions, Growth Performance and Small Intestinal Morphology
Premix1 content; Composition per kg: Vitamin A 15,000 IU, Vitamin D3 3,000 IU, Vitamin E 40 IU, Vitamin K3 3 mg, Vitamin B1 2 mg, Vitamin B2 7 mg, Vitamin B6 5 mg, Vitamin B12 0.02 mg, Pantothenic acid 10 mg, Folic acid 2 mg, Biotin, 0.1 mg, Niacin 70.0 mg, Mn 120 mg, Zn 110 mg, Fe 70 mg, Cu, 8 mg, I 1.2 mg, Se 0.3 mg, Co 0.2 mg

Table 2:Feed ingredients composition of experimental diets (Starter)
Image for - Dried Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) For Feeding Pigs: Nutrient Compositions, Growth Performance and Small Intestinal Morphology
Premix1 content; Composition per kg: Vitamin A 15,000 IU, Vitamin D3 3,000 IU, Vitamin E 40 IU, Vitamin K3 3 mg., Vitamin B1 2 mg, Vitamin B2 7 mg, Vitamin B6 5 mg, Vitamin B12 0.02 mg, Pantothenic acid 10 mg, Folic acid 2 mg, Biotin, 0.1 mg, Niacin 70.0 mg, Mn 120 mg, Zn 110 mg, Fe 70 mg, Cu, 8 mg, I 1.2 mg, Se 0.3 mg, Co 0.2 mg

Blood collection and analysis: On the final day of experiment, one pig per treatment with medium body weight were selected from each group and a 3 mL blood sample was collected to plastic tubes with anticoagulants via the jugular vein (feeders were removed from pens 3 h before). For determination of White Blood Cell (WBC) count and differentials. Reported total WBC concentration (WBC μL–1); are the concentration of neutrophils per lymphocytes and the percentage of neutrophils per lymphocytes and monocytes relative to total WBC concentration (Drew Scientific Inc., Oxford, CT).

Table 3:Nutrient composition of experimental diets (Pre-starter)
Image for - Dried Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) For Feeding Pigs: Nutrient Compositions, Growth Performance and Small Intestinal Morphology

Table 4:Nutrient composition of experimental diets (Starter)
Image for - Dried Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) For Feeding Pigs: Nutrient Compositions, Growth Performance and Small Intestinal Morphology

Morphology and gastrointestinal pH of small intestine: At the end of the trial, one pig from each replication was putdown. The pH in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, colon and rectum were directly measured by a pH meter. (IQ Scientific Instruments, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and tissue samples were collected from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum and were immediately fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin. Then, the tissues were carefully embedded in paraffin. For each specimen, at least 10 sections of 7 μm thickness were prepared. Tissues were then stained with haematoxylin-eosin for histological evaluation. Histology of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum tissue was assessed by light microscope in accordance with Nunez et al.16. The morphology of the small intestines in this study included villous height, crypt depth and the villous height to crypt depth ratio were conducted by a computer-assisted for image-analysis system (Biowizard, Thaitec, Thailand). Measurements of villous height from the tip of the villus to the villous-crypt junction and crypt depth from the villous-crypt junction to the lower limit of the crypt were recorded as the mean of 10 fields for each specimen.

Statistical analysis: All data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA, Type I) of SAS17. The differences between the means of groups were separated by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test18 according to the following model:

Yij = μ+Ai+eij

Where:

Yij = Observed response
Ai = Effect of diet
eij = Experimental error
eij = ~NID (0, δ2)

Statements of statistical significance were based on p<0.05. Trend analysis from the orthogonal polynomial (Trend Analysis) to test the relationship. Using the Orthogonal Polynomial Coefficient of 4 group and two levels of linear and quadratic correlation were tested. All statistical analyses were done in accordance with the method of Steel and Torrie19.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Chemical composition of dried banana (experiment 1): In this study, the effect of nutrient composition analysis of whole dried banana to use the nutrient composition to calculate the feed. It was found that the moisture content in bananas was 5.60%, protein 3.02%, fiber 1.35%, calcium 0.14% and phosphorus 0.06%. Reducing sugar content was 8.63%, total sugar 13.89% and fructooligosaccharide (inulin type fructan) 0.54%. The energy content in the banana was 3,638.52 Kcal kg–1 (Table 5).

Growth performance (experiment 2): The effects of banana in diet on growth performance were presented in Table 6. There was no significant effect of banana on final body weight, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) throughout the experimental period (p>0.05). In the trend analysis of the effect of banana in diet, it was found that there was no significant effect of banana on performance production (p>0.05).

Banana was used as a substitute for corn to supply 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% of the total diet for nursery pigs. Base on the chemical composition of banana in Table 5, the experimental diet was formulated to provide the same amount of nutrients and met the requirement as NRC15.

Table 5:Chemical composition of dried banana (Musaparadisiaca)
Image for - Dried Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) For Feeding Pigs: Nutrient Compositions, Growth Performance and Small Intestinal Morphology
*FOS (Inulin type fructan)14

Table 6:Effect of banana (Musaparadisiaca.) in diet on growth performance of nursery pigs
Image for - Dried Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) For Feeding Pigs: Nutrient Compositions, Growth Performance and Small Intestinal Morphology
*Values are Mean±SD

Table 7:Effect of banana (Musaparadisiaca.) in diet on white blood cell (WBC) and Neutrophils:Lymphocytes (N:L) of nursery pigs
Image for - Dried Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) For Feeding Pigs: Nutrient Compositions, Growth Performance and Small Intestinal Morphology
*Values are Mean±SD

Table 8:Effect of Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) in diet on intestinal morphology of nursery pigs
Image for - Dried Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) For Feeding Pigs: Nutrient Compositions, Growth Performance and Small Intestinal Morphology
*Values are Mean±SD

Increasing the level of incorporation of banana did not have negative effect on body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Similarly, growth performance remained constant in post-weaning pigs fed by diet with 15 and 30% of green banana meal20. In a study of Renaudeau et al.6 found that banana meal did not have negative effect on ADG and FCR in grower pigs fed by diet with 20, 40 and 60% of banana meal. However, some other works performed in Equator21, in Colombia22 and in Cameroon23 in growing finishing pigs showed a gradual decrease in both ADG and FCR when level of BM increase.

In a present study, banana contains 0.54% of fructooligosaccharide (FOS). The experimental diet was calculated to contain an FOS (inulin type fructan) at 0.0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.04%, respectively. There reported many improved ADG and FCR as a consequence of FOS inclusion in piglet diets24-26. According to Xu et al.11, 0.4% FOS supplementation improved feed efficiency of piglets. As in the study of Xu et al.27, supplementation of 0.4 and 0.6% FOS in growing pigs at the level of 0.4 and 0.4% resulted in the activation of protease, trypsin and amylase in the small intestine and improve ADG and FCR. However, some studies have reported that the effect of FOS supplementation has no effect on growth performance in pig28,29.

Analysis of blood biochemical: Effect of banana on blood biochemical of piglets are presented in Table 7. There was no significant difference among the treatments concerning white blood cell count ratio and neutrophils:lymphocytes ratio (p>0.05). In the trend analysis of the effect of banana in diet to test the linear and quadratic relationship of the banana. It was found that, it had no significant effect of banana on white blood cell count ratio and neutrophils:lymphocytes ratio (p>0.05).

Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) can be stimulated the growth of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and inhibit pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella 9,10. There are also research findings suggesting that bifidobacteria stimulate components of the immune system30. In this study, there were no significant difference among the treatments concerning white blood cell count ratio and neutrophils:lymphocytes ratio (p>0.05). Because few reports are available regarding this topic, more studies may be needed to verify the effects of FOS on leukocytes in pigs.

Intestinal morphology and gastrointestinal pH: Effects of banana in diet on intestinal morphology were shown in Table 8. There were no significant effect of banana on villus height and crypt depth of jejunum ileum (p>0.05) and significant on duodenum. In control treatment, the height of villi in duodenum is 629.0 μm. By incorporation of banana diet at 2.5% is 631.18 μm, somehow negligible difference but at banana concentration 5.0 and 7.5% the recorded villi height is 616.74 and 670.24 μm, respectively that was statistically different among treatment groups.

Table 9:Effect of Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) in diet on gastrointestinal pH of nursery pigs
Image for - Dried Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) For Feeding Pigs: Nutrient Compositions, Growth Performance and Small Intestinal Morphology
*Values are Mean±SD

Consequently, there were not any significant effects of banana on the ration of crypt depth in each segment of small intestine. The effect of banana on pH of the gastrointestinal tract content are presented in Table 9. The pH each segment of the digestive tract was not significantly different among treatment groups (p>0.05) and in the trend analysis of the effect of banana in diet to test the linear and quadratic relationship of the banana. It was found that had no significant effect of banana on intestinal morphology and gastrointestinal pH.

Factors affecting small intestinal development of pigs includes, stress of weaning, adaptation to solid feed during weaning period and dietary factor31. For these reasons, villous atrophy after weaning is caused by an increased rate of cell loss32,33. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production is related to the development of intestinal villous and crypts. Especially, the butyric acid has high potential to stimulate the growth of epithelial cells in the intestinal of pigs by providing energy to the cells34,35.

Fructooligosaccharide(FOS) are oligosaccharide which are not hydrolysed by digestive enzymes, but FOS was fermented by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus induced SCFAs production in the large intestine7. SCFAs, butyrate in particular, support the major function of epithelial cells, such as water, mineral and nutrient absorption. SCFAs production is related to the development of intestinal villous and crypts35. The increase in the height of the villous increases the surface area for nutrient absorption36.

In present study, there was significant effect of banana on the ration of villus height but no statistical difference observed in crypt depth and gastrointestinal pH in each segment of small intestine (p>0.05). This may be due to the FOS level is not enough in diet. However, Xu et al.11 reported that supplementation with 0.4% FOS improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) and increase the villi height in jejunum to cecum in piglets. Because, feeding FOS to young piglets may have other effects. A number of complex sugars have been shown to alter the morphology of intestinal lining, presumably through increased production of SCFA37-39.

CONCLUSION

Banana (Musaparadisiaca.) can be used as an energy source in diets. Since, banana did not have negative effect on growth performance, white blood cell and Neutrophils: Lymphocytes, gastrointestinal pH and small intestinal morphology. In conclusion, banana can be used incorporated up to 7.5% in nursery pig diets. In future studies, the effects of higher levels of banana on performance and mall intestinal morphology of growing pigs and fattening pigs.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

This study reports the energy and nutrient composition of banana for using as feed and evaluate the effect of banana in diets, on growth performance and intestinal morphology of nursery pigs. This study will help the researchers to uncover the critical areas of agricultural field and commercial areas for using banana as alternative feedstuffs for reducing feed cost, especially when the local feed materials are limited. Thus, this study represents an attempt to develop a procedure for using banana in feed.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research is supported in part by the Graduate Program Scholarship from The Graduate School, Kasetsart University, Thailand. The authors are gratefully acknowledged from The Center of Advanced Study for Agriculture and Food, Institute for Advanced Studies, Kasetsart University and staff from the Department of Animal Science, Kasetsart University, Thailand for the suggestion, guidance and support throughout this trial. There has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.

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