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Research Article
 

Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Perceived Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Hospitality Industry



Po-Hsuan Wu and Jui-Fan Liao
 
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ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify the factors that contribute to service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior, perceived service quality and customer satisfaction in hospitality industry. The author proposes a model to examine the relationships among service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior, perceived service quality and customer satisfaction. From the results, the major findings of this study are as the following; Firstly, service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior and perceived service quality, relate positively to customer satisfaction. Secondly, service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior has a positive effect on perceived service quality. Thus, the findings provide managers in hospitality industry with valuable insights that firms can increase their competitive advantage through enhancing customers’ perceived service quality and satisfaction.

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  How to cite this article:

Po-Hsuan Wu and Jui-Fan Liao, 2016. Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Perceived Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Hospitality Industry. Journal of Applied Sciences, 16: 18-24.

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2016.18.24

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jas.2016.18.24
 
Received: March 30, 2015; Accepted: November 28, 2015; Published: December 15, 2015



INTRODUCTION

The relationships between service quality and performance have attracted considerable research interest, but why some firms successfully implement service quality policies while others fail remains relatively poorly understood. The existing literature indicates that superior organization performance can come from superior service quality (Daskalopoulou and Petrou, 2005), smaller gaps in service quality (Zeithaml et al., 1988) and higher customer satisfaction (Gomez et al., 2004).

Furthermore, service quality studies have pointed out the importance of examining both customer and employee attitudes when managing service quality (Dietz et al., 2004; De Jong et al., 2005). Most studies dealing with service quality issues in the past two decades have focused only on either the perspectives of customers (O'Neill and Palmer, 2003) or companies (Lewis and Gabrielsen, 1998) and relatively few have simultaneously integrated both perspective. Even fewer studies have simultaneously integrated the employee and customer perspectives in relation to service climate issues.

A common theme in the service quality literature is that organizations must create and maintain an appropriate service climate for service in order for employees to effectively deliver excellent service (Schneider, 1990). Restated, employees are more likely to deliver excellent service to customers when the organization expects and rewards such behavior and establishes practices that facilitate improved service delivery (Schneider et al., 2005). Increased recognition of the importance of quality service to organizational survival and growth has stimulated interest in the nature of service climate and its relationship to customer evaluations (Yagil and Gal, 2002). Although, various studies have examined this topic, few works have investigated how service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior improves service delivery.

According to academic literature and interaction with hospitality industry counterparts, the industry has competitive attributes, but its competition appears to be based more on non-price factors, such as firm reputation or level of service quality. The purpose of this study attempts to understand and satisfy if different personality orientations of customers have different needs in the hospitality industry, to realize how to play a critical role to obtain customer satisfaction and maintain profitability, then to bring up suggestions to the managers and enhance the service quality in the industry.

The investigations of the research are: (1) To find the relationships among service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior, perceived service quality and customer satisfaction in the hospitality industry and (2) To understand if service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior has a positive effect on perceived service quality. However, the research is ultimate to establish managers’ professional, offer high level of service quality, then to create rational profit via professional performance.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Service-oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior (SOCBs): Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) was originally defined by Organ (1988) as discretionary work behaviors not explicitly recognized in the formal reward system. In the organizational studies literature, behavior supporting organizational functioning beyond the call of duty is called organizational citizenship behavior (Organ et al., 2006). Such behavior directed at customers has been referred to as customer-focused OCB or service-oriented OCB (Bettencourt and Brown, 1997; Bettencourt et al., 2001). This study adopts, Bettencourt et al. (2001) view that citizenship behaviors exhibited by service employees interacting with their customers may be considered role requirements. Bettencourt et al. (2001) defined service-oriented OCBs (SOCBs) as citizenship behaviors typically performed by customer contact employees and directed at the customer.

More recently, a debate has emerged in the literature as to whether these behaviors in a service context are role prescribed or outside formal role requirements (Ryan and Ployhart, 2003). Schneider et al. (2005) proposed that employees engage not only in role-prescribed behaviors toward customers, but also in behaviors that go above and beyond the call of duty to promote the highest levels of customer satisfaction. Bettencourt and Brown (1997) focused on prosocial behavior in the context of a service organization and measured it with three dimensions, extra-role customer service, role-prescribed customer service and cooperation.

The primary interest of OCB is the identification of employee responsibilities or behaviors that are often overlooked or inadequately measured in traditional assessments of employee job performance, but nonetheless, enhanced organizational functionality or organizational effectiveness (Bienstock et al., 2003). As in the definition of OCB by Organ (1988), the original construct of OCB generally referred to extra-role behavior. However, subsequent development of the OCB construct (Van Dyne et al., 1994) argued that the in-role/extra-role distinction interferes with logically clarifying the OCB’s definition, because what is considered in-role versus extra-role behaviors may be inconstant across time. The distinction between in-role and extra-role work would be even more confused in varied and complex service encounter situations. In order to represent the characteristics of the service industry, this study classified service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior according to the classification of Bettencourt and Brown (1997), with three dimensions included in employees’ service organization citizenship behavior, namely extra-role customer service, role-prescribed customer service and cooperation. This classification also included altruism and generalized compliance from Smith et al. (1983), as the purposes of extra-role customer service, role-prescribed customer service and cooperation are not only to help specific individuals, but also to help the overall organization.

Perceived service quality: Actual quality of service is difficult to define and measure (Parasuraman et al., 1988). Groenroos (1983) defined service quality by distinguishing between technical quality (what is done) and functional quality (how it is done). However, most researchers agree that service quality should be defined and measured from the customer perspective (Tam, 2004). A recent analysis recommended the use of consumer perceptions to determine service quality (Cronin and Taylor, 1992), which is apparently a more accurate criterion for psychometric and predictive evaluation (Zeithaml et al., 1996). Service quality indicates the degree of conformance to customer expectations (Lewis and Booms, 1983) and implies, from a consumer perspective, a comparison of customer expectations with perceived service performance (Parasuraman et al., 1985). The most widely accepted definition of perceived service quality is that it represents the discrepancy between customers’ expectations and their perceptions of the service performance (Gronroos, 1984; Parasuraman et al., 1988). In this study, customer perceived service quality was measured by the service activities provided by employees in their work units.

Customer satisfaction: Customer satisfaction is the key mediator considered in relationship marketing and service quality theory (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2002). In the history of marketing, many definitions of customer satisfaction have been postulated. Customer satisfaction can be defined generally as a positive affective reaction to the favorable appraisal of a consumption experience (Babin and Griffin, 1998). A favorable reaction is primarily associated with benefits that meet or exceed customer expectations (Ofir and Simonson, 2007). In relationship marketing, it has been argued that a customer’s appraisal of his or her level of satisfaction can be made across multiple dimensions, including judgments of both the service employees and the service setting itself. For example, in a healthcare setting, satisfaction judgments are driven by assessments of both the medical staff and of the facility. Consequently, an owner or manager can closely understand and act upon the different types of customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction.

Research hypotheses: Schneider et al. (2003) discovered that employees, in efforts to properly serve customers are often willing to do far more than required by their positions. The studies by Schneider et al. (2003) were not merely doing what was necessary to provide good service; employees were willing to do anything in their power to ensure that their customers found the service not just satisfactory, but excellent.

Some behavior on the part of service deliverers intervenes between the service climate they provide and customer evaluation of that service (Schneider et al., 2005). Schneider et al. (2005) argued that the route whereby service climate produces better customer evaluation is through employees who engage in organizational citizenship behaviors that are directed toward customers. Recent service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior research confirms that the overall level of service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior occurring in an organizational unit is linked to important unit outcomes, including customer perceived service quality (Salanova et al., 2005; Schneider et al., 2005) and customer satisfaction (Podsakoff and MacKenzie, 1997). The effect of service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior on customer perceived service quality and customer satisfaction has also been convincingly demonstrated in prior research (Schneider et al., 2005; Salanova et al., 2005). Thus, the following hypothesis is proposed:

H1 : Service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior has a positive effect on perceived service quality
H2 : Service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior has a significant effect on customer satisfaction

Service quality is an antecedent of customer satisfaction. Both perceived quality and disconfirmation are determinants of satisfaction (Cronin and Taylor, 1992). Service quality and customer satisfaction are widely recognized as key influences in the formation of consumers' purchase intentions in service environments. Consumer satisfaction is best described as moderating the service quality/purchase intention relationship. Perceived service quality as a result of desired level of performance; disconfirmation of desires as a predictor of both satisfaction and service quality (Spreng and Mackoy, 1996). Perceived service quality is an antecedent of satisfaction, rather than vice versa. Finally, tangibles appeared to be a more important factor in the facility/equipment-based industries, whereas responsiveness is a more important factor in the people-based industries (Lee et al., 2000).

Customer satisfaction should be operationalized along the same factors and the corresponding items on which service quality is operationalized (Sureshchandar et al., 2002). The link between service quality and customer satisfaction are indeed independent but are closely related, implying that an increase in one is likely to lead to an increase in another. Expectations and performance (SERVPERF) scores indicated that respondents were concerned most with the efficiency and least with the personalization of the services offered; promptness, empathy, efficiency and service-scope aesthetics seem to be the main determinants of customer satisfaction. Service belongs may explain the nature of the service quality construct and its relationship to customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The dominant dimensions of service quality construct in the service factory were found to be; tangibles, recovery, responsiveness and knowledge (Olorunniwo et al., 2006). On this basis it is hypothesized that:

H3 : Customer perceived service quality has a significant effect on customer satisfaction

Quantitative data collection
Participants:
This study conducted a convenience survey with a structured questionnaire. The questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 800 customers who received hospitality services and yielded 527 finished questionnaires. Out of these, 476 were usable.

Measuring tools: The measurement instrument was designed based on various previous studies. All the questionnaire items were measured on a five point scale. Respondents were asked to indicate their level of agreement toward each statement, from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).

Service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior: Items used in this scale to measure service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior of the employees are modified from Bettencourt and Brown (1997), Schneider et al. (2005), Paulin et al. (2006) and Bettencourt et al. (2001) defined Service-Oriented OCBs (SOCBs) as citizenship behaviors typically performed by customer contact employees and directed at the customer. The original scale used in the research of Bettencourt and Brown (1997) has high reliabilities (range from 0.94-0.97) for all these three dimensions (extra role customer service, role-prescribed customer service and cooperation).

Perceived service quality: Sources for the items included in this scale to measure customers’ perceived service quality are modified from De Jong et al. (2004, 2005) and Chang and Chelladurai (2003). Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the customer perceived service quality scale used in this study was shown to be high (Cronbach’s α>0.9) in prior study (De Jong et al., 2004, 2005).

Customer satisfaction: Items used in this scale to measure customer satisfaction are modified from Liao and Chuang (2004) and Paulin et al. (2006). Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the customer satisfaction scale used in this study was high in prior study (Cronbach’s α = 0.96; Liao and Chuang, 2004).

Purification and reliability of measurement variables: To purify the measurement scales and to identify their dimensionality, principal components reliability test with varimax rotation was applied to condense the collected data into certain factors. After reliability test, we used item-to-total correlation and internal consistency analysis (Cronbach’s alpha) to confirm the reliability of each research factor. According to Robinson and Shaver (1973) if α is greater than 0.7, the variable has high reliability and if α is smaller than 0.3, it implies that there is low reliability. The reliability of four latent variables was investigated by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. The range of the values was between 0.83 and 0.94, which indicated all measures were quite reliable.

Structural equation model: In order to find out the relationship in the whole research model in this study, a Structure Equation Model (SEM) was used. The criteria of Chi-square, GFI, AGFI, CFI, RMR and RSEMA were used to evaluate the overall goodness of fit of the model. According to Hair et al. (2010), the value of overall fit of a hypothesized model can be regarded as appropriately significant when each criteria Chi-square is small (p>0.05) and fit indices such as the ratio of Chi-square to degrees of freedom (Chi-square/df≤2), Goodness of Fit Index (GFI>0.9) and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI>0.9), Root Mean Square Residual (RMR<0.1) and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA<0.08) are all fulfilled.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Quantitative data analysis: Returned valid questionnaires are female (57.6%) and male (42.4%), mostly range from 21-30 years old (35.2%), next are 31-40 years old (27.8%). Next, in the average monthly income, the highest percentage is NTD 40,000-50,000 (35.9%), followed by NTD 30,000-40,000 (30.4%). As for the occupation, the top one is armed services, civil servant and educator (32.3%), followed by the business (27.4%), student for 20.1% and manufacturing for 15.3%. To the education degree, university is most (59.8%), followed by college (27.4%), the high school is accounted for 12.8%.

Assumption tests: The hypotheses in this study were tested by using Structural Equation Modeling. The result of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) produced evidence of an acceptable fit of the model (Chi-square = 339.68, df 176, p = 0.00, Chi-square/df = 1.93, RMR = 0.04, GFI = 0.91, AGFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05). Parameter estimates of the final model were inspected and no problematic occasions were found and all values in the model reflect acceptable fit of the data. For finalized model, standardized path coefficients and significance are as Fig. 1.

The causal relationships in the structure model were all significant and positive. Hypotheses 1-3 were supported by the SEM model test. First, we find support for H1. The results of structural equation model analysis support this hypothesis, showing a moderately positive relationship between service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior and perceived service (β = 0.262, t-value = 5.271 p<0.01). Secondly, we find support for H2. The results of structural equation model analysis show that service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior has positive impact on customer satisfaction (β = 0.347, t-value = 3.693, p<0.01). The result supports that service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior has effect on customer satisfaction. Finally, we also find support for H3. The results of SEM analysis reveal that the path between perceived service quality and customer satisfaction (β = 0.548, t-value = 2.594, p<0.01), showing customer perceived service quality was positively related to customer satisfaction.

Table 1 shows the relative direction of the main constructs according to the empirical results and the tested hypotheses. The analytical results not only verified the important and positive impact of service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior on customer perceived service quality and customer satisfaction, but also confirmed the effect of customer perceived service quality on customer satisfaction.

Fig. 1: Results of the model in hospitality industry

Table 1: Results of hypotheses testing

The findings of the research consists with previous research in service climate (Chou et al., 2014; Kao et al., 2014; Towler et al., 2011). Compared to the impact of service climate, service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior exerts a more extensive and significant effect on customer perceived service quality and customer satisfaction. This finding suggests that employees’ behavior is closely related to customer perceptions and behavior. Accordingly, employee behavior (service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior) and customer perceptions (customer perceived service quality and customer satisfaction) are closely connected and derived from service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior.

Likewise, the findings consist with the research conducted by Wu and Liu (2014), Bienstock and Demoranvillez (2006) and Mullins et al. (2014). It is therefore, service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior should be a key focus for managers seeking to improve customer service.

CONCLUSION

The results of this study are built upon past research in service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior to customer perceived service quality and customer satisfaction; customer perceived service quality to customer satisfaction. The present results suggest that providing work units with higher autonomy improves their service climate, which in turn helping foster a high quality service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior. This service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior thus increases customer appraisal of customer perceived service quality and hence customer satisfaction.

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