INTRODUCTION
For consumer appliances, radiating elements should be of small sized, very
easy to make and have excellent radiation features (Macphie
et al., 1995). Microstrip dipole antennas have been identified as
a solution to this requirement and have been thoroughly studied using various
and diversified calculation methods (Laohapensaeng and
Free, 2006; Kim et al., 2006; Uzunoglu
et al., 1979). Its main interest lies on the fact that it satisfies
resonance properties because it depends on the work frequency (Stutzman
and Theile, 1998). It is characterised by a linear polarisation which is
well suited for WiFi an operating frequency of about 2.4 GHz.
The topology of the microstrip dipole antennas presented here is based on a
biplane configuration of the radiating wires of the monoplane microstrip dipole
antenna (Mbinack et al., 2007). This configuration
allows a 50 Ω parallel plane microstrip transmission line to feed the dipole
antenna in its center. The microstrip line has the advantage of being able to
maintain a TEM propagation which is not very dispersive and its effective permittivity
is well approximated by the permittivity of the dielectric substrate. To improve
the antenna's performance, Jamaluddin et al. (2005)
proposed an approach that focuses on the change of the radiating elements dimensions
(width). In this study, authors propose a new approach which consists of making
knees with right angles on metallization. An experimental study bearing on the
influence of the Δz excitation gap width led us to the realisation of the
impedance matching. In the same way, while making operate the antenna in the
presence of a reflector plane, authors act to enhance the matching of this.
A mode in the form of an equivalent quadripole coupled to progressive wave
transmission line model, allows authors to better assess the radioelectric
features, in particular the input impedance of the so designed antenna. The
model results study model will be compared with simulations and measurements
results.
Topology and conceptual principle of the basic radiating structure: The biplane dipole antenna discussed here is obtained from a microstrip differential transmission line (i.e., the metallizations are arranged parallel to the top and the bottom sides of a dielectric substrate). From this point of view, the line so described has a total length L = λ_{g}/4 and width W_{0} as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1: 
Parallel plane (or differential) microstrip line modelling
the dipole antenna 

Fig. 2: 
Longitudinal section of the unfolded parallel plane microstrip
line 
For this line to be subjected to more radiation, it is unfolded by one quarter turn rotation in the opposite direction of each of the two metallizations to make a biplane dipole antenna. This increases its length from L = λ_{g}/4 to L = λ_{g}/2 as depicted in Fig. 2.
The Δz parameter which represents the excitation gap is essential in this configuration because it allows a better control of the adaptation. This configuration primarily permits to better feed the dipole antenna in its centre using a 50 Ω parallel plane microstrip transmission line.
Electromagnetic model: In the prospect of electromagnetic modelling considered here for the determination of the radioelectric characteristics of the antenna, authors will introduce the generalised waves formalism which will be coupled to the theory of progressive waves transmission lines. Building this model requires a reminder of voltage and current wave expressions at any point z on the line as follows:
and:
where,
refers to the complex amplitude of incident voltage waves,
that of the reflected voltage waves and Z_{C} is characteristic impedance
of the feeding microstrip transmission line.
In this approach, the microstrip dipole antenna shown in Fig. 1, is modelled using a quadrupole or its flow graph, combined to a microstrip transmission line as illustrated in Fig. 3.
The modelled antenna of total length L, will be represented by its chain matrix:
or by its impedance matrix:

Fig. 3: 
Flow graph combined to a transmission line 
In the particular case of lossless transmission lines authors are interested
in cases for which authors have .
The above expressions of chain and impedance matrices are written as follows:
and:
By introducing the generalized wave formalism as follows:
and:
where:
Is the expression of voltage waves at the input end of the dipole antenna:
Is that of current wave at the input end of the antenna:
Is that of voltage wave at the output end of the antenna and:
That of current wave at the output end of the antenna α_{1} and
α_{2} are the input waves of the quadripole, b_{1} and
b_{2} are the output waves of the quadrupole and taking into account
only the impedance matrix, when authors combine Eq. 7 and
8 above, authors obtain the following:
Where:
and:
We can now deduce the expression of antenna impedance from the formalism of progressive wave transmission lines as follows:
Authors note, however, that this approach does not take into account rigorously all the antenna characteristic parameters. To be more precise, authors we adopted another approach that focuses on electromagnetic simulations and other experiments in order to better model the sourceantenna transition.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Biplane dipole antenna in Itopology: The main idea behind this configuration was motivated by the simple fact that authors wanted to feed our dipole antenna at the centre using a 50 Ω microstrip transmission line. This facilitates the modelling of sourceantenna transition using differential ports such as Momentum of ADS commercial software, as illustrate in Fig. 4. For practical and convenience reasons, after investigating the impact of Δz excitation gap on the input impedance of the dipole antenna, the microstrip feed lines were maintained parallel.
For stiffness reasons, authors made structures on a dielectric substrate with relative permittivity ε_{r} = 4.3, thickness h = 0.8 mm and loss angle tanδ = 10^{3}. The radiating element has the following characteristics: Total length of line L = 43 mm; width of line W_{0} = 4 mm; excitation gap width Δz = 2 min.
Biplane printed microstrip dipole antenna in Ztopology: Authors aim
is to improve the efficiency of radiation of the original structure and this
requires a change in profile of the latter. Therefore, authors make foldings
on the radiating wires of the dipole antenna in Itopology (Mbinack
et al., 2007). This makes it possible to get elements as L, Z, halfring,
square or spiral ring topologies. In any case, the intention is to further enhance
the performance of the so made antenna, its matching in particular.

Fig. 4: 
Sample biplane dipole antenna fed at its centre using a microstrip
transmission line 

Fig. 5: 
Sample of a biplane dipole antenna in Ztopology fed at its
centre by a microstrip transmission line 
This section mostly entails focusing on dipoles antenna in Ztopology due to
its performance and to the symmetry of the original element it is intended to
keep in the sense of the current flow as shown in Fig. 5.
Authors have so, designed a new structure that still allows us to model sourceantenna transition so as to feed the antenna at its centre using a parallel plane microstrip transmission line. As earlier, authors used dielectric substrate with relative permittivity ε_{r} = 4.3, thickness h = 0.8 mm and loss angle tanδ = 10^{3}. The dipole antenna still has a total length of L = 43 mm and width W_{0} = 4 mm for an excitation gap width of Δz = 2 mm.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Figure 6 shows the performance of the calculated impedance of the biplane microstrip transmission line modelling the biplane printed microstrip dipole antenna with line length L = 20 mm and width W_{0} = 4 mm printed on the dielectric substrate with relative permittivity ε_{r} = 4.3, thickness h = 0.8 mm and loss angle tanδ = 10^{3}. Authors can observe that the imaginary part of the dipole antenna impedance is null while its real part is equal to its characteristic impedance. What seems to be logical since our antenna was modeled as a transmission line having for essential characteristic only its characteristic impedance.
However, it should be noted that that model does not take into account the modeling of the sourceantenna transition or the feed way that concerns us in this study.
In the sequel, all our antennas will be feed at their centres by a 50 Ω parallele plane microstrip transmission line.
Figure 7 shows the trend of the simulated input impedance
of the biplane dipole antenna in Itopology fed at its centre by a 50 Ω
microstrip transmission line. We can quickly notice the capacitive behaviour
of the antenna as the imaginary part of its input impedance is wholly negative.

Fig. 6: 
Calculated impedance of the biplane dipole antenna 

Fig. 7: 
Simulated input impedance of the dipole antenna in Itopology 
However, we get an actual impedance of about 40 Ω for a resonance frequency
of about 2.4 GHz. But everything seems to indicate that we should make a translation
of 20 units to get the expected behaviour from the antenna. In this case, the
dipole will radiate at 70 Ω for a resonance frequency of about 2.6 GHz.
Figure 8 illustrates the development of the measured input impedance of the biplane microstrip dipole antenna in Itopology. We can observe a perfect agreement with theoretical predictions, where we obtain an actual impedance of about 90 Ω for a resonance frequency of about 2.42 GHz.
Figure 9 shows the evolution of the measured input impedance
of the biplane microstrip dipole antenna in Itopology in the presence of a
reflector plane placed at a distance of λ_{g}/4 from the antenna's
plane.

Fig. 8: 
Measured input impedance of the dipole antenna in Itopology 

Fig. 9: 
Measured input impedance of the dipole antenna in Itopology
in the presence of a reflector plane at λ_{g}/4 
We can read an actual impedance of about 60 Ω for a resonance frequency
of about 2.4 GHz.
Figure 10 depicts the trend of the measured input impedance of the biplane microstrip dipole antenna in Itopology in the presence of a reflector plane, placed towards infinity with respect to the antenna's plane. We can read an actual impedance of about 60 Ω for a resonance frequency of about 2.42 GHz. Let us note, however, the multiband behaviour of the antenna in the presence of a reflective plane placed towards infinity or at a finite distance from its plane.

Fig. 10: 
Measured input impedance of the dipole antenna in Itopology
in the presence of a reflector plane towards infinity 

Fig. 11: 
Simulated input impedance of the dipole antenna in Ztopology 
Figure 11 shows the trend of the simulated input impedance of the parallel plane microstrip dipole antenna in Ztopology. This trend agrees with theory and indicates an actual impedance of about 70 Ω for a resonance frequency of about 2.38 GHz.
Figure 12 depicts the trend of the measured input impedance of the parallel plane printed microstrip dipole antenna in Ztopology. Its trend also agrees with the theory and indicates an actual impedance of about 100 Ω for a resonance frequency of about 2.35 GHz. However, we get another real impedance of about 42 Ω at 2.5 GHz.

Fig. 12: 
Measured input impedance of the dipole antenna in Ztopology 
In all cases, we should find a compromise between impedance matching and resonance frequency.
CONCLUSION
We have proposed a theoretical and conceptual approach that aimed at exploring
new topologies for parallel plane printed microstrip dipoles antennas feed at
its centre by a 50 Ω microstrip transmission line. We got interesting performances
in terms of radioelectric characteristics such as a bandwidth of about 16%,
compared to the model developed by Jamaluddin et al.
(2005) which indicates a bandwidth of about 11%. The presence of the reflective
plane provides structures with multiple and large bandwidth. The dipole antenna
in Itopology runs at low impedance while the dipole in Ztopology runs on average
impedance. To improve the adaptation, it is essential to adjust Δzparameter
in coupling with the methods presented above. Similarly, to catch up the working
frequency, there is a need to adjust the physical length of the line modelling
the dipole antenna because this on is actually different from its electrical
length.